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Sense relations group

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BẢNG ĐÁNH GIÁ THÀNH VIÊN
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Họ và tên
Đỗ Thị Hồng
Ly

Nhiệm vụ

Bài tập, tổng hợp
word, thuyết
trình
Ngô Vân Ly
Thiết kế game +
powerpoint
Nguyễn Mai Ly Thuyết trình
Nguyễn Thị Mai Word phần 1 + 4
Nguyễn Thị


Thuyết trình
Mến
Nguyễn Thị
Word giới thiệu,
Minh
kết luận, bài tập
Nguyễn Thị
Word phần 5
Hồng Minh
Bùi Xuân Nam
Thuyết trình
Trần Thị Hải
Word phần 2 + 3
Nam
Hà Minh Ngọc
Thuyết trình

Đánh giá
của nhóm
trưởng

Chữ ký

Đánh giá
của giảng
viên


CỘNG HÒA XÃ HỘI CHỦ NGHĨA VIỆT NAM
ĐỘC LẬP-TỰ DO-HẠNH PHÚC


BIÊN BẢN LÀM VIỆC NHÓM

Mã lớp HP: H2001ENTH0911
Lớp HP: Ngữ nghĩa học
Nhóm: 6
Buổi làm việc thứ: 1
I.Địa điểm: Phòng học V104 Đại học Thương Mại
II.Thời gian: Từ 9h-9h45’ ngày 25 tháng 6 năm 2020
III.Thành viên có mặt:
Đỗ Thị Hồng Ly
Ngô Vân Ly
Nguyễn Mai Ly
Nguyễn Thị Mai
Nguyễn Thị Mến

Nguyễn Thị Minh
Nguyễn Thị Hồng Minh
Bùi Xuân Nam
Trần Thị Hải Nam
Hà Minh Ngọc

IV.Mục tiêu: -Tìm hiểu chủ đề thảo luận và lên dàn ý
V.Nội dung công việc:
-Nhóm trưởng trình bày chủ đề thảo luận.
-Các thành viên cho ý kiến về dàn ý chung, hướng làm
-Cả nhóm thống nhất dàn ý chung gồm 3 phần chính và trình bày các ý chính trong mỗi
phần.
VI. Đánh giá chung: Các thành viên đều tích cực đóng góp ý kiến.
Nhóm trưởng

Đỗ Thị Hồng Ly

2


CỘNG HÒA XÃ HỘI CHỦ NGHĨA VIỆT NAM
ĐỘC LẬP-TỰ DO-HẠNH PHÚC

BIÊN BẢN LÀM VIỆC NHÓM

Mã lớp HP: H2001ENTH0911
Lớp HP: Ngữ nghĩa học
Nhóm: 6
Buổi làm việc thứ: 2
I.Địa điểm: Phòng học V104 Đại học Thương Mại
II.Thời gian: Từ 9h-9h45’ ngày 29 tháng 6 năm 2020
III.Thành viên có mặt:
Đỗ Thị Hồng Ly
Ngô Vân Ly
Nguyễn Mai Ly
Nguyễn Thị Mai
Nguyễn Thị Mến

Nguyễn Thị Minh
Nguyễn Thị Hồng Minh
Bùi Xuân Nam
Trần Thị Hải Nam
Hà Minh Ngọc

IV.Mục tiêu: -Phân công nhiệm vụ

V.Nội dung công việc:
-Nhóm trưởng trình bày dàn ý chung sau khi đã thống nhất ý kiến cả nhóm.
-Các thành viên chủ động nhận nhiệm vụ tương ứng.
-Thống nhất hạn nộp word và powerpoint.
VI. Đánh giá chung: Các thành viên đều chủ động, tích cực hoàn thành nhiệm vụ được
phân công.

Nhóm trưởng
Đỗ Thị Hồng Ly

3


I. Introduction.
Naive discussions of meaning in natural languages almost invariably center around the
meanings of content words, rather than the meanings of grammatical words or phrases
and sentences, as is normal in academic approaches to the semantics of natural
languages. Indeed, at first sight, it might seem to be impossible to construct a theory of
the meaning of sentences without first uncovering the complexity of meaning relations
that hold between the words of a language that make them up. So, it might be argued,
to know the meaning of the sentence.
English semantics is a subject of linguistics group English (Linguistics). The course
introduces the basic concepts of meaning and characteristics of meaning, mainly
focusing on the meaning of words (word meaning) and some sentence meaning.
Whether or not the study of sense relations can provide a solid basis for the
development of semantic theories (and there are good reasons for assuming they
cannot), nevertheless the elaboration and discussion of such meaning relations can shed
light on the nature of the problems we confront in providing such theories, not least in
helping to illuminate features of meaning that are truly amenable to semantic analysis
and those that remain mysterious.

In this section, we will be examining some major types of sense relations other than
those discussed in the foregoing parts.

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II. Sense Relations
Sense relations
1.1. Definition
1.

Sense relations refer to any relations between lexical units within the semantic system
of a language. This means that it has to be a relation between two or more words that
concern their meanings.
For example:
1. Dismiss – discharge – fire – sack - lay off. => Synonyms
2. Here – hear => homonyms
3. Husband – wife => antonyms
1.2.

Types of sense relations
1.2.1 Coordination
a. Substitutional (Paradigmatic) sense relations
Substitutional relations are those existing between members of the same grammatical
category.
For example: He is generous/kind/handsome/strict.
Relations between “generous/kind/handsome/strict”

may


be

described

as

substitutional since they are interchangeable and belong to the same category of
adjectives, but their lexical meanings are not the same.
b. Combinatorial (Syntagmatic) sense relations
Combinatorial relations normally hold between items of different grammatical
categories, such as adjectives which co-occur with nouns.
For example: He is a good person.
Relation between “good” and “person” in “a good person” is combinatorial because
we cannot speak about interchangeability whatsoever in this case. Rather, it is a case
involving an adjective and a noun (of different grammatical categories)
English as in every other language, contains a number of words that tend to co-occur
with others. Such combinatorial relations can be described as collocational. In other
words, some items collocate with others.
5


For example:
Acid test
Do the exercise
Make a call
Get permission
Keep a promise
Superordination
a. Hyponymy
Hyponymy is the relationship between two words in which the meaning of one of the

1.2.2

words includes the meaning of the other. This relationship is asymmetrical
(hierarchical) relationship.
Hyponymy has some features:
- Hyponym is decided based on the viewpoint of intension and extension. The hyponym
is the member whose intentional meaning is specific enough to cover the meaning of
the superordinate whereas the superordinate member is the one whose extensional
meaning is board enough to cover the hyponym.
For example: “animal” and “dog”, of which “dog” is the hyponym of “animal” and
“animal” is superordinate.
- Hyponymic relations make substitution possible.
For example, we can say:
A: Have you bought some food?
B: Yes, I have bought some loaves of bread.
“Food” is the superordinate and “loaves of bread” is the hyponym of “food”. We use
the hyponym to substitute for superordinate in the answer.
- Hyponymy is a transitive relation. X is a hyponym of Y, Y is a hyponym of Z, so X is a
hyponym of Z.
For example: tiger – predator – animal, “tiger” is the hyponym of “predator” and
“predator” is the hyponym of “animal”, so “tiger” is also the hyponym of “animal”.
- Hyponymy is related to synonyms in such a way that if X is a hyponym of Y and Y is a
hyponym of X, then X and Y are synonyms of each other. Synonym is special case of
hyponymy - symmetrical hyponymy.
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For example: “mercury” and “quicksilver” are hyponyms of each other, then they
are synonyms.
b. Meronymy (part-whole relation)

Part-whole relation is another kind of sense relation, different from the hierarchical
relationship of hyponymy. Meronymy is the opposite of hyponymy. Part-whole
relation between discrete referent is transitive. To characterize part-whole relation, we
will say that if something X is part of something Y which is part of something Z, then
X is described as a part of Z.
For example: the “finger” is part of the “hand” and “hand” is part of the “body”.
Thus, in the sense, we can speak about “finger” as part of the “body”. Part-whole
relation is the opposite of hyponymy.
2. Semantic fields ( lexical fields):
2.1 The definition
Semantic (or sometimes called lexical) fields are a technique often used by writers to
keep a certain image persistent in their readers' minds. They are a collection of words
which are related to one another be it through their similar meanings, or through a
more abstract relation.
For example, if a writer is writing a poem or a novel about music, they will surely use
words such as play, song, singer, sing, producer, composer, guita, piano, string, etc.
Or the word: windy, rain, fog, cold, sunshine, storm, stormy, umbrella can be a group
in the lexical field weather.
2.2 Ways of grouping words
2.2.1 Thematically
Word of the same part of speech that covers the same conceptual field. The words are
associated because the things the name occurs together and are closely connected in
reality like human body, colour, military, kinship terms, etc.
For example:
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1. Human body terms: face, legs, nose, ears, hands, toes, knee, shoulder, etc.
2. Color terms: blue, green, yellow, red, etc.
2.2.2 Ideographically:


Words of different parts of speech but thematically related. The words and expressions
are classes not according to their lexical-grammatical meaning but strictly according to
their signification.
For example:
1. Bird: penguin (noun), feather(noun), wings(noun), to fly(verb),to ate (verb), etc.
2. Trade: to buy, to sell, to pay, to cost, a price, money, cash, a receipt, expensive, etc.

3. Paraphrase and contradiction
3.1 Paraphrase
3.1.1 Definition:
A sentence which expresses the same proposition as another sentence is a paraphrase of
that sentence ( assuming the same referents for any referring expressions involved).
Paraphrase is a relationship where two propositions have the same truth conditions.
For example:
1. a: John wrote a letter to me.

b: John wrote me a letter.
2. a: A dog bit him
b: He was bitten by a dog.
3.1.2 Types of paraphrases
a. Lexical paraphrase
It is the use of a semantically equivalent term in place of another in a given context.
This is also known as synonymy.
For example:
a.
8

He is happy



b.

He is cheerful.

b. Structural paraphrase
It is the use of a phrase or sentence in place of another phrase or sentence semantically
equivalent to it, although they have different syntactic structures.
For example:
a. He gave a bunch of flowers to me.
b. He gave me a bunch of flowers.

3.2 Contradiction
Contradiction is a relationship where a proposition must be false because of the
meaning of the words involved.
For example: This dress is both ugly and beautiful.
This sentence must be false because of the senses of “ ugly” and “beautiful” are
incompatible in that nothing can be both “ugly” and “beautiful” in normal
circumstances of communication.
For example: That boy is his own father's son.
This must be false because of the sense of the boy and his own father's son.
4. Componential analysis
Componential analysis (CA) is the way of formalizing, or making absolutely precise,
the sense relations that hold between words or lexemes. CA is grounded structuralism,
which says that the sense or meaning of an expression is the totality of its possible
relations with all other words. Semantics analysis, therefore, consists of systematically
comparing and contrasting the similarities and contrasts that occur in language. Thus,
componential analysis came into being. Basically, CA looks for distinctive features
between words of a language.


9


This method involves the analysis of sense (meaning) of word into component parts
commonly referred to as semantic features, or semantic properties or just semes. We
shall start with an example from standard literature on semantics.
Chair

Armchair

Stool

Sofa

With back

+

+

-

+

With legs

+

+


+

+

For sitting

+

+

+

+

With arms

-

+

-

+

For a single
+
+
+
person
Chair = back + legs + for sitting + for a single person.


-

Stool = legs + for sitting + for a single person.
5. Entailment and the truth of sentences
5.1 Entailment
- Entailment is a relationship that applies between two propositions, where the truth of
one implies the truth of the other because of the meanings of words involved. In other
words, a sentence expressing proposition X entails a sentence expressing proposition Y
if the truth of Y follows necessarily from the truth of X.
For example: Lee kissed Kim passionately.
This sentence is normally interpreted so that it entails sentences such as:
a. Lee kissed Kim.
b. Kim was kissed by Lee.
c. Kim was kissed.
d. Lee touched Kim with her lips.

10


But it does not entail sentences such as:
a. Lee married Kim.
b. Lee kissed Kim many times.
Because “Lee kissed Kim passionately” but it is unlikely that they were married but just
started to love each other, and maybe this is the first time Lee kisses Kim so it is
impossible to entail Lee kissing Kim many times from the sentence “Lee kissed Kim
passionately”.
- Entailment is a relationship between two or more sentences (strictly speaking
propositions). It means that one sentence is true gives us certain knowledge of the truth
of the second sentence, then the first sentence entails the second.

For example:
1. Mary bought some fruit

Entails: Someone bought something.
2. Jane was certified as a doctor

Entails: Jane was declared as a doctor.
From that example, we may see that certified and declared are synonymy. Those words
have the same sense and identical truth. Therefore, when Jane was certified as a doctor,
it must be true that she was declared as a doctor.
- Entailment is concerned with the meaning of the sentence itself (not utterance
meaning). It does not depend on the context in which the sentence is used.
For example: When a person says “Bill is a bachelor”, whether at a party or in an
interview, from that sentence, it is possible to entail “Bill is a human”.
5.2 The truth of sentences
A sentence can be either necessarily true or contingently true.
11


5.2.1 Necessarily true sentence
A necessarily (analytically) true sentence (an ANALYTIC sentence) is one that is
necessarily true as a result of the senses of the words in it.
For example:
1. Every raven is black or not black
 A necessarily true sentence due to the meaning of the logical constants “every,

or”, independently of the words “raven” and “black”.
2. All whales are mammals.
 A necessarily true sentence
5.2.2 Contingently true sentence.

A contingently (synthetically) true sentence (a SYNTHETIC sentence) is a true
sentence that is not a necessary truth, which means that it may be true or false and its
truth value crucially depends on the facts of the actual world.
For example:
1. Hiccup is handsome.
 There is nothing in sense of John or handsome which makes the sentence

necessarily true or false.
2. It is usually very cold in the winter.
 This is an experience that has been learned over the years, but it can be true or
false with the winters each area and each year. Due to climate change,
sometimes the winters are not cold but just cool. Or it is not cold in the winter
in HCM City.

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III. Conclusion
Sense relations are one of the important elements with regard to learning semantics, the
study of language meaning. The sense of a word can be understood from its similarity
with other words. On the other hand, it can also be learned from its oppositeness with
other words.
In conclusion, let us summarize what we mentioned above. First of all, we showed you
the theory about sense relation, sense fields, paraphrase and contradiction,
componential analysis, entailment and the truth of sentences. Next, we gave you many
examples to help you understand their use in a sentence or utterance. Finally, to ensure
that all of us understand and apply it fluently, let’s move on to the next part with
exercises.

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EXERCISE
EX1: T or F? Correct the false
1. The mind-world connection says that using and understanding language is a mental
activity and this activity is what meaningful language exists for.
2. Connotation arises when words become associated with certain characteristics of the
items to which they refer to.
3. Sentence meaning is what a speaker means when he makes an utterance in a certain
situation.
4. Homonym refers to a situation where different words happen accidentally to have
the same forms, either phonetic forms or graphic forms.
5. Sense relations may be of three types: substitutional, combinational and
collocational.
6. The relation of co-hyponym is often defines in terms of inclusion.
7. Meronymy and hyponymy are similar in hierarchical relationship.
8. The terms marking or markedness is informal as it is based on the presence or
absence of some particular element of form.
9. Words can be grouped either thematically or ideographically.
10. A necessarily true sentence is one whose truth value might have been, or might be,
different in other circumstance.
EX2: Decide the relationship between two following units
1. heavy – light ________
2. sight – site _________
3. flower – rose _________
4. book – cover ________
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5. father – dad ______

EX3. Look at the following sentences and identify which of them will qualify as
entailments
1. "Less than five students are over 30 years of age" entails "Less than five students are
over 35 years of age.
2. "The president was assassinated" entails "the president is dead."
3. "No student came to class early" entails "no student came to class."
4. "John and Mary are happy" entails "John is happy".
5. "My father was working on a project" entails "My father was working on his
financial project".
EX4. Identify which of the following sentences will be necessarily true or contingently
true.
1. Everest is the highest peak.
2. A mother has children.
3. Vietnam defeated French invaders in 1954.
4. A Child is young.
5. Ha Noi is the capital of Viet Nam

KEY ANSWER

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EX1:
1. F: mind-world  mind - language
2. T
3. F: sentence  utterance
4. F: homonym  homonymy
5. F: three  two
6. F: co-hyponym  hyponym
7. T

8. F: informal  formal
9. T
10. F: necessarily  contingently
EX2: Decide the relationship between two following units
1. heavy – light _____antonymy___
2. sight – site _____homonym (homophone)____
3. flower – rose ______hyponymy___
4. bank(n) – bank(n) ___ absolute homonym _____
5. father – dad ____synonym__
EX3.
1. "Less than five students are over 30 years of age" entails "Less than five students are
over 35 years of age. => NO
2. "The president was assassinated" entails "the president is dead." =>YES
3. "No student came to class early" entails "no student came to class." => NO
4. "John and Mary are happy" entails "John is happy". =>YES

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5. "My father was working on a project" entails "My father was working on his
financial project". => NO
EX4:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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C
N
C
N
C


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