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Robots and robotics principles, systems, and industrial applications ( TQL)




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ToPatriciaAnnMiller,wife,mother,andagreatteacher…



AbouttheAuthors
MarkR.MillerisaProfessorofIndustrialTechnologyandChairofthe
TechnologyDepartmentatTheUniversityofTexasatTyler.Hehasauthoredor
co-authoredmorethan40technicalbooksandnumeroustechnicalarticles.He
currentlyservesastheChairmanoftheAssociationofTechnology,
Management,andAppliedEngineering(ATMAE)BoardofCertification,on
whichhehasassistedwiththedevelopmentoffivenewcertificationexam
programs.Dr.Millerservesasthefacultyadvisorforthestudentchapterofthe
SocietyofManufacturingEngineersandistheco-trusteefortheDeltaGamma
ChapterofEpsilonPiTau(honorsocietyfortechnologyprofessionals).Healso
servesastheDirectoroftheTexasProductivityCenterandisacertifiedLean
SixSigmaBlackBelt.Dr.Millerhasreceivednumerousteachingandservice
awardsthroughouthiscareer.

RexMillerisProfessorEmeritusofIndustrialTechnolgyattheStateUniversity
CollegeatBuffalo(NewYork),wherehetaughttechnicalcurriculumsformore
than40years.Dr.Millerhasauthoredorco-authoredmorethan100textsfor
vocationalandindustrialartsprograms.


Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
1Introduction
PerformanceObjectives
Definition
RobotHistory
ComputerPrograms
Languages
Microprocessors
PositiveAspectsofRobots
NegativeAspectsofRobots
Robots,HardAutomation,andHumanLabor
RobotsandHumans
RobotsVersusHumans
IndustrialRobotApplications
Summary
KeyTerms
ReviewQuestions

2TheRobot
PerformanceObjectives
IndustrialRobots
LaboratoryRobots
ExplorerRobots


HobbyistRobots
ClassroomRobots
EntertainmentRobots
TheManipulator
Base
Arm
Wrist
Grippers
AllTogetherItBecomesaManipulator
WorkEnvelope
Articulation
WristMotion
DegreesofFreedom
RobotMotionCapabilities
Coordinates
CartesianCoordinates
CylindricalCoordinates
PolarCoordinates
ArticulateCoordinates
WristAction
WorkEnvelopes
MovingtheManipulator
PneumaticDrive
HydraulicDrive
ElectricDrive
Summary
KeyTerms
ReviewQuestions

3DriveSystems
PerformanceObjectives
Hydraulics
Pressure
Pumps
Pneumatics


ElectricMotors
DCMotors
Permanent-MagnetMotors
DCBrushlessMotors
StepperMotors
ACMotors
InductionMotors
Squirrel-CageMotors
Slip
EndEffectors
Grippers
VacuumGrippers
MagneticGrippers
End-of-ArmTooling
Positioning
RepeatabilityandAccuracy
Drives
Gears
GearTrains
WormGears
BallScrews
BevelGears
AdjustingGears
HarmonicDrives
Belts
V-Belts
SynchronousBelts
FlatBelts
Chains
RollerChains
BeadChains
Summary
KeyTerms
ReviewQuestions


4SensorsandSensing
PerformanceObjectives
SensorsandSensing
ClassesofSensors
NoncontactSensors
Self-Protection
CollisionAvoidance
ProximitySensors
RangeSensors
Tactile(Touch)Sensors
StrainGauges
PulsedInfraredPhotoelectricControl
TemperatureSensing
DisplacementSensing
SpeedSensing
TorqueSensing
VisionSensors
Summary
KeyTerms
ReviewQuestions

5ControlMethods
PerformanceObjectives
ElectricalPower
Single-PhaseMotors
Three-PhaseMotors
Servo-ControlledRobots
Non-Servo-ControlledRobots
ElectricNon-Servo-ControlledRobots
PneumaticNon-Servo-ControlledRobots
HydraulicNon-Servo-ControlledRobots
Actuators
ElectricActuators
HydraulicActuators
PneumaticActuators


Controllers
Rotating-DrumController
Air-LogicControllers
Relay-LogicControllers
ProgrammableControllers
Microprocessor-BasedControllers
MinicomputerControllers
ProgrammingaRobot
TeachPendant
Lead-ThroughProgramming
ComputerTerminalProgramming
Summary
KeyTerms
ReviewQuestions

6TheRobotandtheComputer
PerformanceObjectives
Robot-ComputerInterface
Memory
CentralProcessingUnit
Input/Output
Languages
VAL
Software
Interfacing
ASCIICode
ParallelPorts
SerialPorts
InterfacingRobotandComputer
Sensors
ProgramControl
VisionfortheRobot
ObjectRecognition
Summary
KeyTerms


ReviewQuestions

7UsesforRobots
PerformanceObjectives
LoadingandUnloading
LaneLoader
Flow-LineTransfer
MachineLoading
MaterialsHandling
DieCasting
Palletizing
LineTracking
ProcessFlow
Fabricating
Assembling
Painting
Welding
InspectingandTesting
TheFutureofFlexibleAutomation
ObjectivesofCIM
TheFutureofRobots
SocialImpactofRobots
NewUsesandNewForms
Summary
KeyTerms
ReviewQuestions

8Manufacturers’Equipment
PerformanceObjectives
ALittleRobotHistory
SelectedManufacturersandEquipment
BinksManufacturingCompany(FranklinPark,IL)
88-800Robot
CincinnatiMilacron,Inc.,IndustrialRobotDivision(Lebanon,OH)
T3363andT3746Robots


ComauProductivitySystems,Inc.(Troy,MI)andComau,S.p.A.
(Torino,Italy)
SMARTRobot
CybotechCorporation(Indianapolis,IN)
H80,G80,V80,V15,andP15Robots
ESABNorthAmerica,Inc.(FortCollins,CO)
MAC500RoboticWeldingandCuttingSystem
Feedback,Inc.(BerkeleyHeights,NJ)
Armdraulic
Armatrol
GCACorporation/IndustrialSystemsGroup(Naperville,IL)
GCA/DKB3200Robot
InternationalBusinessMachines(IBM)Corporation,Manufacturing
SystemsProductsDivision(BocaRaton,FL)
ManfacturingSystems
InternationalRobomation/Intelligence(Carlsbad,CA)
IRIM5OEACServoRobot
MackCorporation(Flagstaff,AZ)
MackProducts
Microbot,Inc.(MountainView,CA)
AlphaII
PRABRobots,Inc.(Kalamazoo,MI)
PRABIndustrialRobots
ModelsFA,FB,andFC
Schrader-Bellows,aDivisionofParker-Hannifin(Akron,OH)
RoboticswithMotionMate
SeikoInstrumentsUSA,Inc.,Robotics/AutomationDivision(Torrance,
CA)
CylindricalCoordinateRobots
ThermwoodRobotics(Dale,IN)
PRSeriesofSpray-PaintingRobots
Unimation,Inc.,aWestinghouseCompany(Danbury,CT)
UnimateSeries2000and4000
UnimateSeries100
PUMASeries200
PUMASeries700


YaskawaAmerica,Inc.(Northbrook,IL)
MotomanL-SeriesIARobot
ReviewQuestions

9TroubleshootingandMaintenance
PerformanceObjectives
TroubleshootingandtheRoboticsTechnician
PreventiveMaintenance
DampandWetAreas
PreventionofAccidentalShock
Ground-FaultReceptacles
WiringDevices
MaintenanceofSmallElectricMotors
AdequateWiring
CheckInternalSwitches
CheckLoadCondition
TakeExtraCareinLubrication
KeepCommutatorsClean
MotorsMustHaveaProperServiceRating
ReplaceWornBrushes
MotorProblems
BallBearingMotors
SleeveBearingMotors
Lubricant
SelectionofOil
StandardOils
Wear
CommonMotorProblemsandTheirCauses
ProblemDiagnosis
CentrifugalSwitches
Commutator-TypeMotors
TroubleshootingAids
ConnectionDiagrams
SmallThree-PhaseMotorRatingData
Power-SupplyDisturbances


VoltageFluctuations
Transients
ElectricalNoise
PowerOutages
LookingforShorts
MotorswithSquirrel-CageRotors
TestingtheCentrifugalSwitchinaSingle-PhaseMotor
TestingforShortCircuitsBetweenRunandStartWindings
CapacitorTesting
MeasuringtheCapacityofaCapacitor
UsingMeterstoCheckforProblems
UsingaVolt-AmmeterforTroubleshootingElectricMotors
Clamp-OnVolt-Ammeter
LookingforGrounds
LookingforOpens
TroubleshootingGuide
MotorLife
AmbientTemperature
PerformanceCharacteristics
VoltageUnbalance
MotorProtection
DCMotorProblems
Solid-StateEquipmentTroubleshooting
ReviewQuestions

10RobotsandRobotics:TodayandTomorrow
PerformanceObjectives
HistoryofUniversalRobots
UniversalRobots’MainProducts
MoreDetailsonNeocortex
GlobalRobotics
AdvancedSystems
SoftwareforRobots
ReviewQuestions
AStandardUnitsofMeasurementwithConversions


BControllers,TeachPendants,andIndustrialRobots
CRoboticsTechniciansandEngineers
DElectronicsandFluidPowerSymbols
ECross-ComparisonofRobots
FFormulasandConversionFactors
Glossary
AnswerstoReviewQuestions
Index


Preface

hisbookwaswrittenwithanumberofpurposesinmind.Whilemany
peoplewanttoknowmoreaboutrobotsandrobotics,mostdonothave
theengineeringortechnicalbackgroundinpneumatics,hydraulics,and
electronicstounderstandwhatarobotisallaboutinternallyorconceptually.
Further,somepeoplewhodohavethenecessarybackgrounddonotknowwhere
tostartinlookingatthefutureofrobotsintheirowntradeorprofession.Thus
RobotsandRobotics:Principles,Systems,andIndustrialApplicationsis
intendedasacomprehensiveintroductiontothetopic.
Thisbookissuitableforuseinafirstcourseonroboticsforstudentsin
industrialelectronicsprogramsaswellasinmechanical,manufacturing,or
industrialtechnology.Itisalsodesignedtoserveasasourceofinformationon
robotsandroboticsforrobothobbyists,professionalmachinists,electricians,and
electronicstechnicians.Itprovidesabroadviewofthesubjectwithout
overwhelmingthereaderwithtechnicaldetailorjargon.
Thetextreliesontherealworldofrobotstobringexcitementtoitspages.
Up-to-dateexamplesofindustrialrobotsandpracticalapplicationsare
emphasizedthroughoutthebook.Ampleillustrationsareprovidedtoclarifythe
discussionandtoaidreadersinrecognizingrobotpartsandmovements.End-ofchapterkeytermssectionsandacomprehensiveglossaryattheendofthebook
areincludedtomakewordsapplicabletorobotseasytounderstandandmaster.
Chapterreviewquestionsandtheiranswersarealsointhebook.
Whetherbeginnersorindividualswhohaveworkedwithmachinesforsome
time,readerswillgainnotonlyfundamentalknowledgebutalsonewinsights
intothecomplexfieldofrobotics.Chapter7onputtingarobottoworkwillgive
readersaclearideaofwhatthesemachinescanandcannotdo.Whilerobots
havealongwaytogobeforetheycandoallthethingswedreamtheywilldo,
theyareanexcitinganddynamicforcethatmustbeseriouslyconsideredby
everyone,nomatterhisorheroccupationorinterests.Thegoalofthisbookisto

T


providethenecessaryinformationinsuchawaythatitcanbeusedeffectively
byreadersofallskilllevelsandbackgrounds.
Theorganizationofthisbookisflexibleandallowsforindividualpreferences
intheorderofstudy.Chapter1providesanoverviewofrobotics.Itincludesa
definitionofwhatconstitutesarobotandoutlinesboththepositiveandnegative
aspectsofrobots,aswellastheirinteractionwithhumanlabor.Chapter1also
containsabriefreviewofcomponentprograms,languages,andmicroprocessors.
Chapter2identifiesvarioustypesofrobots.Partsoftherobotandrobotic
motioncapabilitiesarealsoexamined.Chapter3coversthemechanical
componentsofrobots,suchasdrivesystems,pumps,andmotors.Sensortypes
andsensingcapabilitiesarediscussedinChapter4.
Chapter5coverscontrolmethodsforrobots,includingvariousmethodsof
robotprogramming.Chapter6emphasizesthecomputerworkingwiththerobot.
Italsopresentsabetterunderstandingofprogrammingandcontroloftherobot.
Visionfortherobotaswellasobjectrecognitioniscovered.Chapter7examines
thetopicofrobotsinindustryandthefutureofrobotsandrobotics.Chapter8
providesalistofmanufacturersandequipment,alongwithspecifications,
descriptiveinformation,andillustrationsfrommanufacturers’catalogs.Chapter
9includesacomprehensivesetofprinciplesandpracticesfortroubleshooting
electroniccontrolsandelectricmotors.Chapter10discussesrobotsofyesterday
andtomorrow.
Inadditiontoaglossary,sixappendicesareincludedtoenlargethebook’s
usefulness.AppendixAprovidesaconversionchartsothatinternational
referencestovariousvaluescanbeconvertedtotheU.S.systemwithaslittle
effortaspossible.AppendixBprovidesamorecomprehensivelookatthe
newestrobotsandtheircontrollers.AppendixCdealswiththeopportunitiesfor
robotrepairpersonsandroboticsengineers.AppendixDillustrateselectronics
andfluidpowerschematicsymbols.AppendixEisacross-comparisonthat
showsthereaderthevastnumberofrobotsavailable;someoftheinformation
goesbacktothe1970swhenrobotsburstonthescenetheworldover.Appendix
Fprovidesformulasandconversionfactorsoftenneededintheworkworldthat
includesrobotsandtheirprogramming,control,anddesign.Therobotoperator
and/orrobottechnicianshouldhaveascientific-typecalculatorhandytosolve
someoftheproblemsthatariseindealingwithrobotsandrobotics.Mathematics
demandsamoreimportantroleintheoperationanddesignofrobotsandtheir
installationandutilization.
MarkR.Miller
RexMiller


Acknowledgments

N

obookisevercompletedwithouttheenergyandeffortsofmany
people.Thisbookisnoexception,andwewouldliketothankthemany
people,bothnamedandunnamed,whosecontributionsmadethisbook

areality.
Throughoutthevariousstagesofwritingthisbook,wereceivedhelpful
commentsandsuggestionsfromanumberofpeople,mostofthemprofessional
teachersorlong-timetechnicianswhospecializeintheroboticsfieldof
endeavor.Somepreferredthatwementiontheirschoolsandnottheirnames:
•MacArthurStateTechnicalCollege,Opp,AL
•CarrollCountyAreaVocational-TechnicalSchool,Waco,GA
•AmarilloCollege,Amarillo,TX
•JeffersonCountyCommunityCollege—Southwest,Louisville,KY
•SchoolcraftCollege,Livonia,MI
•TechnicalCollegeofAlamance,HawRiver,NC
•GeorgiaStateDepartmentofEducation,Atlanta,GA•Collegeof
DuPage,GlenEllyn,IL
•WesternIowaTechCommunityCollege,SiouxCity,IAManybusinesses
werealsohelpfulinsupplyingtheinformationandillustrationsso
necessaryformakingthisbookworthwhile:Automatix,Inc.;Binks
ManufacturingCompany;Camco/CommercialCamDivision;Cincinnati
Milacron/IndustrialRobotDivision;CompactAirProducts,Inc.;
CybotechIndustrialRobots;Elicon;EmersonElectricCompany;ESAB
NorthAmerica,Inc.;FaredRobotSystems;Feedback,Inc.;FeedmaticDetriot,Inc.;GCACorporation/IndustrialManufacturingSystems
ProductsDivision;InternationalRobomation/Intelligence;L.S.
Manufacturing,Inc.;MackCorporation;Microbot;Microswitch,a
HoneywellDivision;NewJerseyZincCompany;Pick-O-MaticSystems;
PRABRobots,Inc.;RCA,RadioCorporationofAmerica;RhinoRobots,


Inc.;Schrader-Bellows,aDivisionofParker-Hannifin;SeikoInstruments
USA,Inc.;ThermwoodRoboticsDivision,ThermwoodCorporation;
Unimation,Inc.,aWestinghouseCompany;WarnerClutchandBrake
Company;andYaskawaAmerica,Inc.


CHAPTER1

Introduction

PerformanceObjectives
Afterreadingthischapter,youwillbeableto:
•Understandhowrobotsarenamed.
•Knowtheimportanceofcomputerprogramsincontrollingrobot
movement.
•Knowthatrobotscanuseanumberoflanguages.
•Knowtheroleofmicroprocessorsinrobots.
•Knowsomeofthepositiveandnegativeaspectsofrobots.
•Knowhowrobotsalleviatehumandrudgeryineverydayworkroutines.
•Knowthemanyapplicationsofrobots.
•Identifyanddiscussthekeytermsusedinthechapter.
•Answerthereviewquestionsattheendofthechapter.

obotshavecapturedtheimaginationofwritersandmovieproducersfor
sometime.Onlyrecentlyhavetheybecomeusefulintheproductionof
qualityproducts,anditisherethatthegreatestamountoftimeand
effortisbeingspentinrobotdevelopmenttoday.Theabilitytoproducequality
productsisofutmostimportancebecauseconsumersbenefitandmanufacturers
stayinbusiness.

R

Definition


Whatisarobot?Thereareanumberofdefinitions,butasimpledefinitionthat
servesourpurposehereis:Arobotisareprogrammable,multifunctional
manipulatordesignedtomovematerial,parts,tools,orspecializeddevices
throughvariableprogrammedmotionsfortheperformanceofavarietyoftasks.
Arobotalsocanbeclassifiedasasystemthatsimulateshumanactivitiesbased
oncomputerinstruction(Figure1-1).Thesedefinitionsallowustotakeacloser
lookatthesystemthatwillproducetheactionsneededforarobottoperform
tasksthathumanscando.Thecomputeristhesecrettothesystembecauseitis,
ineffect,thebrainofthedeviceorsystem.Thecomputerisanintegralpartof
anyrobotandmustbetakenintoconsiderationwheneverarobotisstudiedasa
device,asystem,orameansofeliminatinghumaneffort.

FIGURE1-1Completeindustrialrootsystem.(CourtesyofCincinnatiMilacron.)

Keepinmindthatsomenonintelligentrobotsdonotuseelectronicsfor
brains.Alotofpick-and-placerobotsarecamcontrolled(Figure1-2).They


simplypickuptheirloadandplaceitelsewhere.Loadingandunloadingtasks
areusuallyperformedbythesetypesofrobots.



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