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principles of business communication

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Hồ Thái



Phạm Vân



Phạm Thị



Lê Văn Kỷ



Phùng Thị



Thanh Lan
Tạ Thanh



Trần Thị Mai



Đinh Thị



Nguyễn Thị





Phương Linh







Date of

4. How to overcome common communication barriers?
9:30 AM – 11 AM


Discussing the group is





1. Attendance at Meeting
Hồ Thái Khanh
Phạm Vân Khánh
Phạm Thị Kim
Lê Văn Kỷ
Phùng Thị Thanh Lan
Tạ Thanh Lan
Trần Thị Mai Lan
Đinh Thị Lành
Nguyễn Thị Liên
Nguyễn Phương Linh

Group member
Group member
Group member
Group member
Group member
Group member
Group member
Group member
Group member

Pham Van Khanh

10 members
on time, enthusiastic
on time, enthusiastic
on time, neutral
on time, neutral
on time, neutral
on time, enthusiastic
on time, neutral
on time, enthusiastic
on time, enthusiastic
on time, neutral

2. Meeting Notes, Decisions, Issues
Deciding on the outline of the assignment:
Assigning tasks to each member
Deciding on the due dates of tasks:
- Deadline for the document: 12:00 AM 30/06/2020
- Deadline for slides: 12:00 AM 07/06/2020

3. Action Items
- Finding videos to illustrate
3. Different cultural background
4. Stereotyping
- Designing PowerPoint slides
- Presenter

Assigned to

Ho Thai Khanh

- Analyzing and finding videos to illustrate:

Pham Van Khanh

I. Definition
1. Muddled messages
C. Conclusion
- Presenter
- Analyzing and finding videos to illustrate:

Phạm Thị Kim

2. Perceptual barriers
3. Different cultural background
- Finding videos to illustrate:

Lê Văn Kỷ

5. Wrong channel
6. Language
7. Physical Barriers
- Presenter
- Finding videos to illustrate:

Phùng Thị Thanh Lan

11. Interruption
12. Gender
- Presenter
- Analyzing and finding videos to illustrate:

Tạ Thanh Lan

10. Poor listening skills
11. Interruption
12. Gender
- Analyzing and finding videos to illustrate:

Trần Thị Mai Lan

4. Stereotyping
5. Wrong channel
- Analyzing and finding videos to illustrate:

Đinh Thị Lành

6. Language
7. Physical Barriers
- Analyzing and finding videos to illustrate:
8. Emotional Barriers
9. Lack of feedback

Nguyễn Thị Liên

- Finding videos to illustrate:

8. Emotional Barriers
9. Lack of feedback
10. Poor listening skills
- Presenter

Nguyễn Phương Linh

A. Introduction............................................................................................................. 1
B. Communication barriers and Solutions to overcome them..................................2
I. Definition..................................................................................................................2
1. Communication.......................................................................................................2
2. Communication barriers.........................................................................................2
II. Types of communication barriers..........................................................................2
1. Muddled messages...................................................................................................2
2. Perceptual barriers..................................................................................................4
3. Different cultural backgrounds...............................................................................6
4. Stereotyping.............................................................................................................. 9
5. Wrong channel.......................................................................................................10
6. Language................................................................................................................ 12
7. Physical barriers....................................................................................................14
8. Emotional barriers.................................................................................................17
9. Lack of feedback....................................................................................................18
10. Poor listening skills..............................................................................................20
11. Interruptions........................................................................................................23
12. Gender..................................................................................................................24
C. Conclusion.............................................................................................................28

A. Introduction
The study of communication is important because every aspect of human life
involves some form of direct or indirect communication. Today, communication
has gone from individual levels of conversing to mass communication. People
rely upon verbal and non-verbal communication in their interaction with
families, coworkers and peers. This implies that every person is communication
skills affect both personal and organizational effectiveness (Brun, 2010;
Summers, 2010). However, communication can occasionally break down or be
impeded by barriers. These barriers stem from a variety of sources, whether they
be from some conflict or an inability of the person to properly express what is
on his mind. Understanding these barriers can be a positive step in overcoming
This study is an attempt to summarize different types of common barriers in
our daily communication, as well as strategies for overcoming them. To begin,
our group will define what is meant by communication and communication
barriers. Following this, 12 common barriers to communication, and ways to
improve communication effectiveness will be carefully examined with examples
to illustrate. Our purpose in writing this paper is to help readers have a better
understanding of how to hold an effective conversation in both their personal
and professional lives.
B. Communication barriers and Solutions to overcome them
I. Definition
1. Communication
Communication can be defined as a process of sending and receiving
information among people. It is a way of reaching others by transmitting ideas
and thoughts, feelings and values.
2. Communication barriers
Communication barriers are obstacles in communication process that
prevent effective exchange of ideas or thoughts. These barriers interrupt the flow


of communication from the sender to the receiver, thus making communication
II. Types of communication barriers
1. Muddled messages
a. Features
Muddled messages are a barrier to communication because the sender leaves
the receiver unclear about the intent of the sender. Muddled messages have
many causes. The sender may be confused in his or her thinking. Speakers who
do not speak precisely and clearly about their topic, whatever it may be, run the
risk of confusing the receiver of the message. The use of language may differ
from person to person, especially when it comes to slang, formal language, or
other non-literal ways of speaking. The message may be little more than a vague
idea. Messages that are ambiguous and imprecise may be interpreted wrongly.
b. Solutions
If you often find that people seem to misunderstand your intent or messages,
particularly in face-to-face discussions, often look perplexed and often have to
ask questions of you because they do not understand, start looking to the quality
of the messages you send, and start slowing down and paying attention to what
you say.
Feedback from the receiver is the best way for a sender to be sure that the
message is clear rather than muddled. Clarifying muddled messages is the
responsibility of the sender. The sender hoping the receiver will figure out the
message does little to remove this barrier to communication.
c. Examples
- Example 1: The problem may be semantics, e.g., note this muddled
newspaper ad:
"Dog for sale. Will eat anything. Especially likes children. Call 888-3599 for

more information."


Comments: There are two ways to interpret this message: "The dog likes
eating children” or “The dog likes children”. This ambiguous and statement can
be hilarious yet confusing to potential buyers.
Recommendations: The sender needs to make a clear message: "Dog for
sale. Will eat anything. Especially likes being with children. Call 888-3599 for
more information."
- Example 2:
+ Description: A funny video from the series “Friends” (Season 4 Episode
13) illustrates muddled messages. The woman (Rachel) wanted to ask the man
(Joshua. to go to the Nicks game with her. However, the man misunderstood her
message and thought she gave the two tickets to him so that he and his nephew
can go watch the game.
+ Comments: The reason why the man misunderstood the woman is that she
made an unclear message. After hearing his response, although she realized he
misinterpreted her intention, she did not explain it to him.
+ Recommendations: To improve this communication effectiveness, the
woman should have made a clearer statement by emphasizing that she wanted
him to go with her to the game in the first place. Or after his unexpected
response, she should have clarified it to him.
2. Perceptual barriers
a) Features
Perception is the way people perceive or give meaning to their environment.
Perceptual barriers occur because the interpretation of the same message varies
according to how each individual is perception is influenced by their experience,
socio-cultural background, educational level, attitudes, and beliefs, and a range

of acquired skills or expectations.
When communicating, we consciously or unconsciously determine what
messages we concentrate on or screen out, as well as how the selected


information is organized and interpreted. This process is called "perceptual
selection". If the senders’ and receivers’ perceptions are not aligned, it can be a
significant source of barrier in the communication process. Perceiving subjects
through the lens of our own unique life experiences or "conditioning" may lead
to assumptions, stereotyping and misunderstandings of others whose
experiences differ from our own.
b. Solutions
To avoid perceptual barriers, it is essential to raising our awareness of our
own values, beliefs, and attitudes and how they affect our perception. We also
need to improve our understanding of, and sensitivity to, others. This is
primarily sender-focused which means that it is the supplier of information who
is to be more aware and empathic. It is important that we empathize with one
another by trying to understand how others could view things differently than
we do. By breaking down and questioning our assumptions about others, we can
bridge the communication gaps that arise because of our natural perceptual
Practice positive body language: The nonverbal aspects of our interactions
with others (such as posture, eye contact, and body stance) can communicate a
lot about how confident, interested, or engaged you are in a conversation or
topic. Because body language can be easily influenced by stress or tiredness, it
is important that you stay in tune with how your physical behaviors could be
misinterpreted. Practice positive body language when communicating with
others to ensure that you are not unintentionally disrespecting those around you

or sending a wrong message.
c. Examples
- Example 1:
Case study: Andy has a new idea for a marketing campaign that he is really
excited about. She needs his teammate Beth is design skills to come up with a


formal presentation for his boss. However, Andy heard Beth recently criticizing
a similar campaign done by another company.
As he approaches Beth to share his idea and ask for help, he has already
convinced himself that she won’t like the campaign, causing him to use
defensive language and body gestures. As he tries to explain why his idea is so
great and her previous criticism of a similar campaign was wrong, she interprets
his bid for help as arrogance and feels he is belittling her. Even though she likes
the campaign idea, she would rather not work with someone who speaks down
to her, so she says she is too busy and suggests he ask another designer for help.
Ultimately, the project suffers because Beth is the agencies best designer, and
Andy is boss rejects the idea.
- Example 2:
+ Description: A funny video from the series ‘How I met your mother” to
illustrate perceptual barriers. The group of friends argues because they are not
on the same page on whether duck or rabbit represents the thing people like.
+ Comments: Although these characters understand that notion as they all
agree that the picture can be either rabbit or a duck but their process of
communication fails can leads to conflict because they have different attitudes
toward duck and rabbit.
+ Recommendations: To improve this communication effectiveness, all these
characters need to empathize with one another by trying to take other’s points of

view into consideration instead of trying to protect their point of view at all
3. Different cultural backgrounds
a. Features
- Communication between people with different cultural backgrounds can
present challenges. Culture determines the ways in which people experience and
interpret the world and all the ways in which people think and communicate.


Thus the same words can mean different things to people from different cultures,
even when they talk the "same" language. We should accept a person is culture
and let it be OK that they are different.
- There can be three ways in which culture interferes with effective crosscultural understanding.
+ The first one is "cognitive constraints." These are the frames of reference
or world views that provide a backdrop that al new information is compared to
or inserted into. They are the way people view the world based on their culture.
For example, people in the United States might be inclined to feel superior to
many cultures because of the power and prevalence of U.S. culture since World
War II. This might lead people to become angry if somebody questions this
+ The second one is "behavior constraints". Behavior constraints are the
ways people behave from different cultures. This can be as simple as eye contact
or how close you should be to somebody. For example, In the United States, eye
contact should be sporadic and people should stand at least three feet apart. In
Europe, eye contact is considered "close to staring," and closeness can be
defined by inches.
+ The third factor is "emotional constraints." Different cultures regulate the
display of emotion differently. Each culture has rules that tell us how emotional

we can be in a situation. Italians are generally open about their emotions, with
hugs and kisses alternating between angry shouting and gesturing. British
people, however, are more reserved and keep their emotions close at hand.
Especially in context of cross-cultural communication today, it is important
to avoid all types of cultural barriers. The following are the points which we
need to keep in mind to avoid different cultural backgrounds barriers in
b. Solutions
- Accommodate your partner is special religious needs or practices: Some
religions issue stricter guidelines for their adherents’ daily lives than others. In
order to avoid culture clashes in the workplace, it is best to give people leeway


to fulfill their religious duties, even if they interfere with your regular schedule
or interrupt a project or meeting.
- Familiarizing yourself with other cultures
+ Make an effort to learn a little bit about other people is cultures: Read up
on Taiwanese holiday celebrations, watch French films, try some Ethiopian
food, or ask an expat coworker what life is like in St. Petersburg. Through this
kind of first-hand research, you can begin the process of building bridges
between your own culture and less familiar ones. You’ll probably even have fun
doing it!
+ Ask polite questions when faced with cultural quirks: If one of your
associates has a habit of doing something that you find unusual or perplexing, do
not be afraid to voice your curiosity. Chances are, the person will be delighted
that you’re showing an interest in their way of life.
+ Encourage others to share their cultural experience: Strive to create a
hospitable atmosphere where everyone feels welcome to open up about how

they view the world. This is not only good for morale, but can be personally
enriching, as well.
Preventing and dealing with cultural conflict: Despite the similarities that
exist between the members of a cultural group, it is always better to ask
someone for their perspective directly rather than assuming you know how they
think or feel based on cultural categories
Moreover, having a sense of humor is a good way to overcome cultural
conflict. Humor is one human trait that has universal appeal. When used in the
right way at the right time, it also has the capacity to transcend language,
culture, and other perceived sources of separation.
c. Examples
- Example 1:
Case study: Your company have a large population of immigrants from
American. You are appointed by the director to discuss the introduction of the
new software package on the agenda at tomorrow meeting.

During the

discussion, you notice Americans resting one foot on the other and leaning back
when sitting talking to guests. These traits often contradict the tradition of

respectful and humble respect of Asians. That doesn't mean Americans are
arrogant or rude. Americans often value efficiency over courtesy.
As you saw from the example, cultural differences reflect internal beliefs
and thought patterns that cause people to react differently to the same situation.
- Example 2:
+ Description: In this scenario, we can see two people are having a
conversation, the woman is from the UK while the man has just come back from

his trip to the US. The man complimented the woman’s choice of clothing by
saying that she had nice pants. Unfortunately, the woman misunderstood his
compliment and thought that he could see her underwear.
+ Comment: This is because, in the UK, the word “pants” is commonly used
as a slang for underpants, a piece of underwear covering the area between the
waist and the tops of the legs. While in the US, "pants" is used to refer to a piece
of clothing that covers the lower part of the body from the waist to the feet
+ Recommendations: The man can avoid this situation if he used the word
“trouser” which, in the UK, is the word commonly used to refer to the long
piece of leg clothing. This type of communication barrier can be overcome by
learning about many different cultures so they will know what to do and what to
4. Stereotyping
a. Features
Stereotyping is oversimplified generalizations about groups of people;
stereotyping can be based on conceptions, belief, or opinions about race,
ethnicity, age, gender, almost any characteristic.
Stereotyping is a barrier to communication when it causes people to act as if
they already know the massage that is coming from the sender or worse, as if no
message is necessary because “Everybody already knows.”
The stereotypes we hold have a direct influence on our communication
with strangers. If our stereotypes are inaccurate, we cannot make correct
attributions about strangers’ behavior. Further, if we rigidly hold our stereotypes
and are not willing to question them, we can never reach the point where we


know strangers as individuals (i.e., we can never make psychocultural
predictions about their behavior), and our attributions about an individual

strangers’ behavior will continue to be incorrect. To avoid inaccurate
stereotypes, we should be conscious that the problem of misinterpreting others’
behavior is compounded because we tend to interpret strangers’ behavior on the
basis of our own frame of reference. In addition, with stereotypes, people are
likely to estimate the information they get from communication impertinently.
Finally, both senders and listeners should continuously look for and address
thinking, conclusions and actions based on stereotypes.
b. Solutions

When connecting with someone from a different culture and background

than yourself, taking into account the customs of that society is an important
key when getting rid of common misconceptions. Anyone should accept new
information, perceptions, actions, customs and accept and change their
prejudice to suit everyone.

Both senders and listeners should continuously look for and address

thinking, conclusions and actions based on stereotypes. We have to take a
person heritage and background into consideration when deciding the best
ways to communicate them.
c. Examples
- Basketball players can be stereotyped as tall, Ford as better than Chevrolet,
Italians just love spaghetti, Arabs are just a bunch of terrorists. Stereotyping can
substitute for thinking, analysis and open mindedness to a new situation.
- Accounting is stereotypically a dull and boring career for people who are
good with numbers.
5. Wrong channel

a. Features
In communications, a channel is the means of passing information from a
sender to a recipient. Determining the most appropriate channel, or medium, is
critical to the effectiveness of communication. Channels include oral means such


as telephone calls and presentations, and written modes such as reports, memos,
and email. Variation of channels helps the receiver understand the nature and
importance of a message.
If you choose the wrong channel—that is, if the channel is not effective for
the type of message and meaning you want to create—you are likely to generate
misunderstanding and possibly end up making matters worse. Using the wrong
channels can impede communication and can even create mistrust.
d. Solutions
The solution for this barrier is proper media selection: The speakers should
properly select the medium of communication. In choice of a channel, the sender
needs to be sensitive to such things as the complexity of the message the
consequence of a misunderstanding; knowledge, skills and abilities of the
receiver (a new employee versus a partner in the business); and immediacy of
action to be taken from the message. We should plan to use the media that best
fits our style and qualities. One medium may work better than another. Simple
messages should be conveyed orally, like: face to face interaction or meetings.
Use of written means of communication should be encouraged for delivering
complex messages. For significant messages reminders can be given by using
written means of communication such as: Memos, Notices etc. However, in
many cases a combination of media may be used for the communication process
to function effectively.
e. Examples

- Example 1:
For example, a manager wants to compliment an employee for his work on a
recent project. She can use different approaches and channels to do this. She
could send the an employee a text: “Hey, nice work on the project!” Or she
could send him an email containing the same message. She could also stop by
his desk and personally compliment him. She could also praise him in front of
the whole department during a meeting. In each case the message is the same,
but the different channels alter the way the message is perceived. If the


employee spent months working on the project, getting a “Hey, nice work on the
project!” text message or email might seem like thin praise—insulting even. If
the employee is shy, being singled out for praise during a departmental meeting
might be embarrassing. A face-to-face compliment during a private meeting
might be received better. As you can see, getting the channel right is just as
important as sending the right message.
- Example 2:
+ Description: The situation happens when a guy comes to buy three big
shots of beverages. Instead of using verbal language, he chooses to use symbols
which makes the seller a bit confused and gets his wrong.
+ Comments: The idea of using signs is absolutely a wrong move. The staff
seller has to guess from what the buyer trying to say (with signs). And he even
got wrong ideas but doesn’t realize it. Regard to the buyer, he is trying so hard to
show his ideas but it seems like that never happens in the first place.
+ Recommendations: Apparently, he can use verbal language to express his
idea with ridiculous ease. Why using signs when he can use words which is
surely the most effective method of exchanging information in the context.
6. Language

a. Features
Words are not reality. Words as the sender understands them are combined
with the perceptions of those words by the receiver. Language represents only
part of the whole. We fill in the rest with perceptions. Trying to understand a
foreign language easily demonstrates words not being reality. Being “foreign” is
not limited to the language of another country. It can be the language of another
Barriers related to language may be linguistic barriers (different languages or
vocabulary, variations in language- accent, dialect); or sematic barriers (we
assign a meaning to a word often because of culture. Note the difference in the
meaning of “police” (contrast while male with black male perspectives) or
“boy” (contrast white male with black male perspectives)
b. Solutions


- Use plain language
Whether you are working with someone who knows your primary language
as a secondary, or you’re trying to communicate a deeply technical problem to
your non-technical coworkers, everyone should get in the habit of using plain
language whenever possible. While many people try to use large words to make
themselves sound intelligent or good at their jobs, they are not doing anyone any
favors. Using jargon or esoteric vocabulary only creates the opportunity for
miscommunication and makes people feel bad that they can’t understand what
you’re saying. Creating a culture in your workplace of speaking simply and
explaining all issues as straightforwardly as possible is key.
- Provide language classes
A language ‘survival’ course is a great way to teach non-native speakers
some basic language requirements for the business.

Words, phrases, warnings and relevant or specific business jargon will help
them perform well in their role. Classes can also be advantageous for all
employees when dealing with overseas markets.
It is the stereotype in the US that the world should speak English and we
should not have to learn other countries’ languages. But in today’s age, that isnot
quite an arrogant and misguided view. It is obvious that the better you know
your target market, the more likely you are to succeed, and understanding the
target market customers’ language and culture is the best way to do that.
- Learning the employee’s native language
Learning some basic greetings, words of encouragement, praise and
gratitude in your employee’s native tongue is great for strengthening
communication and building rapport.
When someone joins a new company, it is critical to making them feel
welcome and ‘part of the family’. If you know that the employee speaks English
as a second language, post a welcome sign in their mother tongue at induction.
Don’t underestimate the positive impact this can have and how much people
appreciate it.


It is not only an ice-breaker at a first meeting, but it also says that you
respect them and take them seriously enough to learn a bit about the language
and culture.
c. Examples
- Example 1: While two people may technically speak the same language,
dialectal differences can make communication between them difficult. Examples
of dialectical language barriers exist worldwide. Chinese, for example, has a
variety of dialects that are commonly spoken, including Cantonese and

- Example 2:
+ Description: This video is entertaining. There are three characters in the
video. It was a Vietnamese girl, a Vietnamese boy and a foreign boy. The story
takes place in a video set in a company. The foreign guy just met the girl who
liked the girl so he wanted to show his love for the girl. The foreigner does not
know Vietnamese so he asked the Vietnamese guy to tell him how to express his
feelings in Vietnamese. Vietnamese boys have played pranks on foreign boys.
He only teaches the wrong sentences. So, when he heard the foreigner say the
girl was very angry.
+ Comments: The foreign guy trusted his boyfriend too much. So, made the
girl angry without understanding the reason.
+ Recommendation: Foreign boys should verify what they've been taught.
He can ask many others. He should also get to know the girl before showing
7. Physical barriers
a. Features
Physical barriers are the environmental and natural conditions that get in the
way of communication. Organizational environment or interior workspace
design problems, technological problems, and noise are the parts of physical
Physical distractions are the physical things that get in the way of
b. Solutions

- Many industries that thrive on collaboration adopt “open office” plans that
substitute cubicles and corner offices for open tables and shared conference
rooms. Most people agree that still having personal areas to focus is important
for productivity (and sanity), so quiet stations are created to give those who need

time to themselves during certain work activities a break from the bustle.
- As teams disperse across the globe, email tends to become a top form of
communication. Today, email has become one of the biggest time-sucks for the
modern worker. Consequently, organizations are adopting new technologies, like
messaging apps with designated channels for topics, where employees can get
more immediate answers to questions and easily track organized conversations
online. Highly-efficient companies come up with best-practices for sending
messages so as not to overwhelm employees with too many simultaneous
conversations. Notification controls and direct messaging functions ensure
employees only see messages relevant to them.
- Video conferencing tools continue to improve each year with increased
video/sound quality and lower costs, and as a result, they have become a
tremendous asset in organizations where regular in-person meetings are
impossible. Video tools give teams the face-to-face interactions they desire
while reducing the company’s reliance on expensive travel.
- With so much information to keep track of, project management tools
have become increasingly popular on teams and in industries where they weren’t
previously used. Instead of gathering huge groups of people into long, drawnout status meetings to keep track of complex projects, project management tools
automate tracking and give visibility to every team member. Teams can now stay
informed in real-time about assignments and progress of different team members
within their organization, instead of having to wait for the next weekly catch-up.
On top of keeping teams more organized, automating these processes opens up
meeting times for more productive communication and planning time.
c. Examples
- Example 1:


These physical distractions are common. If the phone rings, the tendency is

to answer it even if the caller is interrupting a very important or even delicate
conversation. A person sitting behind a desk, especially if sitting in a large chair,
talking across the desk is talking from behind a physical barrier. Another
example is that if the conversation happens in a meeting room with
uncomfortable chairs, people would rather stand even if it means cutting short
the discussion. Noise is a physical distraction simply because it is hard to
concentrate on a conversation if the hearing is difficult.
A document may be unreadable for various reasons: stuck or rough margins,
fingerprints or smudges, a faulty typewriter ribbon, unclear photocopies,
unreadable words-processor printout, water, or coffee sport, or messy alteration.
Another set of physical barriers might be caused by the paper itself: poor quality
of stationery, for example, unsuitable use of cheep of stationery when a lustrous
printed brochure might be needed to entail rapidity.
For speaking, regrettably, just as many physical barriers abound, in addition
to those caused by lack of skill, such as faltering, not pronounce, and speaking
too quickly, or using disturbing gestures. Noise may occur inside the room itself.
Such as mocking ventilation, blowing air conditioning, rattling, ringing mobile
phones which is very common nowadays. Finally, your message blocked
because the people in your audience are painful. They cannot hear because of
bad acoustics or bad sound system, they cannot see because of insufficient
lighting, etc.
Physical barriers in the workplace can include large working areas that are
physically separated from others (marked out territories, empires and fiefdoms
into which strangers are not allowed, closed offices doors, barriers screens,
separate areas for people of different status, large working or working in one
unit that is physically separate from others).
- Example 2:


+ Description: The conversation happens at a tropical Christmas party, the
air is too hot. In this scene from the video, Ross is trying to explain to the girl
the gel he is going on hair but the heat did not allow the girl to respond properly.
+ Comments: The room temperature has greatly affected the conversation of
Ross and his girlfriend.
+ Recommendations: You should tell the owner of the party to have suitable
room temperature. actively seeking ways to overcome the problem of
8. Emotional barriers
a. Features
- Emotional barriers are the mental walls that keep you from openly
communicating your thoughts and feeling to others. They prevent you from
being yourself and living your life to the fullest. Individuals with emotional
barriers tend to be extremely reserved, cautious, and insecure.
b. Solutions
- Emotional barriers can be tough to overcome but are important to put aside
to engage in conversations. We should be aware of the feelings that arise in
yourself and in others as we communicate, and attempt to control them. The
trick is to have full confidence in what you are saying and your qualifications in
saying it. People often pick up on insecurity. By believing in yourself and what
you have to say, you will be able to communicate clearly without becoming
overly involved in your emotions.
c. Examples
- Example 1:
+ Anger can affect the way your brain processes information given to you.
For example, angry people have difficulty processing logical statements,
limiting their ability to accept explanations and solutions offered by others.
+ With this in mind, remove yourself from communication until you feel you
can collect your thoughts, think clearly, and hold back potentially hurtful and

undue comments.
- Example 2:


+ Description: The conversation has 3 characters taking place in the
classroom. There are 2 students arguing about something. They seem very angry
then the teacher appears to help them.
+ Comments: In the conversation, we can see 2 students talking impatiently.
they do not listen to anyone explain anything. This should not be, because in
communication we need to listen to each other is opinions even though that
opinion is not right.
+ Recommendations: This video is to educate us that when making decisions
you have to take other people opinions into consideration, you might not know
the reason why certain people make certain decisions unless you are in their
shoes. One more thing, we need to think clearly and hold back potentially
hurtful and undue comments.
9. Lack of feedback
a. Features
- Feedback is the mirror of communication and the essence of two-way
communication. In two-communication, the sender must wait for the receiver is
response before deciding on what to say next and how to say it. Feedback is the
check on how successful one has been in transferring his message as originally
intended. If there is no feedback, communication will be incomplete and
ineffective. Based on feedback, a sender may either alter the presentation of the
message or cancel it entirely.
- Feedback happens in a variety of ways. Asking a person to repeat what has
been said, e.g., repeat instructions, is a very direct way of getting feedback.
Feedback may be as subtle as a stare, puzzled look, a nod, or failure to ask any

questions after complicated instructions have been given.
b. Solutions
Feedback should be helpful rather than hurtful. The fundamental goal of
giving feedback is to help the other person. Prompt feedback is more effective
than feedback saved up until the "right" moment. Be transparent about the
motivation behind your feedback. Do not give feedback because someone is
screwing up, holding back, or not making enough progress. Feedback should

deal in specifics rather than generalities. Take time to reframe your message so
its benefit becomes clear to the other person. Approach feedback as a problem in
perception rather than a problem of discovering the facts.
c. Examples
Most so-called feedback is really advice or praise.
- Example 1:
+ Incorrect: “Next time, Sam, you’ll want to make your thesis clearer to the
+ Correct: “I found it very difficult to grasp your main point. At the start, it
seemed that you were arguing against mining coal, but in paragraph three you
focused on the need to provide healthcare to all workers. Next time, Sam, you'll
want to make your thesis clearer to the reader.”
- Example 2:
+ Incorrect: “The lesson would be more effective, Shana, if your visuals
were more polished and supportive of the teaching.”
+ Correct: “Your spoken delivery was clear and your account of the topic
was a helpful and interesting summary: most students were engaged. Alas, the
supporting materials you supplied looked unfinished and rough; 5-6 students
were confused by them. The lesson would be more effective, Shana, if your
visuals were more polished and supportive of the teaching.”

- Example 3: A short video
+ Description: In the office, the staff played the game and did not focus on
the work. The boss was not happy and reminded them. One of them had the
opinion that the boss should not tell him in front of other employees, which
embarrassed him.
+ Recommendations: To criticize an individual, we should call him or her to
the office and subtly remind.
10. Poor listening skills
a. Features
- Poor listening skills are on top of the list when it comes to barriers to
communication. It seems to be more relevant to tell about ourselves, everything
we do, and what is going on in our life than learning about the person we talk to.


- Poor listening skills can result from various psychological or physical
situations such as auditory distractions, physical discomfort, inadequate volume,
lack of interest in the subject material or other person, stress, etc. There are some
poor listening styles that most people often use in life:
+ Spacing Out - When you are talking to someone and they ignore you
because their mind is on something else.
+ Pretend Listening - When you are talking to someone and they are not
paying much attention. They pretend by saying various phrases like "yeah" and
"sounds great."
+ Selective Listening - When you were talking to someone and they only
paid attention to the part that interested them.
+ Word Listening - When you were talking to someone and they were only
listening to your words, not the emotional composition behind them.
+ Self-centered Listening - When you are talking to someone and they only

see what you are saying from their point of view.
+ Judging - When you feel someone is judging you instead of listening to
+ Advising - When you are talking to someone and they give you advice
from their own experience instead of seeking to completely understand you.
+ Probing - When you are talking and they ask you questions that you are
not ready for yet.
Poor listening leads to assumptions as well as misunderstandings. These lead
to errors, ineffective decisions, and/or costly mistakes. On a personal level, poor
listening leads to hurt feelings and a loss of team cohesion. This deteriorates
trust and weakens communication even further.
b. Solutions
To overcome the barrier, it is better to implement some solutions. Firstly,
stand in their shoes. In reality, since both are coming from a different point of
view, both can be right. Try to see the situation from their perspective. Secondly,
be prepared to listen. Turn out thoughts about other people and other problems.
Search for meaning in what the person is saying. Specifically, you should avoid
interrupting the speaker as it is considered impolite and confused. Do not


evaluate or judge until the other person has finished with the message. A listener
is premature frown, shaking of the head or bored look can easily convince the
other person there is no reason to elaborate or try again to communicate their
excellent idea.
Moreover, it is crucial to providing feedback. Ask questions to show your
keen interest and offer reflective feedback to indicate that you understand how
the speaker feels or thoughts after their saying. You should look the person
straight in the eye and lean forward. Be an animated listener and focus on what

the other person is saying then repeat the main points. Last but not least, put
aside your own ego and keep your emotions under control. Getting angry with
other people makes the situation worse and worse, even the other person may
react harshly, which only assures that there are now two people not listening to
what the other is saying.