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CHUYÊN ĐỀ: CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN

BÁO CÁO CHUYÊN ĐỀ BỒI DƯỠNG ÔN THI THPT QG
TÊN CHUYÊN ĐỀ: CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN

HỆ THỐNG KIẾN THỨC VỀ CHUYÊN ĐỀ CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN
A. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
I. Structures and uses of conditional sentences
Type
If - clause
Main clause
1. thể hiện hành động có thể If + S1 + V1 (simple S2+ will / can / may + V2 (inf.)
có thật ở hiện tại hoặc tương present)
lai
2. thể hiện hành động không If + S1 + V1 (past simple)
S2 + would / could/ might + V2 (inf.)
có thật ở hiện tại
(be: were)
3. thể hiện hành động không If + S1 + had + V1 (PII)
có thật ở quá khứ

S2 + would / could / might + have + V2
(PII)


Ex: If I have money, I will buy this house.
Please call me if you hear anything from Jane.
If I were you, I would buy this house.
If he had studied harder for this test, he would have passed it
* Note:
- Mệnh đề điều kiện có thể đứng trước hoặc đứng sau mệnh đề chính.
- Có thể dùng các từ sau thay thế cho If trong câu điều kiện: Provided (that), On condition (that),
As long as = so long as (miễn là, với điều kiện là), Suppose = Supposing (giả sử như), In case
(trong trường hợp), Even if (ngay cả khi, dù cho)…
II. Some variations of conditional sentences
1. Variations of conditinal sentence type 1

Uses

If - clause

1. diễn tả 1 sự thật, 1 quy luật, If + S1 + V1 (simple present)
1 thói quen.
2. diễn tả mệnh lệnh, yêu cầu
3. diễn tả lời gợi ý, khuyên
răn, đề nghị hoặc yêu cầu
nhưng nhấn mạnh về hành
động

1

Main clause
S2 + V2 (simple present)
(please) (don’t) V(inf.)
S2 + would like to/must/have
to/should... + V(inf.)


4. có thể xảy ra trong tương
S2 + V2 (future continuous/
lai và nhấn mạnh trạng thái
future perfect)
diễn ra/hoàn thành của sự việc
5. diễn tả lời đề nghị, gợi ý, If + S1 + can/may/must/have S2 + V2 (simple future)


bày tỏ ý kiến mang tính lịch to/should/be going to + V(inf.)
sự
6. không chắc về thời gian If + S1 + V1 (present perfect)
của điều kiện có thật mà nhấn
mạnh tính hoàn tất của nó
7. diễn tả hành động đang xảy If + S1 + V1 (present
ra ngay trong hiện tại
continuous)
Ex: - If you want to lose weight, you should do some exercise.
- If you eat this poisonous fruit, you die at once.
- If we leave Hanoi for Hue today, we shall be staying in Hue tomorrow.
- If you are hungry, go to a restaurant.
2. Variations of conditinal sentence type 2
If - clause
Main clause
1. If + S1 + V1 (past simple)
S2 + would/should/could/might/had to/ought to +
be V-ing.
2. If + S1 + V1 (past continuous)
S2 + would/could + V2 (inf.)
3. If + S1 + V1 (past perfect)
Ex: - If we left Hanoi for Hue this morning, we would be staying in Hue tomorrow.
- If we were studying English in London now, we could speak English much better.
- If you had taken my advice, you would be a millionaire now.
3. Variations of conditinal sentence type 3
If - clause
Main clause
1. If + S1 + V1 (past perfect)
S2 + would/could/might + have + been
V2(ing).
S2 + would/could + V2 (inf.)
2. If + S1 + V1 (past perfect continuous)
S2 + would/could/might + have + V2 (PII)
Ex: - If you had left Hanoi for Haiphong last Saturday, you would have been swimming in Doson
last Sunday.
- If she had followedmy advice, she would be richer now.
- If it hadn't been raining the whole week, I would have finished the laundry
Note: Một số các từ chỉ điều kiện
- even if + negative verb
(cho dù ...)
Ex: You must go tomorrow even if you aren’t ready.
Whether or not + positive verb (dù có ... hay không)
Ex: He likes watching TV whether or not the show is god.
unless + positive verb = if ... not
(trừ phi, nếu ... không)
Ex: If you don’t start at once, you will be late. = You will be late unless you start at once.
But for that + unreal condition (nếu không thì ....)
Ex; Her father pays her fees, but for that she wouldn’t be here ( but she is here)
present
điều kiện k thực ở hiện tại
My car broke down, but for that I could have come in time.
past simple
điều kiện k thực ở quá khứ

2


otherwise

+ conditional sentence

( kẻo, nếu không thì ....)

- điều kiện có thể thực hiện: We must be back before midnight, otherwise I will be locked out.
- điều kiện không thể thực hiện: Her father pays her fees, otherwise she couldn’t be here.
present

điều kiện k thực ở hiện tại

I used a computer, otherwise it would have taken longer.
quá khứ
Điều kiện không thực ở quá khứ
Trong tiếng Anh hàng ngày, người ta dùng or... else để thay thế cho otherwise.
Provided / providing (that) / on condition that / as long as / so long as ( với điều
kiện là, miễn là)
Ex: You can camp here provided (that) you leave no mess.
Suppose/ supposing? = what ... if ...? (giả sử vì sao, nếu vì sao)
Ex: Suppose the plane is late? = what will happen if the plane is late?
- Từ nối này còn được sử dụng để gợi ý: Suppose you ask him = why don’t you ask him?
What if I’m- tao thế thì sao nào (đưa ra sự thách thức)
If only + simple present
Ex: If only he comes in time
If only he will head your advice.
If only + simple past
Giá mà, trái với thực tế.

= hope that

= wish that
If only he didn’t smoke. (but he doesn’t)
If only she had come in time. (but she didn’t)
if only + would verb - ước sao, mong sao
- dùng để diễn đạt một ước muốn ở hiện tại hoặc ước muốn về tương lai
Ex: If only he would drive more slowly (but he drives so fast)
If only it would stop raining.
III. Inversion in conditional sentences
1. Type 1: Đảo “Should” lên đầu câu thay cho vị trí của “If”
If + S + V (present simple), main clause. = Should + S + V ((inf.), main clause.
Ex: If anybody phones me, please tell them I’m busy.
 Should anybody phone me, please tell them I’m busy.
Điều kiện loại 1 có sử dụng thời hiện tại hoàn thành, lấy “should” thay “If” sao đó để nguyên thể
hoàn thành với “have done” ở tất cả các ngôi
If + S + V (present perfect), main clause. = Should + S + have + V(PII), main clause.
Ex: If she has finished the work, she can go home
=> Should she have finished the work, .........
2. Type 2: Đảo “Were” lên đầu câu thay cho vị trí của “If”
* Có V “to be”
If + S + were …, main clause.  Were + S + …, main clause
Ex: If I were you, I wouldn’t do that.
 Were I you, I wouldn’t do that.

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* Có V thường:
If + S + Ved …, main clause.  Were + S + to V, main clause.
Ex: If he worked more slowly, he wouldn’t make many mistakes.
 Were he to work more slowly, he wouldn’t make many mistakes.
3. Type 3: Đảo “Had” lên đầu câu thay cho vị trí của “If”
If + S + had + V (P2) …, main clause  Had + S + V (P2) …, main clause.
Ví dụ: (câu 5 bài I section B mã đề 168 đề thi THPT QG 2017)
She didn’t pass the exam because of her serious illness.
 Had she not been seriously ill, she would have passed the exam.
Note: Đối với cả ba loại câu điều kiện, nếu mệnh đề IF là phủ định thì ta đặt NOT sau S.
Ex: - If you don’t believe what I said, ask your mother.
 Should you not believe what I said, ask your mother.
- If she were not shy, she would have a good time at the party.
 Were she not shy, she would have a good time at the party.
- If I hadn’t seen it, I wouldnt have believed it.
 Had I not seen it, I wouldnt have believed it.
IV. Some basic types of exercises
1. Dạng chia động từ: - Nếu câu điều kiện đã cho trước 1 mệnh đề, cần xét xem động từ của
mệnh đề cho sẵn thuộc loại nào, rồi xem câu đó thuộc điều kiện loại mấy, dạng cơ bản hay biến
thể. Như vậy, ta sẽ chọn được động từ để hoàn thiện mệnh đề còn lại.
- Nếu câu điều kiện yêu câu ta chọn động từ để hoàn thành cả 2 mệnh đề thì ta phải xét ý nghĩa của
câu hoặc xem có manh mối gì trước đó không để xác định loại câu điều kiện. Xảy ra ở quá khứ thì
chia loại 3, nếu không có dấu hiệu nào của quá khứ thì dịch nghĩa: nếu thấy không có khả năng
hoặc khó có khả năng xảy ra thì dùng loại 2, nếu có khả năng xảy ra thì dùng loại 1.
- Nếu câu điều kiện có sử dụng thì quá khứ hoàn thành ở mệnh đề điều kiện và mệnh đề chính có
từ “now” thì đó sẽ là loại câu điều kiện pha trộn.
Ví dụ 1: (câu 21 mã đề thi 401 đề thi THPT QG 2018)
If Martin were here now, he ____________ us to solve this difficult problem.
A. would help

B. helps

C. will help

D. has helped

Nhìn vào ví dụ ta loại hai đáp án B và D vì ở thì hiện tại. Xét thấy mệnh đề điều kiện ở thì quá khứ
nên chọn A
Ví dụ 2: (câu 8 mã đề thi 424 đề thi THPT QG 2018)
If he didn’t have to work today, he ____________ his children to the zoo.
A. will take

B. would take

C. has taken

D. takes

Tương tự như ví dụ 1, xét thấy mệnh đề điều kiện ở thì quá khứ nên chọn B
Ví dụ 3: (câu 22 mã đề thi 401 đề thi THPT QG 2019)
We on a field trip ______________ if the weather is fine this weekend.

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A. could have gone

B. will go

C. would go

D. went

Ví dụ 4: (câu 8 mã đề thi 424 đề thi THPT QG 2019)
If you follow my directions, you ___________ her house easily.
A. would find

B. would have found

C.found

D. will find

Mệnh đề điều kiện ở thì hiện tại đơn nên đây là câu điều kiện loại 1, chọn đáp án D.

2. Dạng viết lại câu dùng IF: Dạng này người ta sẽ cho 2 câu riêng biệt hoặc nối với nhau bằng
các chữ như: so = that’s why, because:
- Cả 2 câu đều chia thì tương lai thì dùng loại 1 (không phủ định).
- Một bên hiện tại, một bên tương lai / hiện tại thì dùng loại 2 (phủ định).
- Nếu có quá khứ trong đó thì dùng loại 3 (phủ định).
Note:
- Phủ định là câu đề có “not” thì ta dùng không có “not” và ngược lại.
- Nếu có “because” thì để if ngay vị trí because.
- Nếu có “so, that’s why” thì để if ngược với vị trí của chúng.
Ví dụ 1: I will go there. I will buy you a dog.
=> If I go there, I will buy you a dog.
Ví dụ 2: (câu 47 mã đề 402 đề thi THPT QG 2017)
They were late for the meeting because of the heavy snow.
A. If it snowed heavily, they would be late for the meeting.
B. Had it not snowed heavily, they would have been late for the meeting.
C. But for the heavy snow, they wouldn’t have been late for the meeting.
D. If it didn’t snow heavily, they wouldn’t be late for the meeting.
Ta thấy đáp án A và D sử dụng sai loại câu điều kiện, đáp án B sai nghĩa. Chọn đáp án C.
Ví dụ 3: (câu 24 mã đề 403 đề thi THPT QG 2017)
He was successful in his career thanks to his parents’ support.
A. Had it not been for his parents’ support, he wouldn’t be successful in his career.
B. If his parents hadn’t supported him, he wouldn’t have been successful in his career.
C. But for his parents’ support, he wouldn’t be successful in his career.
D. Without his parent’s support, he would have been successful in his career.
Ta thấy hai vế câu đã cho cùng ở quá khứ nên viết lại câu ở điều kiện loại 3, loại đáp án A và C.
Đáp án D sai nghĩa, chọn đáp án B
3. Dạng viết lại câu đổi từ câu có if sang dùng unless:
Học sinh cần xác định rõ Unless được sử dụng để đưa ra giả thuyết vì thế động từ theo sau chúng
được chia như trong mệnh đề if của câu điều kiện, trong đó có thêm lưu ý Unless = If …..not vì thế
các em cần lưu ý không để bị sai nghĩa trong câu.
- Nếu vế If có chứa phủ định  Unless sẽ thế vào chỗ chữ If, bỏ phủ định, giữ nguyên vế mệnh đề
chính.
Ex: If you don’t speak loudly, he won’t hear.
=> Unless you speak loudly, he won’t hear.

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- Nếu vế If không có chứa phủ định  thế Unless vào vị trí của If, đổi mệnh đề chính sang thể
ngược lại
Ex: If you study hard, you will pass the exam.
 Unless you study hard, you won’t pass the exam.
Note:
- Vế chứa Unless luôn ở thể khẳng định.
- Ta thường dùng unless trong những lời có tính chất cảnh cáo:
Ex: We’ll be late unless we hurry.
Unless you work much harder, you won’t pass the exam.
4. Dạng viết lại câu đổi từ câu có without sang dùng if: Dùng if…. not…., bên kia giữ nguyên
(tùy theo nghĩa mà có câu cụ thể).
Vế mệnh đề chính loại 2  câu điều kiện loại 2
Vế mệnh đề chính loại 3  câu điều kiện loại 3
Ex: Without your help, I wouldn’t pass the exam.
 If you didn’t help, I wouldn’t pass the exam.
5. Dạng viết lại câu đổi từ câu có Or, otherwise sang dùng if :
Dạng này thường có cấu trúc là câu mệnh lệnh + or, otherwise + S will …
Cách làm như sau:If you don’t ( viết lại, bỏ or, otherwise )
Ex1: Hurry up, or you will be late.
If you don’t hurry, you will be late.
Ex2: Ms Phương helped me a lot, otherwise I would have failed
If Ms Phuong had not helped me, I would have failed
6. Dạng viết lại câu đổi từ câu có But for sang dùng if:
- Trong câu điều kiện loại 2: Dùng “if it weren’t for” thế cho “but for”, phần còn lại giữ nguyên
- Trong câu điều kiện loại 3: Dùng “if it hadn’t been for” thế cho “but for”, phần còn lại giữ
nguyên
Ex: But for your help, I would die.
If it weren’t for your help, I would die.
7.Các dạng câu điều kiện ám chỉ: As long as, provided, providing (that), so
long as: những thành ngữ này có nghĩa 'nếu' hay 'trong trường hợp mà'.
Cách làm : Học sinh cần xác định các từ nêu trên thường hiểu nghĩa tương
đương với từ If vì thế
động từ theo sau các cụm từ này cần chia trong mệnh đề phụ.
You can use my car as long as you drive carefully.
You can use my car so long as you drive carefully.
Travelling by car is convenient provided (that) you have somewhere to park
Travelling by car is convenient providing (that) you have somewhere to park

V. Các bài tập tự giải
Exercise 1: Put the verbs in correct forms using conditional sentence type 1
1. David will leave for Ren tomorrow if the weather .......................... (be) fine.
2. What will you do if you ............................ (not / go) away for the weekend ?

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3. The game .......................................... (start) if you put a coin in the slot.
4. If you ................................... (be) scared of spiders, don’t go into the garden.
5. We’ll have to go without John if he ( not arrive)…………….soon.
6. Please don’t disturb him if he ...................................... (be) busy.
7. If she ........... (accept) your card and roses, things will be very much hopeful.
8. If a holiday .................................... (fall) on a weekend, go to the beach.
9. If she (come)…………………………. late again, she’ll lose her job.
10. If he (wash)…………………………..my car, I’ll give him $20.
Keys:
1. is
2. do not go
3. starts
4. are
5. does not arrive
6. is
7. accepts
8. falls
9. comes
10. washes
Exercise 2: Put the verbs in correct forms using conditional sentence type 2
1. If I knew his address, I (write)............. to him.
2. If the sun (be)................ shining now, we would go to the beach
3. If you (paint)…………….the walls white, the room would be much brighter.
4. If he knew that it was dangerous he (not come)……………………….
5. I (buy)…………………..shares in that company if I had some money.
6. If you drove more carefully, you (not have)………….. so many accidents.
7. If I (be)……….. you , I (not worry)………...............about going to university.
8. If I (have)…………………any money, I would give you some.
9. Mary doesn’t study hard. She (not pass)……… the examination unless she worked harder.
10. The man would go abroad if he (can speak)…………… japanese.
Keys:
1. would write
2. were
3. painted
4. would not come
5. would buy
6. would not have
7. were/ would not worry
8. had
9. would not pass
10. could speak
Exercise 3: Put the verbs in correct forms using conditional sentence
type 3
1. If Mary (wear)…………a raincoat, she would not have got a cold.
2. There (not have)….....…an accident if the driver in front hadn’t stopped so
suddenly.
3. If she had eaten something, she (not feel)………………………. hungry.
4. If I (have)………………a sound sleep last night I would have been well.
5. If it (not rain)…………yesterday we would have had lunch in t he garden.
6. If it had not been very expensive I (buy)…………………………..it.
7. If the teacher (speak)…………more slowly Peter would have understood the
lessons.
8. If I ........ (have) my camera with me yesterday, I ............ (take) a picture of
Alex standing on his head.

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9. The cowboy pulled his gun to shoot at the rattlesnake, but he was too late.
If he ...............(be) quicker to pull the trigger, the snake .......... (not-bite) him
on the foot.
10. If you ......................... (be) more careful, you wouldn't have cut yourself.
Keys:
1. had worn
2. would not have had
3. would not have felt
4. had had
5. had not rained
6. would have bought
7. had spoken
8. had had/ would have taken
9. had been / would not have bitten
10. had been
Exercise 4: Choose the correct answer A, B, C or D
1. If I __________the same problem you had as a child, I might not have succeeded in life as well
as you have.
A. have
B. would have
C. had had
D. should have
2. I __________you sooner had someone told me you were in the hospital.
A. would have visited
B. visited
C. had visited
D. visit
3. __________more help, I would call my neighbor.
A. needed
B. should I need
C. I have needed
D. I should need
4. __________then what I know yesterday, I would have saved myself a lot of time and trouble
over the years.
A. had I known
B. did I know
C. If I know
D. If I would know
5. Do you think there would be less conflict in the world if all people _______the same language?
A. spoke
B. speak
C. had spoken
D. will speak
6. If you can give me one good reason for your acting like this, __________this incident again.
A. I will never mention
B. I never mention
C. will I never mention
D. I don’t mention
7. If I had known you were asleep, I __________so much noise when I came in.
A. didn’t make
B. wouldn’t have made
C. won’t make
D. don’t make
8. Unless you __________all of my questions, I can’t do anything to help you.
A. answered
B. answer
C. would answer
D. are answering
9. Had you told me that this was going to happen, I __________it.
A. would have never believed
B. don’t believe
C. hadn’t believed
D. can’t believe
10. If Jake __________to go on the trip, would you have gone?
A. doesn’t agree
B. didn’t agree
C. hadn’t agreed
D. wouldn’t agree
11. J: “John went to the hospital alone”,
K: “If __________,I would have gone with him”.
A. had he told me
B. he had told me
C. he has told me
D. he would tell me
12. If you __________, I would have brought my friends over to your house yesterday to watch
T.V, but I didn’t want to bother you.
A. had studied
B-studied
C. hadn’t studied
D. didn’t study
13. Peter: “Did you need help with your Math last night?”.
Mary: “If I had needed, I __________you”.
A. would call
B. called
C. would have called D. will call
14. If someone __________ in to the store, smile and say, “May I help you?”
A. comes
B. came
C. come
D. should come

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15. “Here’s my phone number”.
“Thanks. I‘ll give you a call if I __________some help tomorrow”
A. will need
B. need
C. would need
D. needed
16. If I didn’t work for an accounting firm, I __________in a bank now.
A. work
B. will work
C. have worked
D. would work
17. The death rate would decrease if hygienic conditions __________improved.
A. was
B. is
C. were
D. had been
18-The education in Japan __________if the basic principles of education had not been taken into
consideration.
A. would go down
B. would have gone down
C. went down
D. had gone down
19. If there __________, the rice fields could have been more productive.
A. had been enough water
B. were enough water
C. would be enough water
D. are enough water
20. The patient will not recover unless he __________ an operation.
A. had undergone
B. would undergo
C. undergoes
D. was undergoing
21. If she __________ him, she would be very happy.
A. would meet
B. will meet
C. met
D. should meet
22-If he __________ a thorough knowledge of English, he could have applied for this post.
A. had had
B. had
C. has
D. has had
23. If I had enough money, I__________ abroad to improve my English.
A. will go
B. would go
C. went
D. should have go to
24.The bench would collapse if they __________on it.
A. stood
B. stand
C. standing
D. stands
25-If it __________convenient, let’s go out for a drink tonight,
A. be
B. is
C. was
D. were
Keys:
1. C
2. A
3. B
4. A
5. A
6. A
7. B
8. B
9. A
10. C
11. B
12. C
13. C
14. A
15. B
16. D
17. C
18. B
19. A
20. C
21. C
22. A
23. B
24. A
25. B
Exercise 5: Give the correct form of the verbs in brackets
1. If we meet at 9:30, we (have) _________________plenty of time.
2. If you (find) _________________ a skeleton in the cellar, don't mention it to anyone.
3. The zookeeper would have punished her with a fine if she ( feed) ___________ the animals..
4. If you pass your examination, we (have) _________________a celebration.
5. Lisa would find the milk if she (look) _________________ for it in the fridge.
6. What (happen) _________________if I press this button?
7. The door will be unlocked if you (press)_________________ the green button.
8. I should have voted for her if I (have) _________________ a vote then.
9. If you go to Paris, where you (stay) _________________?
10. If you (swim) _________________ in this lake, you'll shiver from cold.
11. If someone offered to buy you one of those rings, which you (choose) _________________?
12. The flight may be cancelled if the fog (get) _________________thick.

9


13. If the milkman (come) _________________, tell him to leave two pints.
14. I (call) _________________ the office if I were you.
15. Someone (sit) _________________on your glasses if you leave them there.
16. You would hear my explanation if you (not talk) _________________so much.
17. What I (do) _________________if I hear the burglar alarm?
18. If you (read) _________________the instructions carefully, you wouldn't have answered the
wrong question.
19. If Mel (ask) _________________ her teacher, he'd have answered her questions.
20. I would repair the roof myself if I (have) _________________a long ladder.
21. Unless they turn that radio off, I (go) _________________mad.
22. If you were made redundant, what you (do) _________________?
23. We'll have a long way to walk if we (run) _________________out of petrol here.
24. If you shake that bottle of port, it (not be) _________________ fit to drink.
25. If you spoke louder, your classmates (understand) _________________ you.
26. I'll probably get lost unless he (come) _________________with me.
27. You (not have) _________________ so many accidents if you drove more slowly.
28. If you (wear) _________________ a false beard, nobody would have recognized you.
29. If she (leave) _________________ the fish here, the cat will eat it.
30. You (have) _________________ no trouble at school if you had done your homework
31. Unless you (tell) __________________ the truth, I won’t help you.
32. You'll get pneumonia if you (not change) _________________ your wet clothes.
33. If I had known that you couldn't eat octopus, I (not buy) _________________ it.
34. If they (hang) _________________ that picture lower, people would be able to see it.
35. She (be) _________________able to walk faster if she didn’t have such high-heel shoes.
36. I (bring) _________________ you some beer if I had known that you were thirsty.
37. If you had touched that electric cable, you (be) _________________ electrocuted.
38. If the story hadn't been true, the newspaper (not print) _________________ it.
39. I (not buy) _________________ things on the installment system if I were you.
40. Dan (arrive) _________________ safe if he drove slowly.
Keys:
1. will have
2. find
3. had fed
4. will
5. looked
6. will happen
7. press
8. had had
9. will you stay
10. swim
11. would you choose
12. gets
13. comes
14. would call
15. will sit
16. don’t talk
17. will you do
18. had read
19. had asked
20. had
21. will go
22. would you do
23. run
24. won’t be
25. would have understand
26. comes
27. wouldn’t have
28. had worn
29. leaves
30. would have had
31. Tell
32. don’t change
33. wouldn’t have bought
34. hung
35. would be
36. would have brought
37. would have been
38. wouldn’t have printed
39. wouldn’t buy
40. would drive
Exercise 6: Rewrite the following sentences using Unless
1. If he doesn't practice writing every day, he can't improve his writing skill.
=> Unless ..........................................................................
2. If you are absent from school, you have to write a sick-note.

10


=> Unless ..........................................................................
3. If you don't study harder, you 'll get bad marks.
=> Unless ..........................................................................
4. If I didn’t know the number, I would not ring her up.
=> Unless ...........................................................................
5. If Peter didn’t study hard, he could not get good marks.
=> Unless ...........................................................................
6. If my sister didn’t have a terrible headache ,she wouldn’t be absent from her class.
=> Unless ...........................................................................
7. If she hadn’t missed the bus, she wouldn’t have been late.
=> Unless ...........................................................................
8. If he hadn’t been angry, he would have say something.
=> Unless ...........................................................................
9. If he hadn’t had time, he wouldn’t have read this novel.
=> Unless ...........................................................................
10. If your sister hadn’t gone home early last night, your mother could have waited for her.
=> Unless ...........................................................................
Keys:
1. Unless he practices writing every day, he can't improve his writing skill.
2. Unless you are absent from school, you don’t have to write a sick-note.
3. Unless you study harder, you won’t get bad marks.
4. Unless I knew the number, I would not ring her up.
5. Unless Peter studied hard, he could not get good marks.
6. Unless my sister had a terrible headache, she wouldn’t be absent from her class.
7. Unless she had missed the bus, she wouldn’t have been late.
8. Unless he had been angry, he would have say something.
9. Unless he had had time, he wouldn’t have read this novel.
10. Unless your sister had gone home early last night, your mother could have waited for her.
Exercise 7: Rewrite the following sentences using conditional sentences
type 2.
1. They are poor, so they can’t help us.
2. He doesn’t do his homework. He is always punished.
3. He doesn’t have enough time. He can’t help me.
4. She doesn’t take any exercise, so she is overweight.
5. He doesn’t have a bicycle, so he always goes to class late.
6. I am bad at English, so I can’t do homework.
7. He doesn’t practise speaking French, so he doesn’t speak it fluently.
8. The meeting can be cancelled because it snows heavily.
9. We don’t go because it will rain.
10. John is fat because he eats so many chips.
Keys:
1. They could help us if they are not poor.
2. If he did his homework, he would not be always punished.
3. If he had enough time, he could help me
4. If she took some exercises, she would not be overweight.

11


5. If he had a bicycle, he would always go to class late.
6. If I were good at English, I could do homework.
7. If he practised speaking French, he would speak it fluently.
8. If it did not snow heavily, the meeting could not be cancelled.
9. If did not rain, we could go.
10. If he would not eat so man chips, he would not be fat.
Exercise 8: Rewrite the following sentences using conditional sentences
type 3
1. He didn't hurry, so he missed the train.
2. We didn't go because it rained.
3. We got lost because we didn't have a map.
4. He lost his job because he was late every day.
5. The dress was so expensive. She could not buy it.
6. Sue felt sick because she ate four cream cakes.
7. My brother left the car keys, so I had to pick him up at the station.
8. We didn't go on holiday because we didn't have enough money.
9. He didn't have the ticket to the game last week. He wasn't be able to get in.
10. Robert got a bad cough because he started smoking cigarettes.
Keys:
1. If he had hurried, he would not have missed the train.
2. If it had not rained, we would have gone.
3. If we had had a map, we would not have got lost.
4. If he had not been late every day, he would not have lost his job.
5. If the dress had not been so expensive, she could buy it.
6. If she had not eaten four cream cakes, she would not have felt sick.
7. If my brother had not left the car keys, I would not have had to pick him up at the station.
8. If we had had enough money, we would have gone on holiday.
9. If he had had the ticket to the game last week, he would have been able to get in
10. If Robert had not started smoking cigarettes, he would not have got a bad cough.
Exercise 9: Rewrite the sentences using “If”
1. Keep silent or you’ll wake the baby up.
→ If ………………………………………………..
2. Stop talking or you won’t understand the lesson.
→ If…………………………………….....….…….
3. I don’t know her number, so I don’t ring her up.
→If…………………………………….....….……..
4. I don’t know the answer, so I can’t tell you.
→ If …………………………………………….………..
5. We got lost because we didn’t have a map.
→ If …………………………………….……..…….……
6. Susan felt sick because she ate four cream cakes.
→ If ……………………………………………..……
7. Without this treatment, the patient would have died.
→ If ……………………………………….….…...
8. He lost his job because he was late every day.
→ If ………………………………………………...……

12


9. Peter is fat because he eats so many chips.
→ If ……………………………………………………...…..
10. Robert got a bad cough because he started smoking cigarettes.
→ If ………………………………..…..
Keys:
1. If you don't keep silent, you will wake the baby up.
2. If you keep talking, you won't understand the lesson.
3. If I know her number, I will ring her up.
4. If I know the answer, I will tell you.
5. If we had had a map, we wouldn't have got lost.
6. If Susan hadn't eaten four cream cakes, she wouldn't have felt sick.
7. If we hadn't had this treatment, the patient would have died.
8. If he hadn't been late every day, he wouldn't have lost his job.
9. If Peter ate less chips, he wouldn't be fat.
10. If Robert hadn't started smoking cigarettes, he wouldn't have got a bad cough.
Exercise 10: Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with SHOULD.
1. If the Government are forced into another election, it will be the favorite to win.
=> Should__________________________________________________________.
2. If you want to make an appointment to see Dr Simons, she is free after 9. A.M
=> Should__________________________________________________________.
3. If you have further problems with your printer, contact your dealer for advice.
=> Should__________________________________________________________.
4. If you decide to accept the post, you will be expected to start work on 1st April.
=> Should__________________________________________________________.
5. If we hear any further news, we will be in touch immediately.
=> Should__________________________________________________________.
6. If you wish to take advantage of the offer, kindly tick the box on your order form.
=> Should__________________________________________________________.
7. If you change your mind, there will always be a job for you here.
=> Should__________________________________________________________.
Keys:
1. Should the Government be forced into another election, it will be the favorite to win.
2. Should you want to make an appointment to see Dr Simons, she is free after 9. A.M
3. Should you have further problems with your printer, contact your dealer for advice.
4. Should you decide to accept the post, you will be expected to start work on 1st April.
5. Should we hear any further news, we will be in touch immediately.
6. Should you wish to take advantage of the offer, kindly tick the box on your order form.
7. Should you change your mind, there will always be a job for you here.
Exercise 11: Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with WERE OR HAD
1. If the salary were high, the job would be worth doing.
=> Were ___________________________________________________________.
2. Would you visit me if I were sent to prison?
=> Were ___________________________________________________________.
3. I didn’t see the signal, so I didn’t stop.
=> Had___________________________________________________________.
4. If I were rich, I could afford to buy an expensive car.

13


=> Were ___________________________________________________________.
5. If I were you, I would tell him the truth.
=> Were ___________________________________________________________.
6. If he weren’t busy right now, he could help them.
=> Were ___________________________________________________________.
7. If she had said sorry, he wouldn’t have been angry.
=> Had___________________________________________________________.
8. If the computer hadn’t broken down and I wouldn’t have had to stop my work.
=> Had___________________________________________________________.
9. If he hadn’t been angry, I would have said something.
=> Had___________________________________________________________.
10. If his friends hadn’t been late, they wouldn’t have missed the train.
=> Had___________________________________________________________.
Keys:
1. Were the salary high, the job would be worth doing.
2. Were I sent to prison would you visit me?
3. Had I seen the signal I would have stopped.
4. Were I rich and I could afford to buy an expensive car.
5. Were I you, I would tell him the truth.
6. Were he not busy right now, he could help them.
7. Had she said sorry, he wouldn’t have been angry.
8. Had the computer not broken down and I wouldn’t have had to stop my work.
9. Had I he not been angry, I would have said something.
10. Had his friends not been late, they wouldn’t have missed the train.

Exercise 12: Choose the correct answer A, B, C or D
1. If I …………hungry now, I……………..five sandwiches, but I’m not.
A. am – can eat
B. were – can eat
C. were – could eat D. were – will eat
2. What would you do if you ……………..a lottery.
A. win
B. will win
C. won
D. had won
3. If you………………….a millionaire, you might be happy.
A. became
B. will become
C. become
D. had became
4. If you had tried your best, you…………………………the job.
A, will get
B. got
C. had got
D. would have got
5. If he…………………..late, he would have caught his bus.
A. worked
B. has worked
C. had not worked
D. would work
6. If Ken ……….. the train, he would have been late for his interview.
A. missed
B. has missed
C. miss
D. had missed
7. It ............................. a pity if she married Fred.
A. will be
B. would be
C. is
D. were
8. I know I’ll feel better if I .................................. smoking.
A. will stop
B. stopped
C.stop
D. had stopped
9. If the driver in front … so suddenly, the accident wouldn’t have happened
A. hasn’t stopped
B. hadn’t stopped
C. didn’t stop
D. don’t stop
10. If I … a lot of money now, I … .....a new car.
A. have/ will buy
B. have/ would buy C. had/ will buy
D. had/ would buy
11. If I … you were in hospital, I … to see you.

14


A. know/ will go
B. knew/ would go
C. had known/ would have gone
D. knew/ would have gone
12. You are late. If you …… a few minutes earlier, you …… him.
A. came / would meet
B. had come / would have met
C. come / will meet
D. had come / would meet
13. I’d have gone swimming yesterday afternoon if I …… time.
A. had
B. have had
C. had had
D. would have had
14. If he had told me the truth, I …… him.
A. will not punish
B. would not have punished
C. would not punish
D.would have not punished
15. If they had not given me advice, I …… again.
A. would have failed B. would fail
C. would have been failed
D. wouldn’t fail
16. If I …… a scholarship to England, my parents would be very proud of me.
A. get
B. got
C. had got
D. will get
17. If there …… no floods last year, the crop …… better.
A. had been / would have been
B. were / would be
C. had / would have been
D. was / would have been
18. If he worked harder, he …….now
A. will not be sacked
B. will not have been sacked
C. had not been sacked
D. would not be sacked
19. If energy …… inexpensive an unlimited, many things in the world would be different.
A. is
B. will be
C. were
D. would be
20. We …… the game if we’d had a few more minutes.
A. might have won
B. won
C. had won
D. will win
21. Unless you …… all of my questions, I can’t do anything to help you.
A. answered
B. answer
C. would answer
D.are answering
22. If I were you, I …...............… that job.
A. would apply for B. will ask for
C. will have changed D. can take
23. If I …… a wish, I’d wish for happiness for my family.
A. have
B. am having
C. had
D. was having
24. If we …… enough rain, we could have grown rice.
A. had had
B. had
C. have had
D. didn’t have
25. If he … us the truth in the first place, things wouldn’t have gone so wrong.
A. has told
B. had told
C. would have told
D. should have told
26. I’ll be able speak English well if I …… hard.
A. studied
B. study
C. have studied
D. has studied
27. ……................... if I take a map.
A. I will get lost B. I will not get lost
C. I would get lost
D. I
would not get lost
28. ......……, I’d have told you the answer.
A. If you asked me
B. Unless you asked me C. You had asked me D. Had
you asked me
29. If you …… careful with electricity, you may get a shock.
A. weren’t
B. won’t be
C. wouldn’t be
D. aren’t
30. If I ……the trick with my own eyes, I would never have believed it
possible.

15


A. don’t see
haven’t seen
Keys:
1. C
2. C
6. D
7. B
11. C
12. B
16. B
17. A
21. B
22. A
26. C
27. A

B. didn’t see

3. A
8. C
13. C
18. D
23. C
28. D

C. hadn’t seen

4. D
9. B
14. B
19. C
24. A
29. D

16

5. C
10. D
15. A
20. A
25. B
30.C

D.



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