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Đại giới đàn Quán Sứ năm 1939-1940

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20

Nghien cuu Ton giao. So 9 - 2009



DAI GICJI DAN QUAN StT NAM 1939-1940



NGUYEN THI THUY PHUONG'*'


D

ao Phat cd ca mdt kho tang kinh
dien het sUc phong phu va da
dang, trong dd duy chi cd tam hgc la nen
tang can ban nha't. Tam hgc gdm: Gidi
hgc thudc ve Tang luat, Dinh hgc thudc
ve Tang kinh va Tue hgc thudc ve Tang
luan. Dao Phat khang dinh gidi luat la
mang mach ciia Phat p h i p , gidi luat cdn
la P h i t phap cdn. De gidi luat dUdc duy
tri, gidi tu si Phat giao da thiet lap nen
cic gidi dan truyen gidi phap de giup cac
tu si hanh tri dflng vdi che dinh m i Dfle
Phat da dat ra.


1. Gidi d a n v a p h a n loai gidi d a n


Gidi dan la dan trang truyen thu gidi
phap cho cic gidi tfl - nhflng ngfldi xuat
gia theo dao Phat. Phan ngfl la M a n d i l a
(Mandarava), dich nghia chfl H i n la Dan
vi cd phan cat dflng cao tren mat dat'''.


De thanh tflu dfldc mdt gidi dan, phai
cd day du ba yeu td': Tam sfl. That chflng
v i Gidi tfl.



- Tam sfl la 3 ngdi; Hda thfldng. Yet
ma Axale, Giio thu Axale;


- That chflng la 7 vi tdn tflc ddng
chflng minh cho viec truyen thu gidi;


- Gidi tii l i ngfldi xin thu gidi Sa di, Sa
di ni, Thflc xoamana, Ty kheo, Ty kheo ni
va dfldc nhan gidi phap.


Cd hai loai gidi dan la Tieu gidi dan va
Dqi girii ddn


a. Tieu gidi ddn


La dan gidi danh cho gidi tfl da xudng
tdc xuat gia, dfldc thu gidi phap Sa di, la
10 gidi can ban ciia ngfldi tap sfl dfl vao
ddng t h a n h se lam vi Nhfl Lai sfl gia.


Ddi vdi Phat giao Nam tdng, khi mgt gidi
tfl dfldc thay bdn sfl cho phep xudng tdc, tflc
la thu gidi Sa di, ggi la Ddn gidi xuat gia.


Ddi vdi P h a t giao B i c tdng, sau khi
xudng tdc, gidi tfl can phai trai qua thdi
gian tap sfl h a n h dao tdi thieu tfl 1 den 2
nam hoac lau hdn nfla, den khi nao thay
bdn sfl thay rang ngfldi xuat gia nay cd tfl


chat va quyet chi tu hgc, thi Iflc ay vi
t h i y mdi cho phep gidi tfl dfldc thu gidi
Sa di tai mgt Ddn gidi xuat gia ciia Phat
giao Bac tdng.


Nhfl vay, Tieu gidi ddn (hay cdn ggi la
Ddn gidi xudit gia) la ten ggi chung cho


Nam v i B l e tong P h a t giao trong viec
thu gidi phap Sa di.


h. Dqi gidi ddn


La dan gidi md ra cho cac gidi tii dfldc
thu Cli tuc gidi, tfle gidi phap Ty kheo,
gdm 250 gidi cho ben Tang va 348 gidi
cho ben Ni.


Ddi vdi Phat giao Nam tdng, dan gidi
Cu tuc chi cho phep cac gidi tfl Sa di da
dii dao h a n h dfldc thu gidi phap Ty kheo
de tien len bac cao hdn, khdng cd truyen


*.TliS., Thich An Huong.



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Nguy6n Thi Thuy Phtrong. Dqi gioi ddn Qudn Sii...

21



gidi cho ben Ni chung.


Ddi vdi Phat giio Bic tdng lai cd y


nghia khic, cho phep c i bd'n chflng (tfl
chflng) dfldc thu gidi nhfl; gidi Sa di, gidi
Ty kheo, gidi Bd tat cho ngfldi xuat gia
ben Tang chung; gidi Sa di ni, gidi Thflc
xoamana, gidi Ty kheo ni, gidi Bd t i t cho
ngfldi xuat gia ben Ni chung. Dqi gidi
ddn cdn truyen trao them gidi Bd tat, gidi
Thap thien cho h i n g nam nfl cfl si Phat
tfl. Chinh vi sfl da dang rdng rai ay nen
ggi la Dqi gidi ddn'^K


Ngoii ra cdn cd Phiidng triidng gidi
ddn la gidi dan ndi bd. thfldng do t h i y
bdn sfl truyen cho de tfl de tu hgc. Gidi
dan nay thfldng chi cd 5 vi: 1 vi Hda
thfldng, 2 vi Axale (Yet ma v i Giie thu),
2 vi tdn chflng. Phiidng triidng gidi ddn la
cich ggi khic d nhflng ndi bien dia, khdng
du Tam sfl. That chflng.


Gidi dan Bd tat khdng phan biet tai gia
hay xuat gia, ma chi cin phit tam nguyen
dung manh thflc hien ldi ich hflu tinh nhfl
hanh Bd t i t thi deu cd the thu gidi.


Gidi Bd tat cd 10 dieu can b i n va 48
dieu phu. Mgt lan thu gidi rdi thi khdng
bao gid mat, neu gifl khdng dfldc thi gidi
se bi lu md, vi the nen khdng cd x i gidi
hay mat gidi trdng trgn ddi sd'ng cua


hanh gia.


The ki XX l i the ki cfla day nhflng
bien dgng ddi vdi lich sfl Viet Nam, Phat
giao cung nam trong vdng xoiy dd cfla
lich sii dan tdc. Khi van hgi dat nfldc
thuan ldi p h i t trien thi sd lfldng gidi dan
dfldc md ra nhieu. Dieu dd chflng td cd
nhieu ngfldi bfldc vao cfla thien tu hgc.
Khi dat nfldc gap thdi ki den tdi thi viec
td chflc gidi d i n cung it di vi dieu kien
khd khan. Tuy nhien, theo ket qua
nghien cflu eua Tien si, Thfldng toa Thich


Ddng Bdn thi trai qua 100 nam cfla the ki
XX khdng nam nao l i khdng cd gidi d i n
dfldc md ra. Dd la sU minh chUng cho sflc
sd'ng tam Hnh, dao dfle phong hda nUdc
n h i van ludn cd nhip sd'ng tUdng tuc, du
khi ay dang bi lim than bdi ngoai xam,
bdi phong kien, thiic dan, de qud'c. So'lieu
thd'ng ke cho thay gidi dan dUdc td chflc
r i m rd deu nam trong 3 thdi ki thinh
vfldng cua Phat giio Viet Nam:


a. Thdi ki 1933-1945: Phong t r i o chan
hung Phat giio;


b. Thdl ki 1951-1970: Phong trao da
giao phai;



c. Thdl ki 1976-2000: Phong trao thd'ng


n h a ' t < ^ ' . • • ' • ' :


2. Dai gidi d a n Q u a n Suf


Nam 1937, Hdi Phat giao Bic Ky md
trUdng dai hgc tai chua Sd (cdn ggi la
chua Phflc Khinh, chfla Thinh Quang);
trfldng trung hgc, tieu hgc tai chua Bd
De. Hgc sinh hai trfldng ngdt 100 vi, hgc
ludn ba nam.


Cudi nam 1938, Hdi md ki thi tai chua
Q u i n SU, Ha Ngi, d i n h dau mgt bfldc
tien dai cua cac tang sinh. Tuy nhien, hgc
de trau ddi tri tue m i khdng cd gidi p h i p
thi khdng hoan toan gidi than tue menh
dfldc. Vi the, cudi nam 1939, Hda thfldng
Bing Sd, Hda thUdng Te C i t la Chinh,
Phd dd'c giio va cic giao sU sau khi xem
xet trinh do cic tang sinh da de nghi Hdi
td chflc ngay gidi dan tai chua Quin Sfl.
Hdi cho r i n g , viec lap gidi dan la viec rat
khd, khdng phai la nhflng bac luat sfl
tham hieu gidi luat Phat khdng the xep
dat dfldc. Vi the nen Hgi chi lo nhflng viec


2. Thich Ddng Bdn. Bien men sd gidi ddn Phdt gido



Viet Nam. Nxb. Ton Giao, 2009.


3. Thich Ddng Bdn. Bien nien sd gun ddn Phdt gidn



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22

Nghien cuu Ton giao. So 9 - 2009



dai cfldng cdn viec td chflc gidi dan thi giao
cho vi Chinh dd'c giao va Hda thfldng Giam
trfldng la td Tue Tang - Thich T i m Thi.


Dai gidi dan dfldc tien hanh theo ba
budc:


Le S a m


Ggi la gidi din, tham y d chd: phai
chUa sach tgi ldi, p h i i gifl dflng nhflng
dieu Phat da ran cam, cho nen trflde khi
truyen thu gidi luat. cin phai le s i m de
cho ba nghiep T h i n . Mieng, Y thanh
tinh. Ba nghiep cd thanh tinh thi mdi vao
trong dan gidi ma linh thu p h i p khi dfldc.


Cfl theo dung phep thi ca gidi sU va gidi
tfl deu phai le sam trong 49 ngay. NhUng
luc bay gid, chua Q u i n SU - Hdi q u i n
Trung Udng, dang xay diing nen mgi viec
khic cflng dang lam dd dang, neu lim li
sam nhieu ngay qua thi dgng c i mgi viec.


Vi the, Hdi cham chfldc chi lim trong 21
ngiy (bit dau tfl ngiy 13 t h i n g 11 i m lich
tflc ngiy 30 t h i n g 12 nam 1939) v i cfl
ThUdng tga To' Lien thay menh cic gidi sU
dd'c suat cic gidi tfl l i m le. T u i n 1 va 2,
tflc 14 ngay d i u cac gidi tfl lim le ben
chfla Bd De (Gia Lam, H i Ndi); t u i n thfl 3
mdi te tflu tai chua Q u i n Sfl.


Danh sich cic gidi tfl;


Gidi Ty kheo: 1) Tam Tich d Yen Bii;
2) Tam Giic d Nam Dinh; 3) T i m Chinh d
Ninh Binh; 4) Giai Ngan d Q u i n g Ngai;
5) Tam Tfl d Hflng Yen; 6) T i m Nguyen d
H i Nam; 7) Tam Mmh d Nam Dinh; 8)
Tam An d Hflng Yen; 9) Tain Thdng d
Nam Dinh.


Gidi Sa di: 1) T i m N h i n d Nam Dinh;
2) Tam Kien d Ha Ddng; 3) T i m Cd d
Nam Dinh; 4) T i m Dinh d Nam Dinh; 5)
Tam Lac d Ha Ddng; 6) T i m Khoan d
T h i i Binh; 7) Tam An d HUng Yen; 8)


Tam Khoa d Thai Binh; 9) Tam Tfl d
Hflng Yen; 10) Tam Dao d Hflng Yen; 11)
T i m Tu d Kien An; 12) Tam K h i d Ha
Ddng.



Gir^ii Bd tdt: 1) Tam Dang d Hflng Yen;
2) Tam Chinh d Ninh Binh; 3) Giai Ngan d
Quang Ngai; 4) Tam Can b Ha Nam; 5)
T i m Tfl ci Hflng Yen va cac gia (hdn 10 vi).


Ngu gidi, T i m h a n h va Uu b i di cd
hdn 30 vi.


Tdng cgng 61 vi.


Danh s i c h gidi tfl tren chd thay, trong
Dai gidi dan nay cd 1 ngfldi thu 3 gidi la
sfl T i m Tfl (Hflng Yen); 3 ngfldi thu 2 gidi


l i cac sfl; T i m An (Hflng Yen), Giai Ngan
d Quang Ngai; T i m Chinh d Ninh Binh;
Tinh cd nhieu gidi tfl thu gidi nhat la
Hflng Yen.


D i n S i m bay b ngdii giang dUdng, tren
nha't la tUdng dUc Bdn sU Thich Ca Mau
Ni, hai ben bay hUdng hoa den nen trang
nghiem riic rd, thfl den chd S i m chfl, rdi
cfl cich mgt cii i n dai tren cung bay
hfldng hoa den nen lai den mdt hang gidi
tfl 5 ngUd] Id, chia khoang dflng g i n kin ca
giang dudng, cac thien tin den li rat ddng.
Mdi hUdng i n cd de mdt tam gfldng de cho
gidi tfl vfla le vfla quan tfldng.




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Nguydn Thi ThCiy Phuong. Dqi gioi ddn Qudn Sic...

23



Bat hfla. Ai rflt dfldc the Bach thi mdi
dfldc thu gidi, rut dfldc Hie hoac Trung
sim thi p h i i le s i m rdi rut lai; rut phii
ba ki Bat hfla thi tdi. khdng dfldc thu gidi.
Trong 5 the, rut dUdc the Bach (Bach
nhat, Bach nhi) qua l i khd.


Bat d i u vao le, ngay thfl nhat t u i n
tam, theo le sam Huan tu, cac danh
hieu Phat deu le ca, chfl khdng ngdi ma
dgc Ifldt di, trdng r a t t h i n h kinh. Dgc
den bai s i m hdi, thi dgc dan tflng cau,
mdi doan deu d i n h mdt tieng kieng,
dflng lai mdt chut, nghe r a t thiet tha
cam ddng, cd vi c i m q u i sut sui khdc.
Dgc p h i t nguyen thi theo hanh nguyen
khda sing, chfl trgng ve cdng tfl ldi va
ldi tha. C i u cho dat hanh nguyen cfla
Bd tat, cung dgc d i n tflng tieng v i dflt
mach danh mdt tieng kieng, v i i mdt
vai, nhfl the khan nguyen trUdc Phat
dai the chfla tgi ldi. the cflu chflng sinh,
nghe rat phan khdi long tu. Khi niem
Phat thi di nhieu, Iflc tan khda thi
phdng nao ve phdng ay, da lap rieng
mgt ndi Tinh x i , cd bien yet tflng
phdng, cd rieng 2 tinh nhan phuc vu. O
gifla Tinh x i cd mdt gian rdng, cd cac


b i n thu trai, tren cd i n thd Phat, cd
bien viet ba chfl to: Tinh Nghiep Diidng.
hai ben cd bien danh hieu cic gidi sfl va
cic gidi tfl khien cho ngfldi trdng thay
ma them khat ngUdng cii thu xuat gia.


Mdi ngay le ba khda, mdi dem le ba
khda, cfl cich hai gid ddng hd lai li mdt
khda, mdi khda dai tdi hai gid theo dflng
chu Da luc thdi nhfl trong kinh day. Budi
sing mdi vi diidc thu mdt Iflng chio gan
lay toan nfldc, dung Ngg thu mdt bfla
trai, qua Ngg cam het.


Trong mdt ngay dem cd 24 gid, li b i i
mat 12 gid, cdn lai thi niem P h i t ngdi


thien, khdng ra ngoai, khdng tiep chuyen
vdi ai, trong sud't khoang thdi gian 21
ngay nhfl the lam sao ma khdng sach ba
nghiep. Va lai, tam li chung cua cic gidi
tfl p h i i cd gang nhiep tam thanh tinh de
dat dfldc y nguyen lanh thg gidi phip. Vdi
nhflng phep thiic hanh nhu the cho thay
rang, Phat p h i p trong giai doan nay gidi
luat tinh nghiem. chinh tuc hdn ca quan
luat.


R u t t h a m



Sang ngiy 27/11 am hch (6/1/1940) b i t
d i u rflt tham. Gidi Ty kheo dfldc hai vi
Bach tinh; gidi Sa di dUdc hai vi Bach
tinh; cdn thi hoac Hac hoac Trung s i m
hoac Bat hfla. dflng nhfl sfl hanh tri hang
ngay, ai cd diy cdng tri niem le bii, tinh
tinh nhu hda khiem tdn. nhat tam tin
nguyen thi dfldc ngay.


Ket q u i rut tham l i n dau cho thay cic
gidi tfl phii cd' gang nhiep tam cin mat
trong khi hanh tri le bii de hi vgng dieu
td't lanh vao l i n rflt tham ke tiep. : •, _ • •



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24



Sang ngay 2/12 am lich rflt tham ki 3,
ai ai cung hdi hop mong biet ket qua, den
luc xfldng danh, thi t r u n g h i u het, chi cd
mdt ngfldi mdi di tu, cdng tri niem it,
cdng phung sfl kem la bi Bat hfla. Vdi sfl
che dinh tam y trong h a n h tri, edng phu
tu tap cua cac gidi tii va Sam chii qua la
mdt ki cdng to tat. Che ra phap r u t tham
nay qua la mgt phfldng phap tu tap ri't
quy vi nd cd the giup cho gidi tti nhfl mgt
sfl dinh lfldng qua trinh tu hanh, sfl diang
cdng trong tu tap, loai bd tat ca nhflng
thdi hu tat xau, nhiep tam cao do trong
sfl tu tap de t h i n tam dfldc trong sach


trflde khi tien tdi lanh thg gidi p h i p . Ddi
vdi ngfldi tu si Phat giao khdng gi quy
hdn khi dang dan thg gidi ma dfldc d i e
gidi vi khi die gidi se giflp gidi tii tien
than mgt cich d i dang tren con dfldng
dat den giai t h o i t Niet Ban mien viin.


B a n tijf y b a t


Ngay 3/12 am lich tan dan sim; ngiy
4/12 am lich bao sai tUdng p h i p tren dien
v i trang hoang li dUdng de ban tU y bat.
Cac gidi tfl trung tuyen tmh t h i n cang
hoat b i t , lam viec cang nhe nhang, trai
qua 21 ngay cam gidi tinh tu, nhgc n h i n
nhfl the ma nhd Phat gia bi, v i n thay
tinh tien hdn len, khdng ai td sic bi
quyen ma tat ca cic gidi tfl deu chung
trong t i m trang khat khao gidi phap, vi
the nen ai ai cflng hang say lam viec vdi
s i c mat tfldi vui rang ngdi.


Sang ngay 5/12 am lich, cac vi gidi su
te tap d le dUdng, cd;


Tam sU gdm; Dan dau la Hda thugng
Trung Hau - TrUdng ban s i n g lap trUdng
Thien hgc; Yet ma A xa le la td B i n g Sd
-Chanh dd'c giao; Giao thu A xa le la td Te
C i t - Phd dd'c giao.



jjghien c6u T o n ^ i a a j g l g j L J g g ^ ,



Ton chflng: do cd nhieu dan nen cd
nhigu Ton chflng nhfl Hda thfldng Phuc
Chinh; To Hfldng Tich - Thu qui trfldng
Thien hgc; To Phu Lang, To Trflng Mai,
cic Hda thudng Que Phfldng, Dao Vien
(Thanh Hoa); cic sfl eu ehua Cao Da,
chfla Bat Miu, chua Qudc Sfl (Hflng
Yen), chua Trfl Khe, ehua Hao Xa. Cac vi
Chflng minh Dao sfl; Td Lien Phai, To
Thien Phflc, To Bach Xa, sfl cu Ngu Xa.


Den dfl l i cd ong Hgi trfldng danh dU
Hgi P h a t giio Bic Ky, cic thanh vien
Ban Tri sfl Hdi, cic hgi vien Ban Bao trd
hgc dfldng. Phia dau l i dfldng co mgt
hfldng an, tren cd tfldng dfle Bon svi,
hfldng hoa ngao ngat, den nen sang
chflng. Ke den hai cai an. tren bay do
T h a t sfl, dfldi Id t r i m nghi ngut, bay cac
ao ca sa va bat phap. Ao may toan vai
nhugm nau, theo dung luat mdi tam dai
rdng gap rfldi thfl thfldng dung. Kich
thudc n h u the thi mac mdi trang nghiem
kin dao. Bat phap thi dflng thfl liin phu
lang, sdn mau nhd nhd, tfly lfldng an ma
dinh. Thfl den la ban cac gidi sfl, deu mac
phap phuc nghiem trang, tiep den ban


ong Hdi trfldng d a n h dfl va cac iiy vien
Ban Tri sfl, cac hgi vien ngdi sudt may
chuc b i n .



(6)

Nguy6n Thi Thiiy Phuang. Dqi giai ddn Qudn Sii..

25



dang, khien eho trfldng Thien hgc dfldc
tien bg nhfl the nay va dgc mgt bai chflc
mflng va kinh khuyen cic vi gidi tfl. Ong
cho biet, ke tfl thdi Le mat den nay, k h i p
trong nfldc dau cung van thay cd chfla, cd
sfl, nhflng xet den ngi dung Phat giio ca
ve hinh thflc lan tinh t h i n dai da sd' la
md mang cau tha, gidi dan tuy thfldng cd
md, nhflng chi la ldi truyen thu rieng tfl
trong mdt chfla, ngfldi thu gidi it thay cd
Ifla chgn ki cang, ma dan gidi md ra cflng
chang cau cd toan the giio hdi cdng nhan.
Vi mudn chan hflng Phat giao. chflng ta
phai lap ra Hdi Phat giio Bac Ky, m i
nhiem via quan trgng nha't cua Hdi la
chan hflng Tang gidi. Bdi vay, ngay tfl
khi thanh lap, Hgi da cfl hanh le suy tdn
Phip chii, suy cfl Ban Ki tflc Dao sfl cho
thien gia cd thd'ng he minh bach, cd trat
tfl nghiem chinh, cd quy luat han hoi.
Nhflng cd phep hay ma khdng cd ngfldi
hay thi phep gi cung la phep bd, nen sau
nhflng viec ay Hdi lai p h i i kip md ra cac
trfldng trung hgc, tieu hgc de luyen


nhflng vi Sa di, Ty khed; trfldng dai hgc
de luyen nhflng vi Giao sfl, Giing sfl. Cd
trfldng hgc la cii Id nung due ra ngfldi
thu gidi, thi viec chgn ngUdi thu gidi mdi
khdi hd dd, ma viec md dan thu gidi mdi
khdng la chuyen bay ve.


Nay nhflng trfldng hgc ay da cd hgc
sinh td't nghiep, tflc l i da cd ngfldi du tfl
cich thu gidi lam tang. Gidi dan cfla tdin
the Phat giio Hdi md ki niy, dfldi linh
quang chfl Phat, chfl Td, trflde con m i t
chflng nhan cfla cic vi cao tang dai dfle
khap trong nfldc v i gifla mudn tai mudn
mat hang bao nhieu thien nam tin nfl
xung quanh, cung long trgng, cflng trang
nghiem nhfl mgt gidi dan thdi Ly td Tran
tdng hien hinh trd lai, thflc la mdt ki
nguyen mdi trong Phat giao sii nfldc nha


tfl sau thdi ki Le mat tdi nay. Vay, chflng
ta xin ddng thanh nguyen trflde Phat td
ring, cic vi thu gidi d gidi d i n nay se deu
lam trdn chflc vu hoang dao ldi sinh, thay
mat Phat td ma chi dan ngfldi me, khien
cho cdi dia nguc khd nao sau xa day bien
thanh Lac qud'c yen vui hda nha. Gidi d i n
nay la gidi dan trflde nha't, se cdn ke tiep
fle trieu hang ha sa sd' gidi dan sau, san
xuat fle trieu hang h i sa sd nhflng cao


tang dai dfle, de ndi ddi ddi ddi kiep kiep
dem giao li tfl bi quang dai ma tfldi rdt
cho nhan gian hda tham lam thanh, hda
i c lam lanh, hda ngu lam tri.


Cd the ndi gidi dan Bd De - Quan Sfl
cudi nam 1939 d i u nam 1940 la dai gidi
dan qui md hoanh t r i n g nhat trong Phat
giio xfl Bic tfl trflde tdi nam 2000. Nhieu
ngfldi dfldc thii gidi tai Dai gidi dan Quan
Sfl da trd thanh nhflng trii thach Phat giio
sau nay nhfl cic ngai Tam An, Giii Ngan,
Tam Giac, Tam Thdng, Tam Tich, v.v...





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