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skkn tiếng anh thpt using a model based approach to teach english writing to 10th graders (viết bằng tiếng anh)

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
MBA/MBT = Model-based approach/Model-based teaching
L1= Mother tongue or first language
L2= Foreign language or second language
CLT = Communicative language teaching
EFL = English as a foreign language

LISTS OF FIGURES, TABLES AND CHARTS
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Table 1. Writing tasks in English Textbook 10.....................................................4
Table 2. Classification of writing tasks in English Textbook 10..........................5
Chart 1. Comparison of the mean values of the paragraph-level question items. 6
Chart 2. Test-based scores of the two groups.....................................................10


TABLE OF CONTENT

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS................................................................................i
LISTS OF FIGURES, TABLES AND CHARTS.................................................ii
PART A - INTRODUCTION...............................................................................1
1. Rationales.........................................................................................................1
2. Aims of the study..............................................................................................1
3. Scope of the study.............................................................................................2
4. Significance of the study..................................................................................2
5. The participants...............................................................................................2
6.Questionaires……………………………………………………………………
................... 2
PART B - DEVELOPMENT................................................................................3
1. English teaching and learning at Ba Dinh High School..................................3
2. Writing tasks at the 10th grade and MBA/MBT................................................4
3. Students difficulties in writing tasks.................................................................5
4. Benefits of using MBA/MBT...........................................................................6
5.Implimentation of the model-based approach in a writing class.......................7
6. Implementation of the model-based approach in a writing class.....................9
7. Effectiveness of using MBA/MBT to teach writing to the 10th graders.........10
8. Major findings................................................................................................10
PART C: CONCLUSION...................................................................................12
1. Conclusion......................................................................................................12
2. Pedagogical suggestions.................................................................................13
3. Limitation of the study....................................................................................13
4. Suggestion for further study...........................................................................13
REFERENCES...................................................................................................14
APPENDICES.......................................................................................................I

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PART A -INTRODUCTION
1. Rationales
At present, the requirement of applying Communicative Language
Teaching (CLT) in L2 teaching from Vietnamese Ministry of Training and


Education (An Nguyen, 2011) leads to a focus on development of all the four
macro language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) so that
Vietnamese, L2 students are able to communicate well in the target language.
However, teaching-learning quality at many places is still far from being
satisfactory, and Vietnamese learners have encountered many difficulties in
English learning, especially with English writing skills.
The first is that English at high school, and nearly at all levels of the
Vietnamese educational system, is primarily treated as a compulsory subject, so
its learning and teaching is heavily exam-driven rather than communicationoriented despite the call for the use of CLT. Multiple choice tests are extensively
used to assess language learners’ English competence, with a focus on grammar,
vocabulary, reading comprehension and writing–which only requires L2
learners’ performance on a surface level like sentence-rewriting and jumbledword activities. This practice definitely cannot enhance students’ written
communication skills and leads to teachers’ teaching of ‘non-communicative’
writing skills.
Teaching composition in the Vietnamese EFL context today emphasizes
the assistance for students to produce the error-free texts based on the models of
correct language by providing student writers with vocabulary relating to the
required topic and some guiding questions to form their ideas into the finished
paragraphs. This predominantly language-based teaching of writing cannot help
the student writer create compositions to serve the many purposes outside the
classroom context. The endeavour to seek innovative methods to enhance
students’ writing skills and building up their positive attitudes towards learning
this skill is the very drive for us to engage in this study entitled ‘Using a modelbased approach to teach English writing to 10 th Graders in Ba Dinh High
School, Nga Son, Thanh Hoa’, which implements the model-based approach in
an actual classroom to discover its down and up sides of the teaching technique
in a Vietnamese context.

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2. Aims of the study
 Investigating the situation of teaching and learning English writing to 10 th
Graders in Ba Dinh High School, Nga Son, Thanh Hoa;
 Investigating the effectiveness and difficulties in using a model-based approach
to teach English writing to these students;
 Providing some suggestions and implications for the improvement of writing
teaching at Ba Dinh High School by using a model-based approach.
3. Scope of the study
Because of the limitation of a minor study, the author only carries out
research on teachers and 10th graders at Ba Đinh High School. The study also
mainly focuses on the effectiveness and difficulties in using a model-based
approach and the activities used in helping students work well in English writing
lessons.
4. Significance of the study
Theoretically, the study systemised the theory of a model-based approach
to teaching writing, together with its advantages and disadvantages. The study
also provides suggestions for successful application of the approach into
teaching composition in a real classroom.
Practically, the research provides language teachers and learners with a
number of activities and exercises using the model-based approach in all stages
of writing in English Textbook 10.
5. The participants
Two classes of 10th graders were chosen for the present study. They were
both of mixed ability and supposed to be best represented the average level of
English among the 10th graders in the whole school. The total number of
students from these two classes is 70, and they are divided into the “control
group” and the “experimental group”. All are at the age of 15 or 16 and have 7year experience of learning English. The experimental group were taught with
MBA/MTB while the other with regular traditional approach.
6. Questionnaire
A questionnaire was designed to discover the difficulties which the
participants encountered during their composition in English. The questionaire
consists of 13 items which are selected basing on the literature on the problems
which L2 learners encounter in their L2 writing (see Appendix A). It does not

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aim to investigate all kinds of the difficulties that language learners might have
but focus on linguistic aspects of the writing process only, with some questions
relating to timing and the effect of L1 ways of thinking into L2 writing.
PART B - DEVELOPMENT
1. English teaching and learning at Ba Dinh High School
Though Ba Dinh High School is the only gifted high school in Nga Son,
its English teaching and learning has several difficulties. Firstly, the class size
far exceeds the standard number for a language class, with approximately 40
students each. Secondly, the number of technology-aided classrooms is very
limited; therefore, teachers can not apply electronic lessons to the extent that
they desire for. Finally, there is lack of visual aids such as pictures and
portable boards from the school. Thus, the teachers and students are not offered
the most convenient and modern environment to the teaching and learning of
English.
As regards students, they are strictly selected to enroll in the school, most
are academically qualified. There are 10 classes in the 10 th grade with one
English gifted class whose students’ English proficiency are supposed to be
better than those from the others. In this study, the average level of the majority
of the 10th graders in the school was selected.
2. Writing tasks at the 10th grade and MBA/MBT
CLT underpins the design of English Textbook 10, so the structure of each
unit includes four skills: reading, speaking, listeningand writing. Linguistic
knowledge such as phonetics, vocabulary and grammar areconsidered the means
and condition to form and improve communicative ability. In fact, the learnercentered approach is also adapted in order to promote students' activeness and
creativeness, in which teachersact as theorganizer and facilitator in the class.
The content of the book is theme-based, with 16 units covering different
topicswhich were contextualized to be suited to Vietnamese students. Further,
learning is task-based, with the activities are designed in the way in which
students are offered opportunities to interact and co-operate.
In English Textbook 10, writing is the last and the most challenging skill
in each unit. It is put after three other skills due to its productive nature and
dependence on input from other skills. In the 10th grade, students are expected to
work on a variety of writing tasks, each of which goes with a particular topic.
All the writing tasks in the textbook are summarised in the table below:
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Table 1. Writing tasks in English 10Textbook
Topics
Required writing tasks
1
Daily life
A narrative
2
School
A form
3
People
People’s background
4
Education
A letter of complaint
5
Technology
A set of instructions
6
Travel
A confirmation letter
7
Mass media
Advantages and disadvantages of the mass media
8
Hometown
An informal letter: giving directions
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Undersea
A description of given information
world
10 Conservation
A letter of invitation
11 National parks A letter of acceptance or refusal
12 Music
A profile
13 Films
A description of a film
14 Sports
An announcement
15 Cities
A description of a city
16 Historical
A description of a chart
places
With careful consideration, it can be easily recognised that each writing
task requires the 10th graders to deal with a particular type of text, and each of
which has its distinctive text pattern, features, vocabulary, and signal words
(connectors). For example, in Unit 3, students are required to write about
people’s background, that is, they are likely to have knowledge of the text
pattern of chronology/sequence to be able to complete the writing task. Some of
them even require students to have to acquire a number of particular
grammatical structures for a text type. For instance, in Unit 4, students are asked
to write a letter of complaint, and this requires students’ knowledge of a
complaint letter and appropriate vocabulary to successfully accomplish the task.
All the possible text types attached to the writing tasks in English Textbook 10
are summarized as follows:
Table 2. Classification of writing tasks in English Textbook 10
Units
1
2-3-5-12
4-6-8-10-11
9-13-15-16
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Possible text types
Narration
Chronology/Sequence
Letter
Description
Sequence and/or compare and contrast
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Announcement
Table 2 clearly allows a suggestion that using MBA/MBT to teach writing
to the 10th graders is definitely appropriate since all the writing tasks required
the students to master a particular text type and its features and signal
expressions. More importantly, if the 10 th graders have mastered a given text
type in one writing task, this will benefit them when they work with others as
several tasks are based on a certain type of texts. Students’ prior knowledge of
text types will also reduce their cognitive loads when they cope with other
writing tasks, which helps them free from the focus on writing conventions in
order to focus on vocabulary and expressions when the text types are used for
different communicative purposes. A clear example for this argument is the case
of writing a letter: students can apply the letter format that they master in Unit 4
to solve the writing tasks in Unit 10, and they just need to acquire some
grammatical structures for inviting others politely.
3. Students difficulties in writing tasks
The mean comparison was employed to compare the mean values of all
the items in the questionnaire. The results of this analysis indicate that the
students from the two groups share a number of writing difficulties. However,
there are several items where lots of participants from the control group have
experienced obstacles in their writing, whereas those from the experimental
group appeared to have fewer difficulties.
The chart below compares the mean value of these question items between the
two groups:

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Chart 1. Comparison of the mean values of the paragraph-level question
items
The chart shows that the students who experienced MBA/MBT have more
positive attitudes towards their ability to write a paragraph compared to their
counterparts in the control group. Specifically, the statistics shows that fewer
students in the experimental group reported their difficulties in the ways of
starting their writing, what to write in a paragraph, ways of organising their
paragraph and connecting their ideas than the participants in the control group.
These findings partially suggest the positive impacts of using MBA/MBT to
teaching composition to the 10th graders in a Vietnamese context.
To sum up, the 10 graders participated in the present study suffered the
common difficulties among language learners in terms of lack of vocabulary,
grammatical structures and ideas for writing. As regards the ways of writing a
paragraph, those students taught using MBA/MBT have fewer difficulties
compared to their counterparts who did not experience the teaching technique.
4. Benefits of using MBA/MBT
MBA/MBT benefits L2 learners in various ways. It meets the
requirement of writing in any culture, which consists of three basic forms of
knowledge requisite for the writer: semantic knowledge, knowledge of models,
and knowledge of social and cultural rules (Purves & Purves, 1986). Models

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provide exposure to the lexical items, structural patterns, and conventions of the
target language at all levels of discourse (Watson, 1982). They also allow
learners to stress their efforts on one section of the essay at a time, while
introducing them to the important rhetorical patterns. Some may argue that this
approach is overtly prescriptive, but the predictability of structure enhances
learners’ sense of sercurity (Cotterall &Cohen, 2003). Thus, models can “still
contribute a very great deal to the teaching of composition, especially in the
second or foreign language situation” (Watson, 1982: 13).
Others might claim that MBT/MBA neglect students’ self-sufficiency.
This is not the case. Many daily situations involve predictable and recurring
patterns of language use, without which our interactions would be random and
chaotic, and this requires us to recognize the generic expectations of various
situations to produce an acceptable response (Derewianka, 2003). Thus,
MBT/MBA does not neglect students’ self-sufficiency but guarantee the use of
their self-sufficiency to achieve their communicative purposes in various
contexts.
Finally, the availability of model texts could create a condition for
students to copy and become lazy in the process of learning. Hare (1992) argues
that introducing students to the rules of writing can, in fact, avoid their use of a
low level strategy of copying. Students are likely to copy the model if they do
not know how and what to write. This inadequacy can be easily avoided with a
careful lesson plans and wise strategies used to scaffold students in the process
of learning and teaching.
5. Implementation of the model-based approach
In regard to the lesson plans and the worksheet, all observers recorded
that the layout, the time alloted to tasks/ activities and the task sequence is
suitable for the 10th graders. Especially, one observer strongly supports the
providing of new words and expressions in the model texts; she noted that this
“enables low-achieving students to accomplish their learning activity while does
not affect the learning of average and high-level students since the very aim of
the activity is to develop students’ awareness of text type, not their lexicon or
grammar”.
More importantly, all the four observers expressed their positive attitudes
towards the use of MBA/MBT to teaching composition to the 10 th graders, and
there were no negative comments on the teaching procedure suggested by the
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researcher. Actually, in the first teaching segment, the data from the observation
tools indicates that many students seemed to be anxious during the process of
learning. However, this should not be considered as a negative reaction from the
students to MBA/MBT. It was a normal reaction when the students had not
experienced this style of learning before. This claimed is proved by the fact that
the participants had positive reactions in other teaching segments.
In ‘modelling’, the overall evaluation of the four observers suggests that
the teaching technique used to introduce model texts are appropriate, especially
the guiding questions helping the students to focus on the format of the model
text, purpose of writing and language of the text type. However, several
complaints were made regarding the ‘modelling’. One observer wrote: “the
technique is all right, but its repeated use may cause boredom for the students in
long-term teaching”, and he suggested that two paragraphs of similar text types
in Vietnamese and English could be sometimes employed to vary the ways of
learning and this ‘helps students to recognize the differences in the way of
writing in Vietnamese and that of English”.
With respect to the ‘joint construction’, it is recorded that explicit
discussion about the model text benefits the students in terms of mastering a
general model for the genre and recognising its appropriate connectors for the
genre–which enhance their performance in the later stage of learning.
Nevertheless, three out of four observers suggest that a comparison between the
features of Vietnamese text types and those of the target language could be
useful at this stage since it raises the students’ awareness of the similarities
(which could facilitate their process of writing) and difficulties (which enables
students to avoid when they write). This proposal could be an adjustment to the
application of MBA/MBT in a Vietnamese context since Vietnamese students’
writing style differs in native English speakers’ (Thuy Nguyen, 2008) and there
is evidence that students’ L1 writing styles affect their L2 writing (Ferris, 1994).
In ‘independent construction’, the observation data states that several
students experienced difficulties when they constructed their own text though a
majority of the participants worked quite well. Perhaps, this phenomenon is
inevitable in a multi-level classroom, but it raises the necessity of revising the
lesson plans and worksheets so that low-achieving students could ease their
difficulties in their writing process. One observer suggests the level of
scaffolding requires certain adjustments to meet the students’ various
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backgrounds and English proficiency, especially in case that there are students
from the rural area. She noted that “more scaffolding benefits low-achieving
students and is not likely to harm the higher level ones since they can ignore a
task or finish them quickly and move to another if it is too easy for them”.
Further, acting as a role of a facilitator when the participants compose
their own text, the researcher recognised that a number of students lacked skills
of brainstorming and making an outline in the first teaching segment. This could
result from the fact that these participants had not experienced these teaching
strategies at their lower levels of schooling. This phenomenon implies that
classroom teachers need to model these strategies in front of the whole class
right in their first teaching segment.
odels texts are properly illustrative or accessible to studentsthe
linguistic features which define a particular form of writing. They should be
authentic, thematically relevant and provocative, culturally rich and
linguistically challenging, yet appropriate to the students’ level of competence
(Watson, 1982). In this study, model texts were, however, composed by the
researcher based on the text book and some internet resources. This is supported
by Stolarek (1994) who claims that language teachers could utilize appropriate
student models, or even write models themselves and Harrison and Treagust
(1998) who suggest that analogical models are always simplified and enhanced
in some way to emphasize the attributes required and that they should be easily
understood and remembered by students.
(1). Introducing a model: students read, analyze and examine a model text;
(2). Focusing on a model: teachers and students discuss the model explicitly by
naming its stages;
(3). Jointly negotiating a model: teachers and students jointly compose a model
under focus;
(4). Researching: students select materials and assess information before writing;
(5). Independent construction: students write a text individually.
7. Effectiveness of using MBA/MBT to teach writing to the 10th graders
To draw out a meaningful and evidence-based conclusion on the impacts
of MBA/MBT on students’ writing, the test results of the participants’ writing
tests are examnined, then the results are analysed using the Independent Sample
T-Test to compare the mean values of the scores of the two groups. Finally,
based on the test results, the students’ writings were re-analysed by the
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researcher to discover the factors which actually lead to the success of the
experimental participants’ writing test. The raw data from the test results of all
the participants’ writings were summarised in the chart below:

Chart 2. Test-based scores of the two groups
The chart shows that the number of the participants in the experimental
group, who passed the writing test, far exceeds that of their counterparts in the
control group, with 29 and 18 students respectively. Besides, within each scale
of the score, the number of the former also shows their predominance compared
to the latter. Specifically, 14 successful students in the control group passed the
test with the score of 5-7, with only 4 of them reaching the score of 8-10. By
contrast, 19 students in the experimental group passed the test with the score of
5-7, and 10 with the score of 5-7. The result from the raw data suggests the
outperformance of those students whose experienced MBA/MBT compared to
their counterparts in the control group.
8. Major findings
The present study has suggested several important findings. The most
striking one is that those 10th graders who experienced MBA/MBT outperformed
their counterparts who were not taught using the teaching technique based on
their test scores. More importantly, a cross-case analysis suggests that
MBA/MBT affects the 10th graders’ writings directly. This implies that the
teaching technique can be productive when it is used to teach composition to the
10th graders in a Vietnamese context.
Secondly, an in-depth analysis of English Textbook 10 indicates that
MBA/MBT is suited to the instruction of writing to the 10th graders. At the micro
level, it meets the requirement of the writing tasks in the textbook, each of
which requires the 10th graders to grasp different types of text. At the macro
level, it meets the requirement of the present Vietnamese EFL context: an
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emphasis on English learners’ communicative competence–which, in fact,
underpins the design of English Textbook 10.
Next, the 10th graders experience a variety of difficulties in the writing
tasks required in English Textbook 10. The two groups share a number of
difficulties, which is actually experienced by language learners worldwide: lack
of vocabulary, lack of grammatical structures and lack of ideas when writing.
Besides, there are several obstacles which many students in the control group
suffered whereas fewer ones in the experimental had, including ways of
organising a text, connecting ideas togethter and confidence in coping with a
writing task.
Finally, the procedure of implementing MBA/MBT in an actual classroom
situation–which includes ‘modelling’ ‘joint construction’ and ‘independent
construction’—is beneficial in a Vietnamese context, with some adjustments
needed though.
PART C: CONCLUSION
1. Conclusion
Several conclusions could be drawn out from this study. Firstly,
MBA/MBT is an appropriate approach to teaching English composition to the
Vietnamese 10th graders since it supports the design of the writing tasks in
English Textbook 10. The benefits of applying MBA/MBT into teaching English
at the 10th grade are twofold: enabling the 10th graders achieve communicative
competence–a prerequisite requirement of modern L2 teaching–and facilitating
their learning at a later stage of the course since English Textbook 10 requires a
mastery of a certain number of text types though their functions are various
across the units.MBA/MBT can, thus, free the students from concentration on
the generic conventions to stress on the language and function of a given text
structure; this makes a writing lesson less stressful to the student.
Secondly, the Vietnamese 10th graders share a variety of writing
difficulties with L2 learners worldwide: limitation of vocabulary, ideas and
grammatical structures. Besides, they are likely to encounter several obstacles–
organising a text, developing a text and enhancing textual cohesion and
coherence–with the present approach to teaching composition used by many
Vietnamese EFL teachers. The statistical analysis of the data from the

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questionnaire suggests that MBA/MBT could help reduce those types of writing
difficulties of the 10th graders.
Next, the observation data indicates that the procedure of implementing
MBA/MBT in a real classroom is beneficial since it could encourage the
student’s learning autonomy. Further, it encourages the 10 th L2 students to
participate into learning activities and achieve intended learning outcomes
thanks to appropriate levels of scaffolding in planning the curriculum and
designing worksheets.
Finally, MBT/MBA significantly improves the student’s writing quality. A
comparison of the test-based scores of the two groups indicates that the students
who were taught using MBA/MBT outperformed their counterparts who did
experience the teaching technique. Further, across-case analysis of the
experimental students’ writings suggests that those textual factors which are the
focus of MBA/MBT are the core factors for their success.
2. Pedagogical suggestions
Classroom teachers should prepare themselves to deal with low-achieving
students in a multi-level classroom when they use the teaching technique. Such
teaching strategies as small group work should be incorporated into their
teaching to produce students’ mutual assistance. In case that there is only a small
number of low-achieving students, learning materials could be individualized for
these students by suggesting some ideas and providing useful phrases and
structures for students to use when they write. Individualizing of learning
materials and worksheets is not time-consuming since it is totally based on the
previous ones with more scaffolding being added.
Besides, the consumption that the 10th graders might have been taught
writing strategies elsewhere should be avoided. In this study, the researcher has
met many students who faced difficulties relating to such technique as
brainstorming. Consequently, in a model-based classroom, teachers should also
act as a model for the student’s learning. Additionally, after a brainstorming
activity, time should be given for students to deal with their lack of vocabulary
and grammatical structures. This could be done with help from the teacher, a
dictionary or the internet.
Next, to encourage peer teaching in a model-based classroom, a clear
criteria sheet should be designed for peer-correction.

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Finally, Vietnamese teachers often avoid providing their students with
language areas which they would be tested so that their learning is not testdriven. However, Big and Tang (2011) propose the opposite: it is unavoidable
that students’ learning is actually test-driven, so it is better to use this fact as a
tool to enhance their learning rather trying to avoid it.
3. Limitation of the study
Despite several important findings have been drawn out from the present
study, it has several limitations. The teaching technique is only implemented in
quite a small class size, with only of 35 students. Besides, this study cannot
evaluate the extent to which MBA/MBT impacts on the students of different
levels of proficiency.
4. Suggestion for further study
This study could be an initial point of further studies such as an
investigation into the impacts of MBA/MBT on students of different proficiency
or the effects teaching of text structures on L2 learners’ reading ability.
Thanks for your reading!
This is certified by the headmaster

I assure that this research is not copied
from anything else.
Researcher

Nguyen Tuan Anh

Nguyen Thi Lan Anh

REFERENCES
IN VIETNAMESE
An Nguyen, N. (2011). Thực trạng và giải pháp rèn luyện kỹ năng nghe hiểu
trong việc học ngoại ngữ đối với sinh viên không chuyên ở trường đại học –cao
đẳng. Tạp chí khoa học ĐHSP TP HCM, 25, 130-133.
Thao Lai, T. P. T. (2011). Những lỗi thường gặp trong cách viết đoạn văn của
người học tiếng Anh. Ngôn Ngữ & Đời Sống, 3(185), 15-21.
IN ENGLISH

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Amer, M. (2013). The Effect of Explicit Instruction in Expository Text Structure
on the Writing Performance of Arab EFL University Students. AWEJ, 4(1), 224238.
Berman, R., &Slobin, D. (1994). Relating Events in Narrative: A Crosslinguistic
Developmental Study. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university.
McGraw-Hill International.
Bloor, T.&Bloor, M. (2004). The functional analysis of English (2th ed.).
London: Arnold
Brannon, L., Knight, M., & Neverow-Turk, Y. (1982). Writers writing.
Montclair, NJ: Boynton.
Burns, A. (2001). Analysing spoken discourse: Implications for TESOL. In A.
Burns & C. Coffin (eds.), Analysing English in a global context (pp.123-148).
London: Routledge.
Burns, A. & Joyce, H. D. S. (2001).Explicitly supporting learning: An overview.
In A. Burns & H. D. S. Joyce, Teachers’ voices 8: Explicitly supporting reading
and writing in the classroom (pp.2-7). Sydney: National Centre for English
Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University.

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APPENDICES
Appendix A: QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear student,
This questionnaire aims to investigate the kinds of difficulties you
encountered in writing your composition in English, so your opinions are, by
no means, used to assess your teacher’ teaching quality - which, you might
think, affect you in some way - or the like. Please support the researcher by
reading the direction carefully and doing exactly what you are asked to do.
1. Please tick () the information which is true to you.
Control group

Experimental group

2. Please think over your experience when you write in English and
state the extent to which you agree with the below statements by ticking ()
the appropriate box for each.
Strongly agree

Agree

1

Undecided

I often tried to write as simple as possible.
I didn’t have many ideas when I write.
I didn’t have enough vocabulary to express
my ideas.
4. I didn’t know how to start my writing.
5. I didn’t know what to write in a paragraph.
6. It was hard for me to organize my writing.
7. I couldn’t connect my ideas with each other.
8. I took me plenty of time to write an essay.
9. I don’t write well in both Vietnamese and
English.
10 I clearly know how to cope with a writing
.
task.
11. I didn’t have enough structures to express
my ideas.
12 I often translated Vietnamese into English
.
word-to-word.

Disagree

Strongly
disagree

1.
2.
3.


13
.

I felt hard to express my Vietnamese
thoughts into English.
Thank you very much for your assistance!

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Appendix B. Observation instrument
Date:
Teaching segment:
A. BEFORE TEACHING
1. Lesson plan
a. Layout: ..............................................................................
b. Time alloted to activities: ................................................
c. Sequence: ...........................................................................
.................................................................................................
Evaluation:
2. Worksheets
a. Layout: ..............................................................................
b. Model text: ........................................................................
c. Time alloted to tasks: .......................................................
d. Task sequence: ..................................................................
e. Level of scaffolding: .........................................................
.................................................................................................
Evaluation:
B. WHILE-TEACHING
1. Modelling
a. Ways of introducing the model: ......................................
b. Sts’ participation: .............................................................
c. Sts’ reaction: ......................................................................
d. Sts’ difficulties: .................................................................
e. Sts’ performance: .............................................................
f. Teacher’s behaviour: ........................................................
g. Teacher’s manner: ............................................................
h. Others (if any): .................................................................
.................................................................................................
Evaluation:
2. Joint construction
a. Ways of introducing the model: ......................................
b. Sts’ participation: .............................................................
c. Sts’ reaction: ......................................................................
d. Sts’ difficulties: .................................................................
e. Sts’ performance: .............................................................
f. Teacher’s behaviour: ........................................................
g. Teacher’s manner: ............................................................
h. Others (if any): .................................................................
.................................................................................................
Evaluation:
3. Independent construction of text
a. Ways of introducing the model: ......................................
b. Sts’ participation: .............................................................
c. Sts’ reaction: ......................................................................
d. Sts’ difficulties: .................................................................
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e. Sts’ performance: .............................................................
f. Teacher’s behaviour: ........................................................
g. Teacher’s manner: ............................................................
h. Others (if any): .................................................................
.................................................................................................
Evaluation:
C. AFTER TEACHING
Sts’completion of the task: ..................................................
D. OVERAL EVALUATION OF THE TEACHING SEGMENT
…………………………………………………………………………………
E. SUGGUESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT
…………………………………………………………………………………
Thank you very much for your support and assistance

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