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(1)

E_English Grammar Course



E_English Grammar Course



Unit 8




(2)

1.

Subordination



2.

Classifications of subordinate clauses


3.

Subordinators



4.

Nominal clauses


5.

Adverbial clauses



6.

Comparative and Comment clauses



Issues




(3)

Subordination



Subordination



1



1/1


Subordination




(4)

Subordination



Subordination




1



1/2


Subordination



Subordination

i.e. one clause is -Non-symmetrical relation,


a constituent/ part of the other


1 2 21
[I like John [because John likes me] ]
1 1
[superordinate/ independent/ main clause ]
2 2
[subordinate/ dependent clause]



(5)

Subordination



Subordination



1



1/3


Subordination



Subordination

Hierarchy of clauses



X- Y-


Z-( I think [ that you can do it { if you try} ] )
S V O A


X = superodinate to Y
Y = subordinate to X



(6)

Classifications of subordinate clauses



Classifications of subordinate clauses



2



2/1


Classifications of subordinate clauses



(7)

Classifications of subordinate clauses



Classifications of subordinate clauses



2



2/2


By structural type Finite clause


Nonfinite clause




(8)

Classifications of subordinate clauses



Classifications of subordinate clauses



2



2/3


By structural type Finite clause


Nonfinite clause


Verbless clause


- contains a subject and a predicate



(9)

Classifications of subordinate clauses



Classifications of subordinate clauses



2



2/4


By structural type Finite clause


Nonfinite clause


Infinitive with to



Infinitive without to -ed participle



(10)

Classifications of subordinate clauses



Classifications of subordinate clauses



2



2/5


By structural type Finite clause


Nonfinite clause


Infinitive with to


Infinitive without to -ed participle


-ing participle


Without S: The best thing would be to tell everybody.



(11)

Classifications of subordinate clauses



Classifications of subordinate clauses



2



2/6



By structural type Finite clause


Nonfinite clause


Infinitive with to


Infinitive without to -ed participle


-ing participle


Without S: Leaving the room, he tripped over the mat.
With S: Her aunt having left the room, I declared my



(12)

Classifications of subordinate clauses



Classifications of subordinate clauses



2



2/7


By structural type Finite clause


Nonfinite clause


Infinitive with to


Infinitive without to -ed participle


-ing participle




(13)

Classifications of subordinate clauses



Classifications of subordinate clauses



2



2/8


By structural type Finite clause


Nonfinite clause


Infinitive with to


Infinitive without to -ed participle


-ing participle


Without S: Covered in snow, he looked like a snowman.



(14)

Classifications of subordinate clauses



Classifications of subordinate clauses



2



2/9


By structural type Finite clause



Nonfinite clause


Verbless clause


1. Ellipsis of the verb ‘be’



(15)

Classifications of subordinate clauses



Classifications of subordinate clauses



2



2/10


By structural type Finite clause


Nonfinite clause


Verbless clause


2. Reduction of non-finite clauses



(16)

Classifications of subordinate clauses



Classifications of subordinate clauses



2



2/11



By function Nominal clause


Adverbial clause


Comparative clause



(17)

Subordinators



Subordinators



3



3/1


Subordinating


conjunctions Simple subordinators
Compound subordinators



(18)

Subordinators



Subordinators



3



3/2


Subordinating



conjunctions Simple subordinators
Compound subordinators


Correlative subordinators
after, though, although, as,


because, before, if, once
since, that, until, when



(19)

Subordinators



Subordinators



3



3/3


Subordinating


conjunctions Simple subordinators
Compound subordinators


Correlative subordinators


- ending with ‘that’: in that, so that, such that …


- ending with optional ‘that’: now (that), provided (that),
supposing (that), seeing (that)…


- ending with ‘as’: so far as, as long as, so as (to do sth)…


- ending with ‘than’: sooner than, rather than…



(20)

Subordinators



Subordinators



3



3/4


Subordinating


conjunctions Simple subordinators
Compound subordinators


Correlative subordinators


if… then, although… yet, as… as, so… as, so… that



(21)

Subordinators



Subordinators



3



3/5


Other indicators of


subordination Wh-element initial markers


Subject-operator inversion



(22)

Subordinators



Subordinators



3



3/6


Other indicators of


subordination Wh-element initial markers
Subject-operator inversion


No marker



(23)

Subordinators



Subordinators



3



3/7


Other indicators of


subordination Wh-element initial markers
Subject-operator inversion



No marker



(24)

Subordinators



Subordinators



3



3/8


Other indicators of


subordination Wh-element initial markers
Subject-operator inversion


No marker


1. nominal clause


e.g. I suppose (that) you’re right.



(25)

Nominal clauses



Nominal clauses



4



4/1


Nominal Clauses



Finite Non-finite


that clause


wh-interrogative clause
Yes - No interrogative clause


Nominal relative clause


to-infinitive nominal clause
nominal –ing clause



(26)

Nominal clauses



Nominal clauses



4



4/2


Finite Nominal Clauses


that clause


wh-interrogative clause


Yes - No interrogative clause


- S: That you were wrong is undeniable.


- Od: I knew that I was wrong.


- Cs: The problem is that he refuses to
speak in court.


- Appositive: The fact that he hates English
makes it hard for him to study it.



(27)

Nominal clauses



Nominal clauses



4



4/3


Finite Nominal Clauses


that clause


wh-interrogative clause


Yes - No interrogative clause


Nominal relative clause


- Function as S, Od, Cs, Ap, Cadj,


& Cprep (They haven’t decided on who
wins the cup.)




(28)

Nominal clauses



Nominal clauses



4



4/4


Finite Nominal Clauses


that clause


wh-interrogative clause


Yes - No interrogative clause


- Is formed with if/ whether



(29)

Nominal clauses



Nominal clauses



4



4/5


Finite Nominal Clauses


that clause



wh-interrogative clause


Yes - No interrogative clause
Nominal relative clause


- S: What he is pursuing is fame.


- Od: I want to see whoever in charge of
this department.


- Oi: She gave whoever came into the store
a handful of sweets.


- Cs: University is where you train for your
future career.


- Co: You can call me whatever you like.
- Ap: Tell me your nickname, that is, the
way your friends often call you.



(30)

Nominal clauses



Nominal clauses



4



4/6


Non-finite nominal clauses



to-infinitive nominal clause


nominal –ing clause


bare infinitive


- S: To become an MC has always
been my dream.


- Od: John wanted her to open the door.
- Cs: My wish is to stay here one


more week.



(31)

Nominal clauses



Nominal clauses



4



4/7


Non-finite nominal clauses


to-infinitive nominal clause


nominal –ing clause


bare infinitive



- Function as S, Od, Cs, Ap, Cprep,
& Cadj


- Genitive case in formal style


e.g. I’m surprised at his making
that mistake.


- Objective or common case:



(32)

Nominal clauses



Nominal clauses



4



4/8


Non-finite nominal clauses


to-infinitive nominal clause


nominal –ing clause


bare infinitive


- ‘to’ is optional in case of ‘do’ proform.


E.g. All I did was (to) turn off the gas.



- bare infinitive is obligatory when the
infinitive clause is initial



(33)

Adverbial clauses



Adverbial clauses



5



5/1


Time
Place


Condition & concession
Reason or cause


Circumstance


Purpose
Result


Manner & Comparison



(34)

Adverbial clauses



Adverbial clauses



5




5/2


Time
Place


Condition & concession
Reason or cause


Circumstance


Purpose
Result


Manner & Comparison


Proportion & Preference


- after, before, until, since, when + finite clause


- after, before, since, until, when(ever), while + V-ing
- once, until, when(ever), while + V-ed



(35)

Adverbial clauses



Adverbial clauses



5



5/3



Time
Place


Condition & concession
Reason or cause


Circumstance


Purpose
Result


Manner & Comparison


Proportion & Preference


- Introduced by ‘where’/ ‘wherever’


E.g. When I retire, I will travel wherever I like.



(36)

Adverbial clauses



Adverbial clauses



5



5/4


Time
Place



Condition & concession
Reason or cause


Circumstance


Purpose
Result


Manner & Comparison


Proportion & Preference


- Conditional clauses state the dependence of one circumstance
on another.



(37)

Adverbial clauses



Adverbial clauses



5



5/5


Time
Place


Condition & concession
Reason or cause



Circumstance


Purpose
Result


Manner & Comparison


Proportion & Preference


- Concessive clauses imply a contrast between two circumstances.
- Introduced by though, although, while, whereas, even if



(38)

Adverbial clauses



Adverbial clauses



5



5/6


Clauses of condition
or concession


Alternative conditional-concessive clauses



(39)

Adverbial clauses



Adverbial clauses



5




5/7


Clauses of condition


or concession Alternative conditional-concessive clauses


E.g. Whether they beat us or we beat them,
we’ll celebrate tonight.



(40)

Adverbial clauses



Adverbial clauses



5



5/8


Clauses of condition


or concession Universal conditional-concessive clauses


E.g. No matter how hard he tried, he could
never summon enough courage to tell her
the truth.



(41)

Adverbial clauses


Adverbial clauses


5


5/9

Time
Place


Condition & concession
Reason or cause


Circumstance


Purpose
Result


Manner & Comparison


Proportion & Preference


- introduced by because, since, as


- I didn’t lend him the book because I needed it for my assignment.
(adjunct)



(42)

Adverbial clauses


Adverbial clauses


5


5/10
Time
Place


Condition & concession
Reason or cause



Circumstance


Purpose
Result


Manner & Comparison


Proportion & Preference


- express a fulfilled condition/ a relation between a premise


(in the subordinate clause) and the conclusion (in the main clause)
- introduced by because, since, as, & seeing that



(43)

Adverbial clauses


Adverbial clauses


5


5/11
Time
Place


Condition & concession
Reason or cause


Circumstance


Purpose
Result


Manner & Comparison



Proportion & Preference


- are adjuncts


- introduced by (in order) (for N) to, so as to, so that


E.g. I tiptoed into the room so as not to wake the baby up.



(44)

Adverbial clauses



Adverbial clauses



5



5/12


Time
Place


Condition & concession
Reason or cause


Circumstance


Purpose
Result


Manner & Comparison



Proportion & Preference


- are more factual than putative  may contain an ordinary verb form


without a modal auxiliary


- introduced by so that/so (informal)



(45)

Adverbial clauses



Adverbial clauses



5



5/13


Time
Place


Condition & concession
Reason or cause


Circumstance


Purpose
Result


Manner & Comparison


Proportion & Preference



Clauses of manner – (exactly) as, (just) as



(46)

Adverbial clauses



Adverbial clauses



5



5/14


Time
Place


Condition & concession
Reason or cause


Circumstance


Purpose
Result


Manner & Comparison


Proportion & Preference


Clauses of comparison – as if, as though



(47)

Adverbial clauses


Adverbial clauses



5


5/15
Time
Place


Condition & concession
Reason or cause


Circumstance


Purpose
Result


Manner & Comparison


Proportion & Preference


Clauses of proportion express a ‘proportionality’ or equivalence
of tendency between two circumstances


E.g.


As he grew older, (so) his enthusiasm for the cause decreased.



(48)

Adverbial clauses



Adverbial clauses



5




5/16


Time
Place


Condition & concession
Reason or cause


Circumstance


Purpose
Result


Manner & Comparison


Proportion & Preference


Clauses of preference are introduced by rather than/ sooner than


E.g. Rather than go there by air, I’d take the train.


Rather than sitting here complaining, we should act.



(49)

Comparative & comment clauses



Comparative & comment clauses



6



6/1



Comp-element S: More people eat at KFC than any other


fastfood restaurant.


Cs: I’m healthier than most people of my age.


Od: She eats much more than me.


Oi: Santa has brought more children joy
than anybody else.



(50)

Comparative & comment clauses



Comparative & comment clauses



6



6/2


Ellipsis in Comparative Clause


1. Optional ellipsis


James enjoyed the cake more than Susan enjoyed the cake.
James enjoyed the cake more than Susan enjoyed it.


James enjoyed the cake more than Susan did.
James enjoyed the cake more than Susan.



2. Obligatory ellipsis (of object)



(51)

Comparative & comment clauses



Comparative & comment clauses



6



6/3


Ambiguity


He loves the dog more than his wife.


through ellipsis


with ‘too’ & ‘enough’



(52)

Comparative & comment clauses



Comparative & comment clauses



6



6/4


Comment Clauses Features



(53)

Comparative & comment clauses




Comparative & comment clauses



6



6/5


Comment Clauses Features


Forms


- can be either disjuncts or conjuncts


- may occur initially, finally, or medially
- have a separate tone unit



(54)

Comparative & comment clauses



Comparative & comment clauses



6



6/6


Comment Clauses Features


Forms


(1) Like a main clause



(55)

Comparative & comment clauses




Comparative & comment clauses



6



6/7


Comment Clauses Features


Forms



(56)

Comparative & comment clauses



Comparative & comment clauses



6



6/8


Comment Clauses Features


Forms


(3) Like a nominal relative clause as conjunct



(57)

Comparative & comment clauses



Comparative & comment clauses



6




6/9


Comment Clauses Features


Forms


(4) To-infinitive clause as style disjunct



(58)

Comparative & comment clauses



Comparative & comment clauses



6



6/10


Comment Clauses Features


Forms


(5) –ing clause as style disjunct



(59)

Comparative & comment clauses



Comparative & comment clauses



6



6/11



Comment Clauses Features


Forms


(6) –ed clause as style disjunct





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