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NGHIÊN CỨU ĐA DẠNG NGUỒN TÀI NGUYÊN CÂY THUỐC ĐƯỢC SỬ DỤNG TRONG CỘNG ĐỒNG MỘT SỐ DÂN TỘC Ở XÃ YÊN LẠC, HUYỆN PHÚ LƯƠNG, TỈNH THÁI NGUYÊN

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DIVERSITY OF MEDICINAL PLANT RESOURCES USED IN SOME ETHNIC


MINORITY COMMUNITIES IN YEN LAC COMMUNE, PHU LUONG



DISTRICT, THAI NGUYEN PROVINCE



Nguyen Thi Thu Hien1*, Trinh Dinh Kha2, Dang Kim Tuyen1


1


TNU - University of Forestry and Agriculture,
2


TNU - University of Science


ABSTRACT


This research was conducted to assess the diversity of medicinal plant resources in Yen Lac
Commune, Phu Luong District, Thai Nguyen Province. The methods used for collecting data were
method of specimen collection, interview method, identification of the species name, method of
medicinal plant resources diversity assessment, method of endangered medicinal plants level
assessment. The results of research have identified initially 182 species of medicinal plants of 158
genera and 89 families which the ethnic minority communities have used for diseases prevention
and treatment. There are six main life forms of the medicinal plants: herbaceous, vines, small
wood trees, moderate wood trees, shrubs and parasitic tree. The trees distribution is often in many
types of habitat: Forests, gardens, hills and along the riverside. In the parts used as medicine,
leaves, whole plants and fruits are most used accounting for from 16.94% to 38.80%. The results
show that there are 20 groups of diseases which could be cured by the experience of using
medicinal plants of some ethnic communities in the study area, of which 4 groups of diseases
occupy the highest rate: kidney diseases, osteoarthritis diseases, skin diseases, stomach diseases.
There are 4 endangered medicinal plants: Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson, Homalomena
cochinchinensis Engl, Lonicera bournei Hemsl.ex Forb and Strophanthus wallichii A. DC.


Keywords: Medicinal plants, Diversity of medicinal plants, Yen Lac Commune, Phu Luong
District, Thai Nguyen Province.


INTRODUCTION*


Through the folk experiences of herbalists in
each ethnic community, knowledge of
medicinal plants is passed on and handed
down to next generations. Over time,
medications are unique and become popular
in the health care of the people. Thus, many
research and medicinal plants and folk
medicine knowledge conservation programs
which have been carried out and brought
many scientific and practical value. as well as
the preservation of folk medicine knowledge
have been carried out and brought many
scientific and practical values.


Thai Nguyen has rich natural resources,
humid tropical climate, rich vegetation and
abundant ethnic minorities such as Tay,
Nung, San Chi, San Diu, Dao, etc. For a long
time, ethnic minorities in Thai Nguyen
province have been able to cure diseases by
using medicinal plants, each ethnic group has
different experience in plan medicine





*


Tel: 0983 419156; Email: nguyenthithuhien@tuaf.edu.vn


reflecting their identifies. Among them, the
San Chay and San Chi ethnic minority in Yen
Ninh commune, Phu Luong district also have
unique experiences in medicinal plants.
However, nowadays forest area is decreasing
and the situation of harvesting and trading is
complicated causing to a decline in medicinal
plant resources. In addition, though the
medicine has been used by the San Chay and
San Chi ethnic for a long time in preventing
and treating effectively some diseases, the
biological activity and scientific knowledge
of the medicine has not been studied and
proven by science. Based on the above
reasons, we conducted the study "Diversity of


medicinal plant resources used in some
ethnic minority communities in Yen Lac
Commune, Phu Luong District, Thai
Nguyen Province".


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


Method of specimen collection: Specimens



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Interview method: At the study area,



interviewed herdsmen, cynics, people having
medicinal using experience and using
traditional medicine remedies of ethnic
communities. The research’s questionnaire
was based on the community’s medicinal
plants questionnaire and the questionnaire of
the Institute of Medicinal Materials (Institute
of Medicinal Materials, 1993) [10]. Collected
information about medicinal plants is:
common name, ethnicity; model number; life
forms; living environment; used parts as
medicine (stem, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds,
etc.); the value each medicinal plant.


Identification of the scientific name:


Identification of the tree species in two main
steps: (i) identification in the field; (ii) using
the knowledge and experience of experts and
reliable sources that have been re-examined,
including: methods of Pham Hoang Ho, 1999
[2]; Do Tat Loi, 2005 [3] and Checklist of
plant species in Vietnam (Center for Natural
Resources and Environmental Studies -
Vietnam National University, Ha Noi and
Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources
– Vietnam Academy of sciences and
Technology, 2006) [9].



Method of medicinal plant resources diversity
assessment: Based on Nguyen Nghia Thin's


method, 2007 [6].


Method of endangered medicinal plants level
assessment: Identifying preserved medicinal


plants in the study area according to: Vietnam
Red Book (Ministry of Science and
Technology, 2007) [7], Decree 32 of the
Government of Vietnam (Government of Viet
Nam, 2006) [8], Red List of Vietnamese


Medicinal Plants in the Medicinal Plant
Handbook to be protect in Vietnam (Nguyen
Tap, 2007) [4].


RESULTS


Taxonomic diversify of medicinal plant resources
Researching medicinal plants was based on
the experience of San Chay and San Chi
ethnic minorities in the study area and found
182 species of plants which the San Chay and
San Chi ethnic used as medicine including
158 genera, 89 families. The results are
summarized in Table 1.


Table 1 shows that there was 1 species in


Lycopodiophyta has been used as medicine,


Huperzia squarrosa (Forst.) Trevis,


accounting for 2.2% of the total number of
found species; there were 1 species in
Pteridophyta: Microsorum pteropus Perner;
there were 180 species in Magnoliophyta has
found (98.9% of total species) in 156 genera
(accounting for 98.73% of the total) and 87
families accounting for 97.75% of the total).
This may explain that the flora in the study
area mainly Magnoliophyta, which are
common in the surrounding hamlets, hills,
rivers and streams. Therefore, these are also
the more common species having chosen to
make drugs than other plants.


Magnoliophyta play a particularly important
role in the medicinal plants and the research
analyzed the composition of the taxon levels
in the 2 layers of Magnoliophyta:
Dicotyledoneae and Monocotyledoneae. The
results of the specific numbers and
percentages were shown in Table 2.


Table 1. Number of discovered medicinal plants in the study area


No. Taxonomic Family Genus Species



1 Lycopodiophyta 1 1 1


2 Pteridophyta 1 1 1


3 Magnoliophyta 87 156 180


3.1 Dicotyledoneae 70 132 145


3.2 Monocotyledoneae 17 24 35


Total 89 158 182


Table 2. Number of family, genus, species belonging to 2 classes in Magnoliophyta


Magnoliophyta Family Genus Species


Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage


Dicotyledoneae 70 80.46 132 84.62 145 80.56


Monocotyledoneae 17 19.54 24 15.38 35 19.44



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Figure 1. Diversity of life forms of medicinal plants in the study area


Dicotyledoneae have the number of family,
genus, species used as medicine are
predominant over the Monocotyledoneae.
Dicotyledoneae has 145 species, accounting
for 80.56%; 132 genera, accounting for
84.62% and 70 families, accounting for


80.46% of the total number of species. The
valuable species are: Pseuderanthemum


palatiferum, Homalomena cochinchinensis


Engl used to treat osteoarthritis disease, etc.


Table 2 shows that Moncotyledones contain
only 35 species (19.44% of Magnoliophyta),
24 genera (15.38%), 17 families (19.54%).
Although it is not a large proportion,
Moncotyledones also has some valuable trees
such as: Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd used to
treat headache, fever, abdominal pain;


Amomun xanthioides Wall used to treat


dysuria, abdominal pain, tonic; Homalomena


cochinchinensis Engl used to treat joint pain,


sedation, kidney remedies, etc.


Thus, it can be seen that the some species in
Magnoliophyta, especially the Dicotyledones
species, accounting for a large proportion and
play an important role in healing with plan by
the San Chay and San Chi ethnic
communities in Yen Lac commune.



Diversity of life forms of medicinal plant resources
The diversity of life forms of medicinal plants
in the study area is shown in Figure 1.


Figure 1 shows that most of the medicinal
plants used by the San Chay and San Chi
ethnic communities are herbaceous, with
57/182 species (31.32% of all medicinal


plants) mainly in the family Asteraceae,
Zingiberaceae, etc; following by the vines life
forms with 41/182 species (22.53%), this
species are mainly on the species of
Cucurbitaceae, Vitaceae are used to treat
abdominal pain, osteoarthritis, kidney disease,
treatment of peptic ulcer disease, bronchitis,
good digestion, etc; the third was small wood
tree species with 33/182 species (18.13%), are
in the Dicotyledoneae, represented in this
group are Roseceae and some species
Euphorbiaceae, etc; the moderate wood trees
with 23/182 species (12.64%), this species are
in some Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae are used
to treat toothache, stomach, deworming
children, premature ejaculation, etc; the
shrubs with 21/182 species (11.54%), this
species are mainly on the species of
Musaceae used to treat diseases such as:
sprain, stomach, leg numbness, etc; the least
species were parasitic tree which is 7/182


species (3.85%), five species of Loranthaceae
are used to treat some diseases such as liver,
kidney, tonic, heat, detoxification, stomach, etc.
In general, the above data proved that the
experience of using medicinal plants as
medicine for treatment of San Chay and San
Chi in the study area is very diverse and
abundant.



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gardens: Trees live in the garden, the pond,
around the village, (iii) forests: Trees live in
dense forest, secondary forest, forest edge;
(iv) near streams, rivers: Trees live near
flowing water, near streams, rivers, wetlands.
The above data show that:


The number of species distributed in the
forest is relatively high with 90 species
(accounting for 49.18% of the total number of
collected species) and most of the species are
distributed in deep forests, for example:


Milletia reticulata Benth is used to treat


joints; Stephaniae glabrae Diels for the
treatment of stomach, kidney, abdominal
pain, etc; Heliciopsis Lobata (Merr.) Sleumer
for treating rheumatism, pain, kidney stones,
urine, etc.



The frequency of finding precious medicinal
plants is lower than the past, even some
endangered species only could be found in
deep forests: Pseuderanthemum palatiferum
(wall) Radlk for the treatment of liver cancer,
stomach; Excoecaria conchinchinensis Lour
treats stomach pain, measles, itching;


Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl for joint


pain, sedation, kidney failure, etc. Being
aware of the fact that medicinal plants in the
forest have been in danger because of


over-exploitation for exporting to China, many
herbalists and local people grew the medicinal
plant in their garden with 33.33% of
medicinal plants distributed in the gardens in
the study area.


There were 52 species of medicinal plants
found in hills at 28.42% of the total species in
the study area, such as: Homalomena


cochinchinensis Engl for the treatment of


joint pain; Euphorbia thymifolia Burn is used
to treat intestinal diseases, abdominal pain;


Xanthium strumarium L. is used to treat



gastritis, gastrointestinal disorders, boils, etc.


The number of species live along streams is
low, with only 4 species (accounting for
2.19% of total species). They are mainly
moisturizing species such as: Houttuynia


cordata Thunb has the effect of ulcers, disease,


headache; Eichhornia crasspes Solms used to
treat wounds, headaches; Polygonum chinense
L. to treat cough, colitis, detoxification, heat
bar, melasma in children, etc.


Diversify of used parts of medicinal plants


The results of using the medicinal plants’
parts as medicine based on the experience of
the San Chay and San Chi ethnic minorities in
Yen Lac commune are shown in Table 4.
Table 3. Distribution of medicinal plants in different habitats


No. Living environment Species Percentage


1 Forests 90 49.18


2 Gardens 61 33.33


3 Hills 52 28.42



4 Along streams, rivers and wetlands 4 2.19


(Note: The percentages in the table are more than 100% because some species can live in different
environments)


Table 4. Diversity of plants’ parts used as medicine


No. Used parts Species Percentage


1 Whole plant 71 38.80


2 Leaves 47 25.68


5 Fruits 31 16.94


3 Roots 26 14.21


4 Stem 17 9.29



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medicinal plants; the next is the fruits section with 31 species of medicinal plants used
(accounting for 16.94%); roots with 26 medicinal plant species (14.21%); and the lowest part was
stem with 17 species (9.29% of total species).


Diversity of medicinal uses of medicinal plant resources


As folk experience, a medicinal plant could be effective in a disease treatment but there are some
diseases requires many types of plants to treat.


The results of the survey on the diversity of medicinal plants are shown in Table 5.


Table 5. Proportion of species to treat specific diseases


No. Treatment disease group Species Percentage


1 Kidney diseases (glomerulonephritis, kidney stones, diabetes, etc) 30 16.39
2 Osteoarthritis diseases (arthritis, bone pain, lumbar spine, etc) 26 14.21
3 Skin diseases (boils, scabies, ulcers, rash, urticaria, etc) 22 12.02
4 Stomach diseases (stomach pain, stomach ulcers, colon, etc) 15 8.20
5 Respiratory diseases (pharyngitis, cough, bronchus, lung, etc) 12 6.56
6 Women's diseases (menopause, menstrual irregularities, pregnancy control, etc) 10 5.46
7 Weather sickness (headache, sickness, fever, etc) 9 4.92


8 Supplement (kidney, blood, liver, tonic, etc) 8 4.37


9 Digestive diseases (diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, etc) 8 4.37
10 Detoxification (insect allergy, food allergy, etc) 8 4.37


11 Tumors (cancer, lymphadenopathy, mumps, etc) 8 4.37


12 Liver diseases (hepatitis, hepatomegaly, etc) 7 3.83


13 Cardiovascular diseases (heart failure, high blood pressure, etc) 6 3.28
14 Diseases of children (deworming, eye, yellow skin, melaleuca, etc) 5 2.73
15 Wound diseases (hemostasis, hematoma, swelling, disinfection, sprain, etc) 5 2.73
16 Diseases of the mouth (gingivitis, tooth decay, etc) 5 2.73
17 Neurological diseases (sciatica, sedation, insomnia, etc) 4 2.19


18 Heat bar (cool body, cool blood, etc) 4 2.19


19 Diseases caused by animal bites (snake bite, centipede bite, dog bite, etc) 2 1.09


20 Eye and nose diseases (red eyes, nosebleeds, etc) 2 1.09
The above data show that the San Chay and


San Chi ethnic communities in the study area
can use their knowledge and experience on
medicinal plants to treat 20 different diseases,
including infectious diseases: Liver, kidney,
heart, bone, joint, intestinal, respiratory tract,
etc. The number of medicinal plants used for
treatment mainly are 4 specific types of
diseases:


Kidney diseases: There were 30 species out of
183 species were found (accounted for
16.39% of total species). These species are in
families such as: Marantaceae,
Ranunculaceae, Cucurbitaceae, etc. Some
species can be mentioned as: Phyllodes


plancentaria Lour, Rhizoma coptides, etc.


Osteoarthritis diseases: There were 26 species
(accounted for 14.21%), some popular species
are: Menispermaceae, Apiaceae,
Apocynaceae, Araceae, Fabaceae, Apiaceae,
etc. Some species can be mentioned as:


Strophanthus wallichii A. DC., Homalomena
cochinchinensis Engl, Milletia reticulata Benth,
Centella asiatica, Tinospora tomentosa Miers,


Cnidium monnieri Cuss, etc.


Skin diseases: There were 22 species
(accounted for 12.02%), which are mainly
families: Rosaceae, Sinaroubaceae,
Altingiaceae, Malvaceae, etc. For example:


Rosa chinensis jacq, Liquidambar formosana,
Eurycoma longifolia Jack subsp, Abutilon
indicum L., etc.


Stomach diseases: There were 15 species out
of 183 species were found (accounted for
8.20%). These species are mainly distributed
in families such as: Asteraceae, Verbenaceae,
Solanaceae, etc.



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Endangered medicinal plants


This research has identified the rare medicinal plants that need to be protected in Table 6.
Table 6. List of preserved medicinal plants in the study area


No. Species


Granted regulations


Vietnam Red
Book, 2007


Decree 32 of the


Government of


Vietnam


List of red medicinal plants in
Vietnam


1 Fallopia multiflora


(Thunb.) Haraldson VU A1a,c,d EN.A3a,c,d


2 Homalomena


cochinchinensis Engl EN.A1c,d.B2a,b(ii,iii,iv,v)


3 Lonicera bournei
Hemsl.ex Forb


CR B1+2b,


C2a CR.B2a,b(ii,iii,iv,v)


4 Strophanthus wallichii


A. DC. EN B1+2b,c


(Note: VU: Vulnerable; EN: Endangered; CR: Critically Endangered)
There were 4 rare endangered medicinal


species belonging to 4 genera and 4 families


of Magnoliophyta. There were three species
listed in the Vietnam Red Book (Ministry of
Science and Technology, 2007) [7], three
species listed in the Catalog Red Medicinal
Plants of Vietnam (Nguyen Tap, 2007) [4].
Specifically:


VU level - Vulnerable by Vietnam Red Book,
including the following 1 species: Fallopia


multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson belong to the


Polygonaceae, which is used to treat
insomnia, hair loss, gray hair.


EN level - Endangered by Vietnam Red
Book, including the following 1 species:


Strophanthus wallichii A. DC. belongs to


family Apocynaceae, used to treat bones,
boils, etc.


EN level - Endangered by the Catalog Red
Medicinal Plants of Vietnam, including the
following 2 species: Fallopia multiflora
(Thunb.) Haraldson belongs to family
Polygonaceae; Homalomena cochinchinensis
Engl belongs to family Araceae, which is
used to treat osteoarthritis, rheumatism,


degeneration, etc.


CR level - Critically Endangered by Vietnam
Red Book and the Catalog Red Medicinal
Plants of Vietnam, including the following 1
species: Lonicera bournei Hemsl.ex Forb


belongs to family Caprifoliaceae, used to treat
acne, make tonic, etc.


In general, there were 4 threatened species in
Yen Lac could be extinction, they are
medicinal plants with high medicinal and
economic value. Therefore, it is necessary to
raise the local people’s awareness of
medicinal plants protection and prioritize the
conservation of precious and rare genetic
resources for a long-term.


From the above results, it has proved that this
result will be an important information, which
will contribute to the databases for functional
departments and agencies to formulate
strategies and policies for conservation and
exploitation these medicinal plants on
planned and sustainable. Especially rare
medicinal plants that are at risk of
deterioration. In addition, these results are
also the scientific basis for other further
research on the conservation and sustainable


development of medicinal plants and the
experience of using medicinal plants as
medicine for treatment of San Chay and San
Chi in the study area.


CONCLUSTION



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Menispermaceae, Zingiberaceae, Asteraceae,
Euphorbiaceae, Vitaceae and Rutaceae have 5
species that have medicinal uses.


There were 57 species of herbaceous, 41 species
of vines, 33 species of small wood species, 23
species of moderate wood species, 21 species of
shrubs and 7 species of parasitic tree.


The most of medicinal plants are in forest
habitats with 90 species, followed by gardens
with 61 species, hills with 52 species and 4
species near streams.


Used parts of the plants for medicine
included: whole plant of 71 species, 47
species’ leaves, 31 species’ fruits, 26 species’
roots and 17 species’ sterms could be used as
medicine.


Identified 20 different groups of diseases
could be treated by using the medicinal plants
as San Chay and San Chi ethnic minorities’


methods in the study area. In which the
experience of using medicinal plants of the
San Chay and San Chi ethnic communities is
most concentrated in 4 diseases groups
including: kidney diseases, osteoarthritis, skin
and stomach diseases.


There were 4 endangered species need to be
preserved, accounting for 2.2% of the total
medicinal plants, including: Fallopia
multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson, Homalomena


cochinchinensis Engl, Lonicera bournei


Hemsl.ex Forb, Strophanthus wallichii A. DC.


REFERENCES


1. Vo Van Chi (2012), Dictionary of medicinal
plants in Vietnam, Hanoi Publishing House,
volume 1-2, Hà Nội.


2. Pham Hoang Ho (2001), Vietnamese Herbs,
Young Publishers, Ho Chi Minh City.


3. Do Tat Loi (2005), Vietnamese medicinal plants
and herbs, Hanoi Publishing House, Hanoi.
4. Nguyen Tap (2007), Manual of medicinal plants
for protection in Vietnam, Publishing House of
Non-Timber Forest Products Vietnam, Hanoi.



5. Nguyen Nghia Thin (1997), Biodiversity
Research Handbook, Agricultural Publishing
House, Hanoi.


6. Nguyen Nghia Thin (2007), Methods of botanical
research, Vietnam University Press, Hanoi


7. Ministry of Science and Technology (2007).
Vietnam Red Book, Plant Section, Natural Science
and Technology Publishing House, Hanoi.


8. The Government of the Socialist Republic of
Vietnam (2006), Decree 32/2006 on prohibiting
and restricting the exploitation and use of wild
fauna and flora species.


9. Center for Natural Resources and
Environmental Studies - Vietnam National
University, Ha Noi and Institute of Ecology and
Biological Resources – Vietnam Academy of
sciences and Technology, (2006), Checklist of
plant species in Vietnam, Publishing House.
Agriculture, Hanoi, Volume 2 - 3.



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TÓM TẮT


NGHIÊN CỨU ĐA DẠNG NGUỒN TÀI NGUYÊN CÂY THUỐC
ĐƯỢC SỬ DỤNG TRONG CỘNG ĐỒNG MỘT SỐ DÂN TỘC
Ở XÃ YÊN LẠC, HUYỆN PHÚ LƯƠNG, TỈNH THÁI NGUYÊN



Nguyễn Thị Thu Hiền1*, Trịnh Đình Khá2, Đặng Kim Tuyến1
1Trường Đại học Nông Lâm – ĐH Thái Nguyên,
2Trường Đại học Khoa học – ĐH Thái Nguyên


Nghiên cứu này được tiến hành nhằm đánh giá đa dạng nguồn tài nguyên cây thuốc ở xã Yên Lạc,
huyện Phú Lương, tỉnh Thái Nguyên. Các phương pháp sử dụng gồm có: Thu thập mẫu vật, phỏng
vấn, định danh tên loài, đánh giá tính đa dạng nguồn tài nguyên cây thuốc và đánh giá mức độ
nguy cấp của các loài cây thuốc. Kết quả nghiên cứu bước đầu đã xác định được 182 loài cây
thuốc thuộc 158 chi, 89 họ được cộng đồng dân tộc ở khu vực nghiên cứu sử dụng trong phòng và
chữa bệnh cho người dân. Cây thuốc thuộc 6 dạng sống chính gồm: Thân thảo, dây leo, cây gỗ
nhỏ, cây gỗ trung bình, cây bụi và cây ký sinh. Cây thường phân bố ở các dạng sinh cảnh là: Sống
ở rừng, sống ở vườn, sống ở đồi và sống ven suối, ven sông. Trong các bộ phận được sử dụng làm
thuốc thì lá, cả cây và quả được sử dụng nhiều nhất và đạt từ 16,94% - 38,80%. Nghiên cứu này đã
điều tra được 20 nhóm bệnh được chữa trị bằng kinh nghiệm sử dụng cây thuốc của người dân ở
khu vực nghiên cứu, trong đó có 4 nhóm bệnh chiếm tỷ lệ cao nhất là: Bệnh về thận, bệnh về
xương khớp, bệnh ngoài da, bệnh về dạ dày. Có 4 lồi cây thuốc có nguy cơ bị tuyệt chủng đã
được ghi nhận là: Hà thủ ô đỏ - Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Haraldson, Thiên niên kiện tía -
Homalomena cochinchinensis Engl, Kim ngân rừng - Lonicera bournei Hemsl.ex Forb, Sừng trâu
- Strophanthus wallichii A. DC.


Từ khóa: Cây thuốc, Đa dạng cây thuốc, Yên Lạc, Phú Lương, Thái Nguyên.


Ngày nhận bài: 01/10/2018; Ngày phản biện: 25/10/2018; Ngày duyệt đăng: 31/10/2018




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