Tải bản đầy đủ (.docx) (17 trang)

how to have an impressive employment interview

Bạn đang xem bản rút gọn của tài liệu. Xem và tải ngay bản đầy đủ của tài liệu tại đây (97.56 KB, 17 trang )




I. List of group members
1. Mai Thị Bình An – 18D170051
2. Trần Thị An – 18D170001
3. Đặng Thị Vân Anh – 18D170151
4. Đinh Thị Phương Anh – 17D170061
5. Lưu Bảo Anh – 17D170242
6. Nguyễn Thị Phương Anh – 17D170243
7. Nguyễn Thị Vân Anh – 17D170003
8. Nguyễn Thị Đào – 18D170107
9. Nguyễn Thị Thùy Dung – 17D170306
10. Hà Anh Dũng (Leader) – 17D170126
II. Task division table:

Student’s code

1. Hà Anh Dũng


2. Đinh Thị Phương Anh


3. Mai Thị Bình An


4. Trần Thị An


5. Lưu Bảo Anh


6. Nguyễn Thị Phương Anh


7. Đặng Thị Vân Anh


8. Nguyễn Thị Đào


9. Nguyễn Thị Vân Anh


10. Nguyễn Thị Thùy Dung





I. Introduction, VI. conclusion
and games
II. The context and
III. The characteristics of

IV. Verbal communication

V. Non-verbal communication

Topic: How to have an impressive employment interview?
I. Introduction
Nowadays, we rely heavily on sharing information, resulting in greater emphasis being






Good verbal and


verbal communication skills are essential in order to deliver and understand information
quickly and accurately.
In contrast, poor communication skills can have a negative impact - a poorly delivered
message may result in misunderstanding, frustration and in some cases disaster.
Communication can be defined as the process of understanding and sharing meaning. To
communicate well is to understand, and be understood. This can be achieved in the
following ways:

Verbally - your voice

Non-verbally - e.g. body language, eye contact, gestures

II. Context and interference/noise
If you want to have an impressive employment interview, first of all, you must know

very well the context of an employment interview as well as elements as interference or

1. Context
Context consists of the situation, circumstances or setting within which
communication takes place. It affects the expectations of the sender and the receiver, the
meaning they derive, and the subsequent behavior. The same message can have a
completely different meaning depending on different situations. The degree to which the
environment is formal or informal depends on the contextual expectations for
communication held by the participants.


Context includes:

Physical context: includes its location, the environmental conditions (temperature,
lighting and the noise level), the distance between communicators, seating
arrangements, and time of day. As in the video, the interview is occurred in a room
or the room of the administrator, room is light, warm and quite enough. The

interviewer sit opposite the candidate and time is during business hours.
• Social context: the nature of relationship that may already exist between senders
and receivers. In this situation, both interviewer and interviewee are strangers.
• Historical context: is the background provided by the previous communication
episodes between the communicators. Because they are strangers so there is no
historical context in the interview.
• Psychological context: includes the moods and feelings each person brings to the

encounter. In this situation, the interviewer seems to be quite impatient and
annoyed for waiting too long, but she is still friendly and polite when the
interviewee comes. Whereas, the interviewee does not express any regret for
coming late, she just shows much of her care with the phone, so she behaves
unfocused and superficially.
• Cultural context: includes the values, attitudes, beliefs, orientations, and
underlying assumptions prevalent among people in a society. In this video, we can
see that both interviewer and interviewee come from low-context culture,
however, their education and environment are different, that is why their attitudes
and behaviors are different. The interviewee seems to be impolite or even rude.

2. Interference/noise
The messages might not be the same as the messages sent because of noise or
Noise is any stimulus that interferes with the process of sharing meaning. Noise can
be physical (based on external sounds) or psychological (based on internal distraction).

Physical noise: includes the sight, sounds and other stimuli in the environment that
draw people’s attention away from intended meaning. The interviewee here is not
distracted by physical noise cause the room is private and quiet.



Psychological noise: includes internal distractions based on thoughts, feelings, or

emotional reactions to symbols. The interviewee in the video is distracted by
psychology noise, her mind is on her phone and text messages.
In conclusion, we can see that context plays an important role in communication,

particularly across cultures. Understanding the context, or the interview situation helps
interviewee know how to behave appropriately. Also, interviewee must try to control
noise inside themselves as well as avoid not being distracted by noise outside or
interference to have stable mind and better result.

III. The characteristics of communication
1. Communication has purpose
When people communicate with each other, they have a purpose for doing so. The
purpose of a given transaction may be either serious or trivial. One way to evaluate the
success of the communication is to ask whether it achieved its purpose.

2. Communication is continuous
Because communication is nonverbal as well as verbal, we are always sending
behavioral messages from which others draw inferences or meaning. Even silence or
absence is communication behavior if another person infers meaning from it. Why? It is
because your nonverbal behavior represents reactions to your environment and to the
people around you.

3. Communication messages vary in conscious thought
Sharing meaning with another person involves presenting verbal and nonverbal
messages. Our messages may (1) occur spontaneously, (2) be based on a "script" we have
learned or rehearsed, (3) be carefully constructed based on our understanding of the
unique situation in which we find ourselves:
- Many of our messages are spontaneous expressions, spoke without much conscious
- At other times, our messages are scripted, phrasings that we have learned from our past

encounters and judge to be appropriate to the present situation.


- Finally, our messages may be carefully constructed to meet the unique requirements of a
particular situation. Constructed messages are those that we put together with careful
thought when we recognize that our known scripts are inadequate for the situation.

4. Communication is relational
Saying that communication is relational means that in any communication setting,
in addition to sharing content meaning, our messages also reflect two important aspects
of our relationships: immediacy and control (dominance/ submissiveness).
- Immediacy is the degree of liking or attractiveness in a relationship.
- Control is the degree which one participant is perceived to be more dominant or

5. Communication is guided by culture
Culture may be defined as systems of knowledge shared by a relatively large
group of people. It includes a system of shared beliefs, values, symbols, and behaviours.
How messages are formed and interpreted depends on the cultural background of the
According to Samovar, Porter, & Ma Daniel (2007) “three cultural elements have
the potential to affect situations in which people from different backgrounds come
together: (1) perception, (2) verbal processes, and (3) nonverbal processes.

6. Communication has ethical implications
In any encounter, we choose whether or not we will communicate ethically. Ethics
is a set of moral principles that may be held by a society, a group, or an individual.

Although what is considered ethical is a matter of personal judgment, various groups still
expect members to uphold certain standards. These standards influence the personal
decisions we make. When we choose to violate the standards that are expected, we are
viewed to be unethical. Here are five ethical standards that influence our communication
and guide our behavior.
a. Truthfulness and honesty mean retaining from lying, cheating, stealing, or deception.



b. Integrity means maintaining a consistency of belief and action (keeping promises).
c. Fairness means achieving the right balance of interests without regard to one's own
feelings and without showing favour to any side in a conflict. Fairness implies
impartiality or lack of bias.
d. Respect means showing regard or consideration for others and their ideas, even if we
do not agree with them. Respect is not based on someone's affluence, job status, or ethnic
e. Responsibility means being accountable for one's actions and what one says.
Responsible communicators recognize the power of words.

7. Communication is learned
Just as you learned to walk, so did you learn to communicate. But talking is a
complex undertaking. You may not yet have learned all of the skills you will need to
develop healthy relationships. Because communication is learned, you can improve your
=> The analysis of the job interview video (bad example):
In this video, we can easily see that the candidate gives a bad impression to the
interviewer. The communication is ineffective because:

- The candidate has no constructed message: Our messages may be carefully constructed
to meet the unique requirements of a particular situation. In an interview, we have to
prepare what we want to talk, put it together with careful thought to answer the interview
questions clearly, fluently and confidently in an interview. In this video, the candidate
answered the interviewer’s question interruptedly and disorderly that causes bad
impression to the interviewer.
- The candidate uses inappropriate language. In an interview which is very serious
situation, the candidate should use formal language instead of informal language. The
candidate in this video used the informal language. For example: The interviewer asks
what time of work schedule are you looking for, the candidate answer: I just have a text
from my friend, you know…


- The immediacy is inappropriate. The gesture and verbal expression of candidate is
inappropriate when she talking to the interviewer.

The nonverbal behavior that

accompanies the words such as high five, point at the interviewer may show that she is
not serious. This reflect the relationship of two friends instead of interviewer and
- The candidate violated the ethical standards. She doesn’t respect the interviewer when
ignoring the interviewer’s question. When the interviewer asked: what time of work
schedule are you looking for? The candidate did not listen to the interviewer, she looked
at the phone and then interrupted the interviewer. In any situations, we have to show
regard or consideration for others and their ideas by listening to them.

IV. Verbal communication
1. Definition of verbal communication
Verbal communication can be defined as communicating your thoughts, through
words. Such thoughts may be ideas, opinions, directions, dissatisfaction, objections, your
emotions, and pleasures.

2. The nature and use of language
Language is both the body of symbols (most common words) and the systems for
their use in messages that are common to the people of the same language/ speech
The relationship between language and meaning is complex because the meaning
of words varies with people, people interpret words differently based on both denotative
and connotative meanings, the context in which words are used affects meaning.
a. Uses of language
Although language communities vary in the words that they use and in their
grammar and syntax system, all languages serve the same purposes:


We use language to designate, label, define, and limit.

We use language to evaluate.

We use language to discuss things outside our immediate experience.

We can use language to talk about language.

b. Cultural and gender influences on language usage
Culture and gender both influence how words are used and interpreted. Cultures
vary in how much meaning is embedded in the language itself and how much meaning is
interpreted from the context in which the communication occurs.
In low-context cultures, like the United States and most northern European
countries, messages are direct and language is very specific, the verbal messages are very
In high-context cultures, like Latin American and Asian, the messages are indirect,
general, and ambiguous. What a speaker really means you to understand from the verbal
message depends heavily on the setting or context in which it is sent.
Social expectations for masculinity and femininity influence language use.
According to Wood (2007), feminine styles of language typically use words of empathy
and support, emphasize concrete and personal language, and show politeness and
tentativeness in speaking. Feminine language often includes empathic phrases like, “I can
understand how you feel,” or “I may be wrong but … it’s just my opinion … maybe …
perhaps … I don’t want to step on anyone’s toes here …”
Masculine styles of language often use words of status and problem solving,
emphasize abstract and general language, and show assertiveness and control in speaking.
Masculine styles of speaking often emphasize status through phrases like “I know that …
my experience tells me …,” or “I would … you would … the way you should handle this
is …”



3. Improving language skills
Regardless of whether we are conversing with a friend, working on a task force, or
giving a speech, we should strive to use language in our messages that accurately convey
our meanings. We can improve our messages by choosing specific language; developing
verbal vividness and emphasis; providing details and examples; dating information and
indexing generalizations.

4. Speaking appropriately
Speaking appropriately means choosing language and symbols that are adapted to
the needs, interests, knowledge, and attitudes of the listeners and avoiding language that
alienates them. When we speak appropriately, we use vocabulary that the listener can
understand; use jargon sparingly; use slang appropriate to the situation; use inclusive
language; and use non-offensive language.
=> The analysis in this job interview video:
* Mistakes in this job interview
- Using informal language:
The candidate in the video was careless to use language. When the interviewer
gave her questions, she answered with lots of intonation words, which is annoying to the
interviewer. Words: “Uhm, yeah, oh, ahh…” are not suitable for formal conversations
like interviews, meetings …
Using words to answer the question “what job responsibility did you have at your
last job?” is quite low-context and unappreciated. Phrases “sweep the floor, take out the
trash and dust” should be replaced by “tidy the office, know how to make good
arrangement room”.

At the end of the conversation, she used the phrase "See you soon" to end the
interview. This phrase is completely inappropriate because it is often used in the informal
case or close relationship. For example, when you say goodbye to your friends, you can
use the phrase "See you soon" or when you meet your relative. In the case of job
interviews, you should express your expectations to the interviewer about your new job


in their company with respect. It's better to use the phrase "I hope to hear from you" or
show even more expectation "I am happy to hear from you soon". This will help you
have a better impression on the employer.
When she answered the question “When can you start working?” she used the
word “guess”. It might mean that she had had no preparation before and she lacked
professionalism in doing work. This is a bad thing that everyone should avoid in a job
- Information & feedback:
The candidate expressed that she has poor communication when she answered the
question “Can you tell about yourself?” She listed three characteristics in two sentences.
It was very unprofessional and illogical; she should be list in only one sentence and use
conjunction words like “and” to answer. Tips for you is giving clarity information with
appreciated structure.
With the question “Can you tell me about yourself?” she not only should give
general characteristic information as “I’m responsible. I’m friendly, hard-working”, but
also she should give specific past cases and examples to affirm what she said is true.
When she interrupted the interviewer with a phone message, she had no feedback
or message to ask for permission before texting messages with friends which annoyed the
interviewer. It’s better to ask the interviewer for permission and not to let her know that
you text with who, a good reason is you have a vital person’s message. But the best way

is not to use the phone in an interview.
When the candidate answered the question about the work schedule, she gave the
interviewer the ambiguity information “I can start working… I guess next Monday”.
Employers will underestimate candidates who give vague, unclear, and uncertain
answers. Not only in business culture but also in life, the sender always wants to receive
clear and full feedback. This is an important step to achieve success in communication.



In the question “do you have any questions for me?” She should not say “I have
one question”, She should directly show her question. Because if she says about the
number of questions, it makes the conversation longer and this sentence is unnecessary.
At the end of the conversation, she said “thank you for your time. See you soon”.
It might be good; however, she should show more respect with the phrase “Thank you so
much” and more expectation feedback to achieve success “I hope to hear from you”.
* How to have an impressive job interview in verbal communication.

Conducting research into the company.
Understanding information about the company is the key for the candidate to get

the job. Conducting research the company, the candidate will understand more the
company, and requirements of the job. The more the company the interviewee
understand, the better the interviewee will be able to answer interview question. Using
the company’s website, social media posts and recent press releases will provide a solid
understanding of the company’s goal and how the interviewee’s background makes them
a great fit.

Reviewing common interview questions and preparing answers.
The candidate should review common interview questions in order that they can know

how to answers them in formal way. Being well-prepared before the interview will help the
candidate more confident. They can guess questions that able to be asked in the interview, and
answer them more easily, more comfortably.

Asking insightful questions.
Interviews are a two-way street. The interviewer makes a judgment about the

candidate’s interest in the job by whether or not the candidate asks questions. Thus,
before the interview end, the job seekers should have a few questions for the interviewer.
This shows that the job seekers have done their research and that they are curious about
the company.



V. Non-verbal communication
1. Definition
Non-verbal communication is everything that is communicated beyond what is
expressed in words.

2. Types of non-verbal communication
a. Paralanguage

Paralanguage is the study of non-verbal cues of the voice. Paralanguage can
change the meaning of words. Non-verbal speech sounds include tone, pitch, volume,
inflection, rhythm and rate (speed). In addition, we make some judgments about the
emotions and feelings of the speakers by their paralinguistic presentation. For example,
when they feel happy and excited, the pitch of their voice often goes up. On the other
hand, when they feel sad, the pitch of their voice often goes down.
b. Extralanguage
- Body language/ kinesics
Body language is extremely importance form of extralanguage of non-verbal
communication. Body language consists of eye contact, facial expressions, physical
characteristics, gestures, postures, body movements, and touching. Body language has the
different meanings in each culture.
- Object language/ Artifacts
Elements such as physique, height, weight, hair, skin color, gender, odors, and
clothing send nonverbal messages during interactions.
- Environmental language
Environmental factors such as conversation distance, furniture, architectural style,
interior decorating, lighting conditional, colors, temperature, noise and music affect the
behavior of communications during interaction.



+ Conversational distance/ Proxemics
Proxemics is the study of how people use and perceive the physical space. Space
in nonverbal communication is divided into four main categories: intimate, social,
personal, and public space. The distance between communicators will also depend on
sex, status, and social role.

+ Time/ Chronemics
Chronemics is the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication. Time
perception includes punctuality and willingness to wait, the speed of speech and how
long people are willing to listen.
=> The Analysis of the job interview video
* Bad non-verbal communication
- Impolite gestures of interviewee
Firstly, it is the way the interviewee shaking hands with the interviewer in the first time
they meet. The interviewee shakes hands with the interviewer too strongly making a loud
noise. In addition, the interviewee uses the one hand to shake hands with the interviewer
while the other hand holds the phone. These are quite impolite and disrespectful.
Secondly, the interviewee uses the phone and chews gum during the interview. The
interviewer does not focus on the interview and is influenced by external factors. When
the interviewer asks a career questions, the interviewee takes five fingers in front of her
to require the interviewer to stop for a moment that she can get a text from her friend.
This is extremely offensive because it makes the interviewer feel uncomfortable and
disrespectful. In addition, the interviewer will feel you are not serious about the
interview. In some cases, they may stop the interview and require you to leave the room.
Finally, the interviewee uses too much hand gesture which includes some inappropriate
gestures. During the interview, she gesticulates wildly at the interviewer many times.
Sometimes she even points her finger at the interviewer. Moreover, it is not easy for the
interviewer to focus on what the interviewee says. When she says goodbye to the


interviewer, she also gives the interviewer a high five. These are so rude and
- Inappropriate postures

When the interviewee sits down on the chair, she puts her hands on the back of the chair
and crosses her legs. That posture is not very suitable for the interviewee's posture. It
shows the unprofessional and seriousness of the interviewee in the interview.
- Eye contact
Interviewee does not look directly at the interviewer when answering questions. She
often looks sideways and rolls her eyes continually which do not show her selfconfidence.
- Object language/ Artifacts
She wears her outfit that is not suitable for the interviewee's style. She wears her usual
clothes. Normally, the interviewee wears a vest to show his/her courtesy and
- Tone of voice
She does not keep an even tone of voice while she is talking. Sometimes she speaks too
loudly or quietly. When answering the interviewer's question, she hesitates and pauses
repeatedly which make her answer a lot of silence.
- Time/ Chronemics
The interviewee does not come to the job interview on time. As we can see in the video,
the interviewer uses her body language which is raising her hand to look at the wristwatch. Her facial expression is very annoyed and unsatisfied because she is not willing to
wait the interviewee.
* Tips to have an impressive job interview in nonverbal communication
- Punctuality


The interviewee should come to the interview on time. Show up late for a job
interview, and you tell employers a lot about your personality and work ethic. Being late
for your scheduled interview can be an indication that you do not pay attention to
important details. It proves that you do not value others’ time. A lack of punctuality
shows the disrespect. That’s the last impression you want to leave interviewers with. Plan

to arrive on the scene about 10-15 minutes before the interview. When you walk in, let
whomever greets you know that you are a few minutes early. Arriving a tad early and
acknowledging that you are early is a great way to stand out to employers for the right
- Dress code
Wear appropriate interview attire. Casual is not good and gives the wrong
impression. Of course, this will entirely depend on what type of job you are applying for,
but for a professional career position, get it right and buy that killer suit. Always dress
appropriately for an interview so you make the best first impression.
- Treat everyone you encounter with respect.
This includes people on the road and in the parking lot, security personnel and
front desk staff. Treat everyone you do not know as though they are the hiring manager.
Even if they aren’t, your potential employer might ask for their feedback. During the
interview, you should set the phone in silent mode to pay more attraction to the interview.
Avoid actions such as using a phone, chewing gum, playing with the hair and so on
because these actions will make the employer feel uncomfortable and have a bad
impression on you.
- Practice good manners and body language.
Practice confident, accessible body language from the moment you enter the
building. Before the interview, take a deep breath and exhale slowly to manage feelings
of anxiety and encourage self-confidence. The interviewer should extend their hand first
to initiate a handshake. Stand, look the person in the eye and smile. A good handshake
should be firm but not crush the other person’s fingers.


During the interview, make eye contact with the hiring manager for a few seconds
at a time, which displays confidence. Smile and nod (at appropriate times) while the

manager is talking, but don’t overdo it.
Keep an even tone of voice while you’re talking, and don’t speak too loudly or
quietly. You should use a higher rate of speed, more intonation, more volume, and less
halting manner to persuade the interviewer successfully.
You also should pay attention to your posture. Don’t slouch – instead, relax and
lean forward a little toward the manager, which shows him or her you’re interested and
engaged in the conversation. As for posture, also don’t lean back, as this will make you
seem too relaxed and casual. Sit or stand tall with your shoulders back. You should not sit
with your legs crossed and gesticulate too much because they show that you don't respect
the interviewer. Besides, it is difficult for the interviewer to focus on what you say.

VI. Conclusion
The ability to communicate effectively with the interviewer is essential, whatever sector
you work in. Good communication which will improve teams, inspire higher
performance and enhance the workplace culture will be highly appreciated by the
interviewer. Just remember, communication is a two-way process, so take notice of other
people's verbal and nonverbal signals as well as your own.



Xem Thêm