MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

MINISTRY OF NATIONAL

AND TRAINING

DEFENCE

ACADEMY OF MILITARY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

NGUYEN MAU VUONG

STUDY THE DEPENDENCE OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION

PROCESS AND VELOCITY OF DETONATION ON THE

COMPOSITION OF EXPLOSIVE MIXTURE BASED ON HEXOGEN

Major: Theoretical and Physical Chemistry.

Code: 9 44 01 19

SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL THESIS

Ha Noi - 2020

CôBỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO

BỘ QUỐC PHÒNG

TẠO

VIỆN KHOA HỌC VÀ CÔNG NGHỆ QUÂN SỰ

The work was completed in :

Academy of Military Science and Technology, Ministry of Defence

Science intructors:

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ngo Van Giao

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dang Van Duong

Reviewer 1: Prof. Dr. Thai Hoang

Vietnam Academmy of Science and Technology

Reviewer 2: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dam Quang Sang

Military Technical Academy

Reviewer 3: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ninh Duc Ha

Academy of Military Science and Technology

The thesis is protected at the doctoral thesis evaluation council meeting at:

Military Science and Technology Institute

At: ……….., date: …../…../2020

Thesis can be searched at:

- Academy of Military Science and Technology Library

- National Library of Vietnam.

LIST OF SCIENTIFIC WORK PUBLISHED

1. Nguyen Mau Vuong, Ngo Van Giao, Nguyen Ngoc Tu (2014), Thermal

decomposition studies on cast mixture of TNT and RDX, Proceedings The

3th Academic Conference on Natural Science for Master and PhD Students

from Asean Contries, Publishing House for Science and Technology,

p.411-417.

2. Nguyen Mau Vuong, Ngo Van Giao, Dang Van Duong (2015), Study the

dependence of velocity of detonation on the composition of mixed explosive

ТГ, Journal of Military Science and Technology Research, Issue number

HH-VL, 10-2015, Academy of Military Science and Technology, p.220227.

3. Nguyen Mau Vuong, Ngo Van Giao, Dang Van Duong (2015),

Research into thermal decomposition of a mixture of RDX and insensitive,

Proceedings The 4th Academic Conference on Natural Science for Young

Scientists, Master and PhD Students from Asean Contries, Publishing

House for Science and Technology, p.216-222.

4. Nguyen Mau Vuong, Ngo Van Giao (2016), Study the dependence of

velocity of detonation on the composition of mixed explosive A-IX-1,

Journal

of

Chemistry

and

Application,

number

1(33)/2016,

Vietnam Chemical Association, p.42-44.

5. Nguyen

Mau

Vuong,

Ngo

Van

Giao,

Dang

Van

Duong,

Research results of dependence of explosive heat on the composition of

explosive ТГ, Journal of Chemistry and Application, topical number

(02)

/2019, Vietnam Chemical Association, p.4-8.

1

g

OPENING

1. The urgency of the thesis

Hexogen or RDX is the common name of cyclonite; 1,3,5-trinitro1,3,5-triazocyclohecxan, hay cyclotrimetylen trinitramin, with the formula

C3H6O6N6. RDX (symbol is , RDX) is one of the strong classic explosives.

RDX explosive has a high detonation velocity (8380 m/s at a density of 1.70

g/cm3), a high fertility force measured by the lead bomb method is (450 ÷

520) ml. However, RDX is highly sensitive (70 ÷ 80%), does not tolerate

compression and decomposes before melting. Therefore, people often use it

in combination with a high-tech explosive (fusible, not decomposing when

molten) like TNT to cast into the heart of bombs, mines, bullets, explosive

primers or with domestication reduces sensitivity, increases compressive

resistance to load into concave bullets, explosive ammunition destroys

damage.

Currently, the military has invested in RDX'sproduction on an

industrial scale. Same with the TNT's production line, this line has been in

production for the past time. At the same time, the military has been and

will continue to invest in production lines and repair of mortar bullets, antitank bullets and low-level anti-aircraft missiles. However, studies on the

process of thermal decomposition, the dependence of detonation velocity

on the mixture components on the RDX platform, although already

mentioned but still limited. This research determines the ability of the

technology to load mixed explosive into the bomb core, researching the

effect of ingredients on explosive speed will determine the power of

explosives. This issue has also been studied but is not have much public

documents.

Especially in our country, this subject has not been mentioned. We

received technology transfer, load making under contract, but there is no

scientific basis to serve the design and manufacture of new types of

ammunition suitable to the level of technology and combat capability for

our army. Therefore, the PhD student: "Studying the dependence of

explosive speed and decomposition process on the composition of

explosive mixture based on hexogen" is not only scientifically meaningful

but also practical, urgent as a scientific basis for the research, design and

manufacture of new types of ammunition suitable to the technological and

operational conditions of the army.

In calculating the design of bullets and explosive blocks currently,

the world has used the copyrighted software ANSYS (Autodyn, LS-Dyna),

MSC (Nastran, Dytran) to simulate explosive effects with accuracy. , very

high reliability. From these simulations, people shorten the time and money

to come up with an optimal design for each type of product in accordance

with the set goals. Each ammunition design (or explosive device) will be

optimized with a specific type of explosive.

2

g

In the military, with the initial tactical specifications set for the

design of ammunition, bombs and mines, especially with the use of

concave explosive effect, the parameters put in the software for the most

important explosive were density, detonation velocity. When changing

these important parameters, the results obtained are completely different for

a given design. There will be parameters to ensure that the design achieves

the optimal effect of the explosion, sometimes it is economically optimal

while still ensuring the initial specifications. Therefore, it is urgent to set up

a manual of explosive systems (with all important parameters). At the same

time, studying the thermal decomposition process will help determine the

safe casting temperature range, the half-life of the drug depends on the

storage temperature. This is also the basis to determine the durability of the

product and guide the storage conditions of ammunition storage.

2. The objectives of the thesis

Research theoretical and experimental basis on the explosion

process of two explosive explosives on the basis of RDX (T, A-IX-1) to

build the orientation database for setting up a single explosive component

suitable for use in researching and designing shaped bullets, concave

bullets, bullets with strong destructive power; determine the safe casting

temperature range, predict the life of the product based on the calculation of

the half-life of explosives and indicate the importance of temperature factor

to the life of the product in preservation process, fire safety of bullets and

explosives.

3. The content of the thesis research

- Calculate the dependence of oxygen balance, oxygen coefficient,

assumed molecular formula, explosive heat on the composition of

combined explosive T, A-IX-1.

- Determination of kinematic parameters of the decomposition

process when changing explosive components T nổ, A-IX-1. From there,

calculate the half-life of explosives, predict product durability.

- Determining the experimental equation depending on the

explosive speed, explosive heat on explosive components T, A-IX-1.

4. Scientific, practical and new contributions of the thesis

- Starting from the actual need to study these two types of

explosives in order to build a database for the design of a single component

in accordance with the requirements of the design and manufacture of

bullets (especially concave bullet, bullet shaping), bombs and mines.

- Based on the method of thermal analysis, determining the safe

casting temperature range, predicting the life of the product based on the

calculation of the half-life of explosives and showing the importance of the

factor. temperature to the shelf life of the product during safe storage of fire

and explosion.

3

g

* Research Methods

The project uses a combination of methods of theoretical

calculation and empirical measurement with high precision on modern and

advanced equipment and facilities (from the method of prototyping,

uniform sample preparation). small errors to the use of modern, highprecision equipment) to establish reliable empirical laws.

* The layout of the thesis

The thesis includes: Introduction, four chapters, conclusions, list of

references.

Heading

Describe the urgency of the thesis topic, general overview of the

objectives, content, research methods, scientific and practical meanings of

the thesis and briefly introduce the layout of the thesis.

Chapter I. Overview

Analyzing and evaluating the domestic and foreign research

situation, related issues and issues to be addressed in the thesis.

Chapter II. Research methods

Presentation of prototyping methods, calculation methods and

measurement methods for explosive explosives.

Chapter III Results and Discussion

This chapter focuses on solving the researched content of the

thesis.

CONTENTS OF THE THESIS

CHAPTER I: OVERVIEW

Regarding RDX explosives and RDX-based mixtures, analyzing

and evaluating domestic and foreign research situation, related issues and

issues to be addressed in the thesis.

CHAPTER II: SUBJECTS AND METHODS OF THE STUDY

2.1. Research subjects

2.1.1. Object:

The research object of the thesis is ТГ and A-IX-1 explosive systems.

2.1.2. Chemistry

Korean chemicals (RDX), China: TNT, serezin, sudan, Malaysia: stearic

acid;

2.2. Research Methods

2.2.1. Method of calculating oxygen balance and oxygen coefficient

2.2.2. Method of measurement and calculation of explosive heat

2.2.3. Methods and equipment for determining the explosion rate

2.2.4. Thermal analysis method

2.2.5. Conformity assessment method and thermal endurance by DSC

2.2.6. Method of calculating kinematic parameters

2.2.7. Scanning electron microscope SEM

4

g

2.2.8. Measurement of particle size distribution by laser scattering

2.2.9. Method of manufacturing research samples

2.2.10. Methods for determining the composition of explosive products.

2.2.11. Methods of processing empirical data

CHAPTER III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. Oxygen balance and oxygen factor and composition of explosive

products

3.1.1. Calculation of factors and components of explosive products

3.1.1.1. Explosive system TГ

Table 3.1. Oxygen balance and oxygen factor of some ТГ mixtures.

No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Compound

name

ТГ-23

ТГ-25

ТГ-30

ТГ-35

ТГ-40

ТГ-45

ТГ-50

ТГ-55

ТГ-60

TNT, %

RDX, %

23

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

77

75

70

65

60

55

50

45

40

Molecular formula

assumption

C3.90H5.77O6.00N5.32

C3.98H5.75O6.00N5.26

C4.18H5.70O6.00N5.11

C4.38H5.66O6.00N4.97

C4.58H5.61O6.00N4.82

C4.78H5.56O6.00N4.67

C4.98H5.51O6.00N4.52

C5.18H5.46O6.00N4.37

C5.38H5.41O6.00N4.22

Kb , %

A, %

-33.7

-34.7

-37.3

-40.0

-42.6

-45.2

-47.8

-50.4

-53.1

59.7

59.1

57.6

56.1

54.5

53.0

51.5

50.0

48.5

Based on the above results and applying the Avakian method to

calculate the composition of explosive products, the explosive

decomposition reaction of explosives marks ТГ can be written as follows:

ТГ-23: C17.27H25.54O26.54N23.54 = 3.02CO2 + 10.74H2O + 9.76CO + 2.03H2 + 4.49C +11.77N2

ТГ-25: C16.20H23.41O24.41N21.41= 2.73CO2 + 9.81H2O + 9.13CO + 1.89H2 + 4.34C + 10.70N2

ТГ-30: C14.16H19.32O20.32N17.32= 2.18CO2 + 8.03H2O + 7.92CO + 1.63H2 + 4.06C +8.66N2

ТГ-35: C12.70H16.39O17.39N14.39 = 1.79CO2 + 6.76H2O + 7.04CO + 1.43H2 + 3.86C +7.20N2

ТГ-40: C11.60H14.20O15.20N12.20 = 1.51CO2 + 5.82H2O + 6.37CO + 1.29H2 + 3.72C +6.10N2

ТГ-45: C10.75H12.50O13.50N10.50 = 1.29CO2 + 5.08H2O + 5.85CO + 1.17H2 + 3.62C +5.25N2

ТГ-50: C10.07H11.14O12.14N9.14 = 1.11CO2 + 4.49H2O + 5.42CO + 1.07H2 + 3.54C +4.57N2

ТГ-55: C9.51H10.02O11.02N8.02 = 0.97CO2 + 4.02H2O + 5.06CO + 0.99H2 + 3.48C +4.01N2

ТГ-60: C9.05H9.09O10.09N7.09 = 0.85CO2 + 3.62H2O + 4.76CO + 0.93H2 + 3.43C +3.55N2

3.1.1.2. Explosive system A-IX-1

Table 3.3. Oxygen balance and oxygen factor of dynamite A-IX-13

No.

1

2

3

4

Compound

name

A-IX-13 (6.5)

A-IX-13 (6.0)

A-IX-13 (5.5)

A-IX-13 (5.0)

RDX, %

CTH, %

93.50

94.00

94.50

95.00

6.50

6.00

5.50

5.00

Molecular formula

assumption

C3.91H7.83O5.83N5.79

C3.84H7.69O5.85N5.81

C3.77H7.54O5.86N5.82

C3.69H7.40O5.87N5.84

Kb , %

A, %

-41.22

-39.71

-38.20

-36.70

62.43

62.76

63.08

63.41

5

g

Table 3.4. Oxygen balance and oxygen factor of explosive A-IX-11

No.

1

2

3

4

Compound

name

A-IX-13 (6.5)

A-IX-13 (6.0)

A-IX-13 (5.5)

A-IX-13 (5.0)

RDX.

%

93.50

94.00

94.50

95.00

Serezin.

%

6.50

6.00

5.50

5.00

Molecular formula

assumption

C4.00H8.05O5.86N5.86

C3.92H7.89O5.87N5.87

C3.84H7.73O5.88N5.88

C3.76H7.56O5.89N5.89

Kb . %

A. %

-42.59

-40.98

-39.37

-37.75

62.34

62.67

63.00

63.34

Based on the above results and applying Avakian method to

calculate the composition of explosive products, the decomposition reaction

of explosive A-IX-13 can be approximated as follows:

A-IX-1 (6.5): C4.05H8.12O6.04N6.00= 0.08CO2 + 3.32H2O + 2.56CO + 0.74H2 + 1.41C +3.00N2

A-IX-1 (6.0): C3.96H7.94O6.04N6.00 = 0.14CO2 + 3.26H2O + 2.50CO + 0.71H2 + 1.33C +3.00N2

A-IX-1 (5.5): C3.88H7.77O6.04N6.00 = 0.19CO2 + 3.21H2O + 2.44CO + 0.68H2 + 1.25C +3.00N2

A-IX-1 (5.0): C3.80H7.60O6.03N6.00 = 0.25CO2 + 3.15H2O + 2.38CO + 0.65H2 + 1.17C +3.00N2

Based on the above results and applying the Avakian method to

calculate the composition of explosive products, the decomposition reaction

of explosive A-IX-11 (5.0) can be approximated as follows:

A-IX-1 (6.5): C4.10H8.25O6.00N6.00 = 0.03CO2 + 3.35H2O + 2.60CO + 0.77H2 + 1.47C +3.00N2

A-IX-1 (6.0): C4.01H8.06O6.00N6.00 = 0.08CO2 + 3.30H2O + 2.54CO + 0.74H2 + 1.39C +3.00N2

A-IX-1 (5.5): C3.83H7.70O6.00N6.00 = 0.14CO2 + 3.24H2O + 2.47CO + 0.70H2 + 1.30C +3.00N2

A-IX-1 (5.0): C3.83H7.70O6.00N6.00 = 0.20CO2 + 3.18H2O + 2.41CO + 0.67H2 + 1.22C +3.00N2

3.1.2. Experimental qualitative composition of explosive products

The quantitative analysis is extremely complex and not enough

equipment to implement so the subject has used the existing equipment to

determine the calculation of the explosive product components of the

combination explosive representative ТГ-50, A-IX-13 and A-IX-11 with

CTH content of 5.5%.

Use NARL8514 Lightweight gas analyzer. MODEL 4016, showing

the results of explosive gas products on the gas chromatography clearly

show the pic of CO2, CO, N2. O2 gas is made weak in explosive products of

drugs A-IX-1, not existing in explosive products of explosives ТГ-50.

The result is also consistent with the calculation of the oxygen

balance and the oxygen coefficient of the explosives. The more explosives

there are negative (or A less positive) than the amount of oxygen in the

explosive product. The presence of oxygen in the composition of an

explosion caused by itself in a bomb when a vacuum can not fully complete

the atmosphere (oxygen-ready) reaches 0.03-0.04 bar, so the remaining

stain for the A-IX-1 explosive product is reasonable. For explosives ТГ-50

due to the more negative coefficient (-47.82%) It is recommended that the

6

g

oxygen itself involved in the reaction of the produced (C, CO) products is

stronger and almost no stain is detected.

Using an infrared absorption measurement device Jasco 4600, the

resulting absorption spectrometer of the liquid product is similared to the

infrared absorption spectrum of the sample ionized distilled water samples.

As such, it is obvious that the condensation fluid on the main is H2O.

Use ofscanning electron micrograph JSM-6510 LV-X-ray

dispersing probes for the composition of solid products of explosive A-IX13, A-IX-11, ТГ-50, theresults obtained from solid products show the

apparent presence of carbon. Besides, there are also elements: Cu, Zn, W,

O, Cl, Si, Pb, K. These elements are present as a result of decomposition of

compounds that are in the fire medicine and explosive medicine in the

copper differential. The substances are: Si, KClO4, W, Pb (N3)2, Zn. The

casing is made from copper (Cu).

The results are clearly visible to the existence of C, CO, CO2, N2,

H2O in explosive decomposition products of all three types of explosives.

In addition, there are O2 in explosive products A-IX-1. Currently, there is

no sufficiently sensitive measuring head to determine the presence of H2 in

explosive products.

3.2. Study the compatibility of the system

RDX has the original distribution as shown in Figure 3.14, surface

image as Figure 3.15. Photos of explosive surface TГ after mixing are

shown in Figures 3.16 and 3.17

Pic 3.14. Particle size

distribution of RDX

Pic 3.15. SEM image of grain

surface of RDX

7

g

Pic 3.16. SEM image of the outer Pic 3.17. SEM image of inner

surface TГ after casting

surface TГ after casting

SEM images show the adhesion, encapsulation of RDX explosive

particles by molten TNT. TNT here is also similar to the domesticated

substance, which binds explosive particles that are not subject to RDX

compression.

Parameter measurement results are shown in Table 3.12.

Table 3.12. Explosive parameters of explosives according to DSC curve

No. Compound name Tonset, oC

T p, oC

Conclude

∆Tp, oC

1 RDX

229.1085 243.0735

2 TГ-60/40

229.7773 241.8040

-1.2695

Compatible

The ∆Tp result shows that TNT is compatible with RDX. Thus, the

use of these two explosives to create a new explosive mixture is perfectly

suitable.

3.2.2. Explosive system A-IX-1

Images of A-IX-1 explosive surface after mixing are shown in

3.21.

Pic 3.8. SEM image of A-IX-1 explosive surface

SEM images show the adhesion, encapsulation of RDX explosive

particles by a mixture of domesticated substances. Thus, mechanically, the

mixture of domestication is suitable for wrapping RDX explosive particles,

8

g

which makes the surface has a sensitive and favorable layer for bonding

process by compression method. We obtain the physical parameters

according to Table 3.13.

Table 3.13. Decomposition parameters of types A-IX-1

No. Compound name

Tonset

Tp, oC

∆Tp, oC

Conclude

1

RDX

229.1085 243.0735

2

A-IX-11

229.8489 248.383

5.3095 Compatible

3

A-IX-13

243.2557 0.1822 Compatible

The ∆Tp result shows that the two types of CTH are compatible

with RDX. Thus, the use of these two types of CTH to create A-IX-1

explosive mixture is perfectly suitable.

3.3. Isothermal decomposition process of explosive

3.3.1. Explosive system TГ

The test samples are in direct contact with the air, heated at

different speeds. Devices used are DTA 404EP, NETZSCH GROUP.

The results show that the melting temperature of the mixture

changes in a narrow range. With the heating rate of 5 oC / minute, the

melting point only changes in the range (78.3 ÷ 79) oC. This shows that

although the RDX content ranges from (40 ÷ 77) %, the temperature to start

melting the mixture is only less than the temperature of TNT not exceeding

2.8 oC. Thus, the mixture when pouring is very convenient because it can

use hot water to cast and the mixture is stable at ambient temperature after

casting (do not melt when the temperature is up to 70 oC).

Similarly, the results of the temperature of decomposition start of

the mixture also changes in a small range, from (215,3 ÷ 219,2) oC when

the heating rate of 5 °C/minute, only lower than the captured temperature.

The decomposition head of RDX (220.6 oC) is about 5.3 oC. Thus, it can be

seen that these explosive mixtures are absolutely durable when using water

or steam to melt the mixture at a temperature of (100 ÷ 150) oC serving

casting into bombs and bullets.

From the two comments above, it is shown that the combination of

these two explosives together to create a new explosive mixture in the

study area still fully retains the casting technology of TNT and ensures fire

safety with temperature. Casting when using water (or steam) as TNT

melting solvent.

At the same time, also from the results of decomposition durability

of ТГ mixture in the range (215,3 ÷ 219,2) oC when heating speed 5

o

C/min, showing a special attention in the pouring technology: Do not use a

direct source of heat above 200 °C to melt the ТГ mixture because of the

very high risk of fire and explosion, causing unsafe loading of bombs and

ammunition (even when war occurs). Ideally, to ensure safety, only use a

source of heat not exceeding 150 oC.

Based on the results of measurement and graph of Kissinger's

equation, the value of the activation energy E, the pre-exponential factor Z

9

g

and the reaction rate kT at temperature (T) are determined as shown in table

3.18.

Table 3.18. Kinematic parameters and reaction rate constants of ТГ

mixtures.

No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

E, kJ.mol-1

193.417

194.564

200.434

203.153

207.068

213.370

218.284

219.606

224.162

232.193

235.128

238.820

241.705

243.434

244.881

247.907

110.801

Compound name

ТГ-60.0

ТГ-57.5

ТГ-55.0

ТГ-52.5

ТГ-50.0

ТГ-47.5

ТГ-45.0

ТГ-42.5

ТГ-40.0

ТГ-37.5

ТГ-35.0

ТГ-32.5

ТГ-30.0

ТГ-27.5

ТГ-25.0

ТГ-23.0

TNT

Z, s-1

3.84x1019

5.61x1019

2.87x1020

6.29x1020

1.76x1021

9.90x1021

3.90x1022

5.90x1022

1.92x1023

1.41x1024

3.57x1024

9.83x1024

2.04x1025

3.33x1025

1.72x1026

1.07x1026

1.96x109

kT, s-1

3.84x1019x e-23264/T

5.61x1019x e-23402/T

2.87x1020x e-24108/T

6.29x1020x e-24435/T

1.76x1021x e-24906/T

9.90x1021x e-25664/T

3.90x1022x e-26255/T

5.90x1022x e-26414/T

1.92x1023x e-26962/T

1.41x1024x e-27928/T

3.57x1024x e-28281/T

9.83x1024x e-28725/T

2.04x1025x e-29072/T

3.33x1025x e-29280/T

1.72x1026x e-29454/T

1.07x1026x e-29818/T

1.96x 109x e-13327/T

It is important to have calculated the decomposition reaction rate

equation on the basis of temperature T. The results of calculating the

decomposition rate constant at different temperatures are given in Table

3.19.

Bảng 3.19. The decomposition reaction rate of ТГ mixtures

No.

Compound

name

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

ТГ-60.0

ТГ-57.5

ТГ-55.0

ТГ-52.5

ТГ-50.0

ТГ-47.5

ТГ-45.0

ТГ-42.5

ТГ-40.0

ТГ-37.5

ТГ-35.0

ТГ-32.5

ТГ-30.0

ТГ-27.5

ТГ-25.0

ТГ-23.0

Constant reaction decomposition rate at different temperature, s-1

10 C

20 oC

30 oC

40 oC

50 oC

75 oC

19

19

19

19

19

3.53x10

3.54x10

3.55x10

3.56x10

3.57x10

3.59x1019

5.16x1019 5.18x1019 5.19x1019 5.21x1019 5.22x1019

5.24x1019

20

20

20

20

20

2.64x10

2.64x10

2.65x10

2.66x10

2.66x10

2.68x1020

20

20

20

20

20

5.77x10

5.79x10

5.80x10

5.82x10

5.83x10

5.86x1020

1.61x1021 1.62x1021 1.62x1021 1.63x1021 1.63x1021

1.64x1021

21

21

21

21

21

9.04x10

9.07x10

9.10x10

9.12x10

9.14x10

9.20x1021

22

22

22

22

22

3.55x10

3.56x10

3.58x10

3.59x10

3.59x10

3.62x1022

22

22

22

22

22

5.37x10

5.39x10

5.41x10

5.42x10

5.44x10

5.47x1022

23

23

23

23

23

1.75x10

1.76x10

1.76x10

1.77x10

1.77x10

1.78x1023

1.28x1024 1.28x1024 1.29x1024 1.29x1024 1.29x1024

1.30x1024

24

24

24

24

24

3.23x10

3.24x10

3.25x10

3.26x10

3.27x10

3.29x1024

24

24

24

24

24

8.88x10

8.91x10

8.94x10

8.97x10

8.99x10

9.05x1024

1.84x1025 1.84x1025 1.85x1025 1.86x1025 1.86x1025

1.87x1025

25

25

25

25

25

3.01x10

3.02x10

3.03x10

3.04x10

3.04x10

3.06x1025

25

25

25

25

25

4.52x10

4.53x10

4.55x10

4.56x10

4.58x10

4.61x1025

25

25

25

25

25

9.67x10

9.70x10

9.74x10

9.77x10

9.80x10

9.86x1025

o

10

g

From the results of the calculation of the decomposition rate

constant, found that at the same temperature, the rate constant decreases

with increasing TNT content in the mixture. This is due to the offset effect,

between the activation energy E falling and the pre-factor (frequency) Z

decreasing [4], [5]. According to the Arrhenius equation, kT is inversely

proportional to E and proportional to Z. It can be seen that Z decreases

when the concentration of TNT increases due to the thickening of the RDX

particles due to TNT, making the opportunity for contact between RDX

particles plummeted. This effect is greater than the activation energy

reduction effect E when the TNT content increases. Therefore, in general,

the reaction rate kT decreases with increasing TNT content.

From this constant, we can calculate the half-life at different

temperatures as shown in Table 3.20. On this basis, we can see that the

durability of the product depends largely on the storage temperature.

Table 3.20. The half-life of ТГ mixture

1

2

Compound

name

ТГ-60.0

ТГ-57.5

10 oC

2.88x1008

3.21x1008

The half - life at different temperatures, years

20 oC

30 oC

40 oC

50 oC

07

06

05

1.74x10

1.27x10

1.09x10

1.09x1004

07

06

05

1.91x10

1.37x10

1.16x10

1.14x1004

75 oC

6.18x1001

6.28x1001

3

4

5

ТГ-55.0

ТГ-52.5

ТГ-50.0

7.59x1008

1.10x1009

2.07x1009

4.15x1007

5.78x1007

1.03x1008

2.74x1006

3.68x1006

6.22x1006

2.16x1005

2.80x1005

4.50x1005

1.99x1004

2.50x1004

3.83x1004

9.34x1001

1.09x1002

1.51x1002

6

ТГ-47.5

5.38x1009

2.43x1008

1.35x1007

9.03x1005

7.13x1004

2.37x1002

ТГ-45.0

1.10x10

10

4.65x10

08

2.41x10

07

1.52x10

06

1.13x10

05

3.29x1002

10

5.28x10

08

2.70x10

07

1.66x10

06

1.22x10

05

3.43x1002

No.

7

8

ТГ-42.5

1.28x10

9

ТГ-40.0

2.72x1010

1.05x1009

5.04x1007

2.94x1006

2.04x1005

5.08x1002

ТГ-37.5

1.12x10

11

3.88x10

09

1.67x10

08

8.77x10

06

5.54x10

05

1.11x1003

11

5.11x10

09

2.11x10

08

1.07x10

07

6.53x10

05

1.21x1003

10

11

ТГ-35.0

1.55x10

12

ТГ-32.5

2.70x1011

8.45x1009

3.32x1008

1.61x1007

9.38x1005

1.58x1003

13

ТГ-30.0

4.44x10

11

10

08

07

06

2.06x1003

14

ТГ-27.5

5.66x1011

1.66x1010

6.12x1008

2.79x1007

1.54x1006

2.29x1003

15

ТГ-25.0

2.02x10

11

09

08

06

05

7.30x1002

16

ТГ-23.0

1.17x1012

2.53x1006

3.33x1003

1.33x10

5.80x10

3.22x1010

5.04x10

2.10x10

1.12x1009

2.35x10

9.41x10

4.83x1007

1.33x10

5.11x10

From table 3.20, it is shown that storage temperature greatly affects

product durability. In the normal temperature range in our country (about

10-50 oC), this type of explosive has a half-life of about 10 times when

reducing 10 oC of storage temperature. Durability decreases sharply when

the storage temperature is near the melting point of TNT. The higher the

RDX content, the higher the durability of the mixture and vice versa the

greater the concentration of TNT, the lower the product durability. In fact,

TNT is easier to melt and more degraded than RDX. Therefore, during

11

g

Activation energy, kJ/mol

storage, to increase the shelf life of the product, it is necessary to cool the

storage, especially the warehouses in areas with high weather temperatures

during the year.

Based on the calculation results of the activation energy E and the

pre-exponential factor the Z of the explosive mixtures ТГ, we can establish

the dependence of these two quantities on the mixture components as

shown in Figure 3.44 and 3.45.

260,0

250,0

240,0

230,0

220,0

210,0

200,0

190,0

180,0

y = -1.5776x + 287.51

r² = 0.9872

20,0

30,0

40,0

TNT, %

50,0

60,0

Pre-exponential factor ,s-1

Pic 3.44. Graph of dependence of activation energy on TNT content

in explosive mixture ТГ

1,20E+26

1,00E+26

8,00E+25

6,00E+25

y = 5.E+30.e-0.428x

r² = 0.9874

4,00E+25

2,00E+25

1,00E+18

20,0

30,0

40,0

50,0

TNT, %

60,0

70,0

Pic 3.45. Dependent graph of the pre-exponential factor the Z to the

TNT content in the explosive mixture ТГ.

Thus, on the basis of these two types of graphs, we can approximate

the activation energy, the pre-exponential factor the Z of a mixture of

dynamite ТГ with specific components whose RDX content is in the range (

40 ÷ 77)% or TNT content is in the range (23 ÷ 60)% with high reliability

(r2 is greater than 0.98).

12

g

Activation energy of the mixture depends on the TNT content

following the first order equation: y = -1.5776x + 287.51 with correlation

coefficient r2 = 0.9872.

The pre-exponential factor the Z of the mixture depends on the

TNT content following the equation: y = 5.1030.e-0.428x with the correlation

coefficient r2 = 0.9874.

From this, we can determine the decomposition rate constant and

predict the durability through the half-life of a mixture of ТГ with specific

components within the studied.

3.3.2. Explosive system A-IX-1

3.3.2.1. CTH 3 components

Based on the results of DTA measurement and Kissinger's equation

graph, the value of activating energy E, pre-exponential factor Z and the

reaction rate constant at temperature (T) are determined as table 3.27.

Table 3.27. Kinetic parameters and decomposition reaction

constants of A-IX-13

No.

1

2

3

4

5

Compound name

RDX

A-IX-13 (M1)

A-IX-13 (M2)

A-IX-13 (M3)

A-IX-13 (M4)

E, kJ.mol-1

252.579

164.384

158.631

142.868

134.437

Z, s-1

1.17 x1026

8.17x1016

2.47x1016

4.74x1014

5.40x1013

kT, s-1

1.17 x1026x e-30380/T

8.17x1016x e-19772/T

2.47x1016x e-19080/T

4.74x1014x e-17184/T

5.40x1013x e-16170/T

It is important to calculate the equation for the decomposition

reaction rate based on the temperature of T. The result of calculating the

decomposition rate constant at different temperatures is given in Table

3.28.

Table 3.28. The decomposition reaction rate of a mixture of A-IX-13

No.

Compound

name

1

A-IX-13 (M1)

Constant reaction decomposition rate at different temperature, s-1

10 oC

20 oC

30 oC

40 oC

50 oC

60 oC

16

16

16

16

16

7.62x10

7.64x10

7.65x10

7.67x10

7.69x10

7.70x1016

2

3

4

A-IX-13 (M2)

A-IX-13 (M3)

A-IX-13 (M4)

2.31x1016

4.46x1014

5.10x1013

2.32x1016

4.47x1014

5.11x1013

2.32x1016

4.48x1014

5.12x1013

2.33x1016

4.48x1014

5.13x1013

2.33x1016

4.49x1014

5.14x1013

2.33x1016

4.50x1014

5.15x1013

From the results of the calculation of the decomposition rate

constant, found that at the same temperature, the rate constant decreases

with increasing the content of CTH in the mixture. This is due to the offset

effect between activating energy E and decreasing pre-exponential factor

(frequency) Z. According to the Arrhenius equation, kT is inversely

proportional to E and proportional to Z. It can be seen that Z decreases

when the concentration of bio-energy increases due to the thickening of the

RDX particles because the self-created domesticated explosives makes the

opportunity for contact between RDX particles are falling sharply. This

13

g

effect is greater than the activation energy reduction E effect when the bioenergy content increases. Therefore, in general, the reaction rate kT

decreases with increasing bio-energy content.

From this constant, the half-life can be calculated at different

temperatures as shown in Table 3.29. On this basis, it can be seen that the

durability of the product greatly depends on the storage temperature.

Table 3.29. The half-life of a mixture of domesticated A-IX-13.

A-IX-13 (M1)

10 oC

5.87x1005

The half - life at different temperatures, years

20 oC

30 oC

40 oC

50 oC

04

03

02

5.41x10

5.84x10

7.26x10

1.03x1002

60 oC

1.64x1001

A-IX-13 (M2)

A-IX-13 (M3)

A-IX-13 (M4)

1.70x1005

1.07x1004

2.65x1003

1.70x1004

1.35x1003

3.78x1002

6.81x1000

1.18x1000

4.99x10-1

No.

Compound

name

1

2

3

4

1.98x1003

1.95x1002

6.11x1001

2.65x1002

3.19x1001

1.11x1001

4.01x1001

5.84x1000

2.24x1000

Activation energy, kJ/mol

From table 3.29, we see that storage temperature greatly affects

product durability. In the normal temperature range in our country (about

10-50 oC), this type of explosive has a half-life of about 10 times when

reducing 10 oC of storage temperature. Durability decreases sharply when

the storage temperature is near the melting point of stearic acid (67-70) oC.

The greater the RDX content, the higher the durability of the mixture and

vice versa the higher the content of the CTH, the more the product

durability decreases. In fact, stearic acid and serezin have a much lower

melting point than RDX. Therefore, during storage, to increase the shelf

life of the product, it is necessary to cool the storage, especially the

warehouses in areas with high weather temperatures during the year.

Based on the results of calculating the activation energy E and the

pre-exponential factor the Z of the explosive mixtures A-IX-1, we can

establish the dependence of these two quantities on the composition as

shown in the figure. 3.56 and 3.57.

170,0

160,0

150,0

140,0

y = -21.118x + 271.49

r² = 0.9704

130,0

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

CTH, %

6,5

7,0

Pic 3.56. Graph of the dependence of activation energy A-IX-13 on

the content of CTH.

14

Pre-exponential factor , 1/s

g

1,40E+17

1,20E+17

1,00E+17

8,00E+16

6,00E+16

y = 2E+28e-5.184x

r² = 0.9636

4,00E+16

2,00E+16

0,00E+00

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

CTH, %

6,5

7,0

Pic 3.57. Graph of dependence of the pre-exponential coefficient of

A-IX-13 on the content of CTH.

Thus, on the basis of these two types of graphs, we can

approximate the activation energy, the pre-exponential factor the Z of an AIX-1 explosive mixture (self-contained 3 substances) Specifically, the

content of RDX is in the range (93.5 ÷ 95.0)% or the content of CTH is in

the range (5.0 ÷ 6.5)% with high reliability (r2 is greater than 0.96). ).

Activation energy of the mixture depends on the content of CTH

(including 3 substances) according to the first-order equation: y = -21.118x

+ 271.49 with a correlation coefficient r2 = 0.9704.

The pre-exponential factor the Z of the mixture depends on the

content of CTH (including 3 substances) according to the equation: y =

2.10-197.e-5.1836x with the correlation coefficient r2 = 0.9636.

From this, it is possible to determine the decomposition rate

constant and predict the durability through the half-life of A-IX-1 mixture

when the RDX content (or the mixture of domesticated substances) is

determined in explosive.

3.3.2.2. With CTH 1 component

Based on DTA measurement results and Kissinger's equation

graph, we can determine the value of activating energy E, pre-exponential

factor the Z and constant reaction rate kT at temperature (T) as shown in

Table 3.35.

According to the results in Table 3.35, it was found that: Activation

energy decreases with increasing concentration of bio-energy (serezin).

This also has similarities with the use of 3 substances in CTH. However,

the activation energy of these A-IX-1 models is much lower than that of

using 3 substances in CTH. This means that to stimulate the thermal

decomposition of this A-IX-1 mixture we will need more energy.

15

g

Table 3.35. Kinetic parameters and reaction rate constants of A-IX-11

No.

1

2

3

4

Compound

A-IX-11 (M5)

A-IX-11 (M6)

A-IX-11 (M7)

A-IX-11 (M8)

E, kJ.mol-1

233.8

231.5

228.3

219.8

Z, s-1

3.03x1024

1.64x1024

7.17x1023

7.43x1022

kT, s-1

3.03x1024x e-28126/T

1.64x1024x e-27850/T

7.17x1023x e-27459/T

7.43x1022x e-26440/T

It is important to calculate the equation for the decomposition

reaction rate based on the temperature of T. The results of calculating the

decomposition rate constant at different temperatures are given in Table

3.36.

Table 3.36. The decomposition reaction rate constants of A-IX-11

No.

Compound

1

2

3

4

A-IX-11 (M5)

A-IX-11 (M6)

A-IX-11 (M7)

A-IX-11 (M8)

Constant reaction decomposition rate at different temperature, s-1

10 oC

20 oC

30 oC

40 oC

50 oC

75 oC

24

24

24

24

24

2.74x10

2.75x10

2.76x10

2.77x10

2.78x10

2.79x1024

24

24

24

24

24

1.48x10

1.49x10

1.49x10

1.50x10

1.50x10

1.51x1024

23

23

23

23

23

6.51x10

6.53x10

6.55x10

6.57x10

6.59x10

6.63x1023

6.77x1022 6.79x1022 6.81x1022 6.83x1022 6.85x1022 6.89x1022

From the results of the calculation of the decomposition rate

constant, it is found that at the same temperature, the rate constant

decreases with increasing the content of bio-energy (serezin) in the mixture.

This is due to the offset effect between activating energy E and decreasing

pre-factor (frequency) Z [4], [5]. According to the Arrhenius equation, kT is

inversely proportional to E and proportional to Z. Similarly, it can be seen

that Z decreases when the content of TNT (serezin) increases due to the

thickening of RDX particles by CTH (serezin). has made the opportunity

for contact between RDX particles sharply decrease. This effect is greater

than the activation energy reduction effect E when the content of bioenergy (serezin) increases. In general, the reaction rate kT decreases with

increasing concentration of bio-energy (serezin).

From the result of this constant, the half-life can be calculated at

different temperatures as shown in Table 3.37. On this basis, we can see

that the durability of the product depends largely on the storage

temperature.

Table 3.37. The half-life of A-IX-11.

A-IX-11 (M5)

A-IX-11 (M6)

10 oC

1.05x1011

7.36x1010

The half - life at different temperatures, years

20 oC

30 oC

40 oC

50 oC

09

08

06

3.55x10

1.49x10

7.69x10

4.76x1005

09

08

06

2.56x10

1.11x10

5.90x10

3.75x1005

75 oC

9.14x1002

7.66x1002

A-IX-11 (M7)

A-IX-11 (M8)

4.22x1010

1.11x1010

1.54x1009

4.58x1008

5.68x1002

2.93x1002

No.

Compound

1

2

3

4

6.98x1007

2.33x1007

3.86x1006

1.44x1006

2.55x1005

1.05x1005

From table 3.37, it is shown that storage temperature greatly

influences product durability. In the normal temperature range in our

country (about 10-50 oC), this type of explosive has a half-life of about 10

times when reducing 10 oC of storage temperature. Durability decreases

16

g

sharply when the storage temperature is near the melting point of serezin.

The content of CTH increases, the durability of products decreases and vice

versa. In fact, serezin has a much lower melting point than RDX.

Therefore, during storage, to increase the shelf life of the product, it is

necessary to cool the storage, especially those in areas with high weather

temperatures during the year.

Based on the results of calculating the activation energy E and the

pre-exponential factor the Z of the explosive mixtures A-IX-1, we can

establish the dependence of these two quantities on the composition as

shown in the figure. 3.66 and 3.67.

Activation energy,

kJ/mol

240,0

235,0

230,0

225,0

y = -9.0606x + 280.47

r² = 0.9076

220,0

215,0

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

CTH, %

6,5

7,0

Pic 3.66. Graph of dependence of activating energy A-IX-11 on the

content of CTH.

Pre-exponential factor , 1/s

3,50E+24

3,00E+24

2,50E+24

y = 7.E+29.e-2.39x

r² = 0.9041

2,00E+24

1,50E+24

1,00E+24

5,00E+23

0,00E+00

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

CTH, %

6,5

7,0

Pic 3.67. Graph of dependence of exponential factor of A-IX-11 on

content of CTH

Thus, on the basis of these two graphs, we can calculate the

approximate activation energy, the pre-exponential factor the Z of an

explosive mixture of A-IX-1 ( is serezin) with specific composition. If the

17

g

content of RDX is within (93.5 ÷ 95.0)% or the content of CTH is in the

range (5.0 ÷ 6.5)% with high reliability (r2 is greater than 0.90) .

Activation energy of the mixture depends on the content of bioenergy (serezin) following the first order equation: y = -9.0606x + 280.47

with the correlation coefficient r2 = 0.9076.

The pre-exponential factor Z of the mixture depends on the content

of bio-energy (serezin) according to the equation: y = 7.1029.e-2.39x with the

correlation coefficient r2 = 0.9041.

From this, we can determine the decomposition rate constant and

predict the durability through the half-life of A-IX-1 mixture (type 1

domestication is serezin).

Comment:

Thus, it can be seen that when increasing the content of

domestication, the temperature of the mixture begins to melt significantly.

The above result confirms that the safe temperature range for the use of AIX-1 explosive with hypersensitivity mixture (serezin, stearic acid, sudan)

or a domestication (serezin) is (293 ÷ 473) K or (20 ÷ 200) oC. However,

temperature is extremely important in preserving to avoid degradation of

product quality. Therefore, always keep cool, low temperature is the

decisive condition to the time of storage and use of the product.

3.4. Dependence of explosive heat on explosive components

3.4.1. Explosive system TГ

Experimental equation of explosive energy on the content of TNT

and RDX as shown in Figure 3.68.

Q, kcal/kg

1400,0

1380,0

1360,0

1340,0

1320,0

1300,0

1280,0

1260,0

y = -3.101x + 1461.332

r² = 0.999

20,0

30,0

40,0

50,0

60,0

TNT, %

Fig 3.68. Graph the dependence of the explosive heat of ТГ into the

TNT content

It can be concluded: The explosive heat of the explosive explosive

mixture ТГ depends on the TNT content according to the first order

equation: y = -3.101x + 1461.332 with correlation coefficient r2 = 0.999.

Where x is the TNT content (% mass).

18

g

3.4.2. Explosive system A-IX-1

3.4.2.1. CTH 3 components

The equation obtains the result as a graph as shown in Figure 3.69.

Q, kcal/kg

1365,0

1360,0

1355,0

1350,0

1345,0

1340,0

1335,0

1330,0

1325,0

y = -21.005x + 1463.185

r² = 0.996

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

6,5

7,0

CTH, %

Fig. 3.69. Graph of dependence of explosive heat of A-IX-13 on

content of CTH

Thus, it can be concluded: The explosive heat of A-IX-1 mixed

explosive (kcal/kg) at the density of 1.62 g/cm3 depends on the content of

CTH (including 3 substances) according to the first-order equation : y = 21.005x + 1463.185 with correlation coefficient r2 = 0.996. In which, x is

the content of CTH (% mass).

3.4.2.2. CTH 1 component

We obtain the result of the equation as the graph in Figure 3.70.

Q, kcal/kg

1360,0

1355,0

1350,0

1345,0

1340,0

1335,0

1330,0

1325,0

1320,0

1315,0

y = -21.620x + 1461.740

r² = 0.998

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

6,5

7,0

CTH, %

Pic 3.70. Graph of dependence of explosive heat of A-IX-11 on the

content of CTH.

Thus, it is possible to conclude: The explosive heat of A-IX-1

mixed explosive (1 domesticated substance) at the density of 1.62 g/cm3

depends on the content of CTH according to the first order equation: y = -

19

g

21.620x + 1461.740 with the correlation coefficient r2 = 0.998. In which, x

is the content of CTH (% mass).

3.5. Dependence on explosion rate on explosive components

3.5.1. Explosive system TГ

3.5.1.1. Dependent equation of explosive density

The result is obtained as the graph in Figure 3.71.

𝜌, mg/cm3

1760

1740

1720

1700

1680

1660

y = -1.884x + 1783.563

r² = 0.986

10,0

20,0

30,0

40,0

50,0

60,0

70,0

TNT, %

Pic 3.71. Graph of dependence of the highest molding density of

explosives TГ (mg/cm3) on TNT content (%)

Thus, we can conclude: The highest casting density of explosive

TГ (mg/cm3) depends on the content of TNT (x,%) in the first order: y = 1.884x + 1783.563 with r2 = 0.986.

3.5.1.2. Dependent equation for velocity of detonation on TNT content

a. At the same density

We built the graph as Figure 3.72

D, m/s

8000,0

7900,0

7800,0

7700,0

7600,0

7500,0

7400,0

7300,0

y = -15.350x + 8288.087

r² = 0.996

20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0 50,0 55,0 60,0 65,0

TNT, %

Fig 3.72. Graph of dependence of velocity of detonation of TГ

(m/s) on TNT content (%) at density of 1.60 g/cm3

20

g

Thus, we can conclude: Explosive speed of explosives TГ depends

on the composition of TNT in the first order function: y = -15.350x +

8288.087 with correlation coefficient r2 = 0.996.

b. At the highest casting density

We built the graph as shown in Figure 3.73.

D, m/s

8300,0

8200,0

8100,0

8000,0

7900,0

7800,0

7700,0

7600,0

7500,0

7400,0

7300,0

y = -21.733x + 8729.624

r² = 0.980

15,0 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0 50,0 55,0 60,0 65,0

TNT, %

Fig 3.73. The dependent graph of velocity of detonation of TГ (m/s) in the

TNT content (%) at highest casting density

Thus, we can conclude: The velocity of detonation of explosive TГ

(mg/cm3) depends on the content of TNT (%) at the highest casting density

according to the first order function: y = -21.733x + 8729.624 with

correlation coefficient r2 = 0.980.

Based on the above equations, we can approximate the highest

casting density parameter, corresponding explosion rate at that density or

explosion rate at commonly used density of 1.60 g/cm3 of any TГ mixture

has TNT content of about (23 ÷ 60)% or RDX of about (40 ÷ 77)%.

3.5.2. Explosive system A-IX-1

3.5.2.1. With CTH 3 components

The most common domestication mixture for making A-IX-1 is:

60% serezin + 38.8% stearic acid + 0.2% sudan.

Using the above domestication mixture results in a graph as shown

in Figure 3.74.

Thus, we can conclude: The velocity of explosive of A-IX-13

depends on the composition of CTH with the first function: y = 146.494x +

7024.091 with correlation coefficient r2 = 0.995.

21

g

D, m/s

8000,0

7950,0

7900,0

7850,0

7800,0

7750,0

7700,0

y = -146.49x + 8708.8

r² = 0.995

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

7,0 CTH, %

6,5

Fig 3.74. Graph of dependence of velocity of detonation of A-IX-13 on

content of CTH (%)

3.5.2.2. With CTH 1 component

We can use a single-component domestication for A-IX-1. To

make a comparison with the domesticated mixture of 3 substances, we use

the domesticated substance, serezin.

We obtain the result as the graph in Figure 3.75.

D, m/s

y = -146.14x + 8686.2

r² = 0.991

8000,0

7950,0

7900,0

7850,0

7800,0

7750,0

7700,0

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

6,5

7,0 CTH, %

Fig 3.75. Graph of dependence of velocity of detonation of A-IX-11 on

content of CTH (%)

Thus, we can conclude:

+ Explosive speed of explosive A-IX-11 depends on the

composition of CTH with the first function: y = 146.138x + 7005.658 with

correlation coefficient r2 = 0.991.

+ Based on the newly developed empirical equations, we can

calculate the approximate explosion rate of A-IX-1 (using domesticated

substance serezin) at any RDX content in the range (93.5 ÷ 95)% with high

accuracy.

MINISTRY OF NATIONAL

AND TRAINING

DEFENCE

ACADEMY OF MILITARY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

NGUYEN MAU VUONG

STUDY THE DEPENDENCE OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION

PROCESS AND VELOCITY OF DETONATION ON THE

COMPOSITION OF EXPLOSIVE MIXTURE BASED ON HEXOGEN

Major: Theoretical and Physical Chemistry.

Code: 9 44 01 19

SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL THESIS

Ha Noi - 2020

CôBỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO

BỘ QUỐC PHÒNG

TẠO

VIỆN KHOA HỌC VÀ CÔNG NGHỆ QUÂN SỰ

The work was completed in :

Academy of Military Science and Technology, Ministry of Defence

Science intructors:

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ngo Van Giao

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dang Van Duong

Reviewer 1: Prof. Dr. Thai Hoang

Vietnam Academmy of Science and Technology

Reviewer 2: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dam Quang Sang

Military Technical Academy

Reviewer 3: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ninh Duc Ha

Academy of Military Science and Technology

The thesis is protected at the doctoral thesis evaluation council meeting at:

Military Science and Technology Institute

At: ……….., date: …../…../2020

Thesis can be searched at:

- Academy of Military Science and Technology Library

- National Library of Vietnam.

LIST OF SCIENTIFIC WORK PUBLISHED

1. Nguyen Mau Vuong, Ngo Van Giao, Nguyen Ngoc Tu (2014), Thermal

decomposition studies on cast mixture of TNT and RDX, Proceedings The

3th Academic Conference on Natural Science for Master and PhD Students

from Asean Contries, Publishing House for Science and Technology,

p.411-417.

2. Nguyen Mau Vuong, Ngo Van Giao, Dang Van Duong (2015), Study the

dependence of velocity of detonation on the composition of mixed explosive

ТГ, Journal of Military Science and Technology Research, Issue number

HH-VL, 10-2015, Academy of Military Science and Technology, p.220227.

3. Nguyen Mau Vuong, Ngo Van Giao, Dang Van Duong (2015),

Research into thermal decomposition of a mixture of RDX and insensitive,

Proceedings The 4th Academic Conference on Natural Science for Young

Scientists, Master and PhD Students from Asean Contries, Publishing

House for Science and Technology, p.216-222.

4. Nguyen Mau Vuong, Ngo Van Giao (2016), Study the dependence of

velocity of detonation on the composition of mixed explosive A-IX-1,

Journal

of

Chemistry

and

Application,

number

1(33)/2016,

Vietnam Chemical Association, p.42-44.

5. Nguyen

Mau

Vuong,

Ngo

Van

Giao,

Dang

Van

Duong,

Research results of dependence of explosive heat on the composition of

explosive ТГ, Journal of Chemistry and Application, topical number

(02)

/2019, Vietnam Chemical Association, p.4-8.

1

g

OPENING

1. The urgency of the thesis

Hexogen or RDX is the common name of cyclonite; 1,3,5-trinitro1,3,5-triazocyclohecxan, hay cyclotrimetylen trinitramin, with the formula

C3H6O6N6. RDX (symbol is , RDX) is one of the strong classic explosives.

RDX explosive has a high detonation velocity (8380 m/s at a density of 1.70

g/cm3), a high fertility force measured by the lead bomb method is (450 ÷

520) ml. However, RDX is highly sensitive (70 ÷ 80%), does not tolerate

compression and decomposes before melting. Therefore, people often use it

in combination with a high-tech explosive (fusible, not decomposing when

molten) like TNT to cast into the heart of bombs, mines, bullets, explosive

primers or with domestication reduces sensitivity, increases compressive

resistance to load into concave bullets, explosive ammunition destroys

damage.

Currently, the military has invested in RDX'sproduction on an

industrial scale. Same with the TNT's production line, this line has been in

production for the past time. At the same time, the military has been and

will continue to invest in production lines and repair of mortar bullets, antitank bullets and low-level anti-aircraft missiles. However, studies on the

process of thermal decomposition, the dependence of detonation velocity

on the mixture components on the RDX platform, although already

mentioned but still limited. This research determines the ability of the

technology to load mixed explosive into the bomb core, researching the

effect of ingredients on explosive speed will determine the power of

explosives. This issue has also been studied but is not have much public

documents.

Especially in our country, this subject has not been mentioned. We

received technology transfer, load making under contract, but there is no

scientific basis to serve the design and manufacture of new types of

ammunition suitable to the level of technology and combat capability for

our army. Therefore, the PhD student: "Studying the dependence of

explosive speed and decomposition process on the composition of

explosive mixture based on hexogen" is not only scientifically meaningful

but also practical, urgent as a scientific basis for the research, design and

manufacture of new types of ammunition suitable to the technological and

operational conditions of the army.

In calculating the design of bullets and explosive blocks currently,

the world has used the copyrighted software ANSYS (Autodyn, LS-Dyna),

MSC (Nastran, Dytran) to simulate explosive effects with accuracy. , very

high reliability. From these simulations, people shorten the time and money

to come up with an optimal design for each type of product in accordance

with the set goals. Each ammunition design (or explosive device) will be

optimized with a specific type of explosive.

2

g

In the military, with the initial tactical specifications set for the

design of ammunition, bombs and mines, especially with the use of

concave explosive effect, the parameters put in the software for the most

important explosive were density, detonation velocity. When changing

these important parameters, the results obtained are completely different for

a given design. There will be parameters to ensure that the design achieves

the optimal effect of the explosion, sometimes it is economically optimal

while still ensuring the initial specifications. Therefore, it is urgent to set up

a manual of explosive systems (with all important parameters). At the same

time, studying the thermal decomposition process will help determine the

safe casting temperature range, the half-life of the drug depends on the

storage temperature. This is also the basis to determine the durability of the

product and guide the storage conditions of ammunition storage.

2. The objectives of the thesis

Research theoretical and experimental basis on the explosion

process of two explosive explosives on the basis of RDX (T, A-IX-1) to

build the orientation database for setting up a single explosive component

suitable for use in researching and designing shaped bullets, concave

bullets, bullets with strong destructive power; determine the safe casting

temperature range, predict the life of the product based on the calculation of

the half-life of explosives and indicate the importance of temperature factor

to the life of the product in preservation process, fire safety of bullets and

explosives.

3. The content of the thesis research

- Calculate the dependence of oxygen balance, oxygen coefficient,

assumed molecular formula, explosive heat on the composition of

combined explosive T, A-IX-1.

- Determination of kinematic parameters of the decomposition

process when changing explosive components T nổ, A-IX-1. From there,

calculate the half-life of explosives, predict product durability.

- Determining the experimental equation depending on the

explosive speed, explosive heat on explosive components T, A-IX-1.

4. Scientific, practical and new contributions of the thesis

- Starting from the actual need to study these two types of

explosives in order to build a database for the design of a single component

in accordance with the requirements of the design and manufacture of

bullets (especially concave bullet, bullet shaping), bombs and mines.

- Based on the method of thermal analysis, determining the safe

casting temperature range, predicting the life of the product based on the

calculation of the half-life of explosives and showing the importance of the

factor. temperature to the shelf life of the product during safe storage of fire

and explosion.

3

g

* Research Methods

The project uses a combination of methods of theoretical

calculation and empirical measurement with high precision on modern and

advanced equipment and facilities (from the method of prototyping,

uniform sample preparation). small errors to the use of modern, highprecision equipment) to establish reliable empirical laws.

* The layout of the thesis

The thesis includes: Introduction, four chapters, conclusions, list of

references.

Heading

Describe the urgency of the thesis topic, general overview of the

objectives, content, research methods, scientific and practical meanings of

the thesis and briefly introduce the layout of the thesis.

Chapter I. Overview

Analyzing and evaluating the domestic and foreign research

situation, related issues and issues to be addressed in the thesis.

Chapter II. Research methods

Presentation of prototyping methods, calculation methods and

measurement methods for explosive explosives.

Chapter III Results and Discussion

This chapter focuses on solving the researched content of the

thesis.

CONTENTS OF THE THESIS

CHAPTER I: OVERVIEW

Regarding RDX explosives and RDX-based mixtures, analyzing

and evaluating domestic and foreign research situation, related issues and

issues to be addressed in the thesis.

CHAPTER II: SUBJECTS AND METHODS OF THE STUDY

2.1. Research subjects

2.1.1. Object:

The research object of the thesis is ТГ and A-IX-1 explosive systems.

2.1.2. Chemistry

Korean chemicals (RDX), China: TNT, serezin, sudan, Malaysia: stearic

acid;

2.2. Research Methods

2.2.1. Method of calculating oxygen balance and oxygen coefficient

2.2.2. Method of measurement and calculation of explosive heat

2.2.3. Methods and equipment for determining the explosion rate

2.2.4. Thermal analysis method

2.2.5. Conformity assessment method and thermal endurance by DSC

2.2.6. Method of calculating kinematic parameters

2.2.7. Scanning electron microscope SEM

4

g

2.2.8. Measurement of particle size distribution by laser scattering

2.2.9. Method of manufacturing research samples

2.2.10. Methods for determining the composition of explosive products.

2.2.11. Methods of processing empirical data

CHAPTER III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. Oxygen balance and oxygen factor and composition of explosive

products

3.1.1. Calculation of factors and components of explosive products

3.1.1.1. Explosive system TГ

Table 3.1. Oxygen balance and oxygen factor of some ТГ mixtures.

No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Compound

name

ТГ-23

ТГ-25

ТГ-30

ТГ-35

ТГ-40

ТГ-45

ТГ-50

ТГ-55

ТГ-60

TNT, %

RDX, %

23

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

77

75

70

65

60

55

50

45

40

Molecular formula

assumption

C3.90H5.77O6.00N5.32

C3.98H5.75O6.00N5.26

C4.18H5.70O6.00N5.11

C4.38H5.66O6.00N4.97

C4.58H5.61O6.00N4.82

C4.78H5.56O6.00N4.67

C4.98H5.51O6.00N4.52

C5.18H5.46O6.00N4.37

C5.38H5.41O6.00N4.22

Kb , %

A, %

-33.7

-34.7

-37.3

-40.0

-42.6

-45.2

-47.8

-50.4

-53.1

59.7

59.1

57.6

56.1

54.5

53.0

51.5

50.0

48.5

Based on the above results and applying the Avakian method to

calculate the composition of explosive products, the explosive

decomposition reaction of explosives marks ТГ can be written as follows:

ТГ-23: C17.27H25.54O26.54N23.54 = 3.02CO2 + 10.74H2O + 9.76CO + 2.03H2 + 4.49C +11.77N2

ТГ-25: C16.20H23.41O24.41N21.41= 2.73CO2 + 9.81H2O + 9.13CO + 1.89H2 + 4.34C + 10.70N2

ТГ-30: C14.16H19.32O20.32N17.32= 2.18CO2 + 8.03H2O + 7.92CO + 1.63H2 + 4.06C +8.66N2

ТГ-35: C12.70H16.39O17.39N14.39 = 1.79CO2 + 6.76H2O + 7.04CO + 1.43H2 + 3.86C +7.20N2

ТГ-40: C11.60H14.20O15.20N12.20 = 1.51CO2 + 5.82H2O + 6.37CO + 1.29H2 + 3.72C +6.10N2

ТГ-45: C10.75H12.50O13.50N10.50 = 1.29CO2 + 5.08H2O + 5.85CO + 1.17H2 + 3.62C +5.25N2

ТГ-50: C10.07H11.14O12.14N9.14 = 1.11CO2 + 4.49H2O + 5.42CO + 1.07H2 + 3.54C +4.57N2

ТГ-55: C9.51H10.02O11.02N8.02 = 0.97CO2 + 4.02H2O + 5.06CO + 0.99H2 + 3.48C +4.01N2

ТГ-60: C9.05H9.09O10.09N7.09 = 0.85CO2 + 3.62H2O + 4.76CO + 0.93H2 + 3.43C +3.55N2

3.1.1.2. Explosive system A-IX-1

Table 3.3. Oxygen balance and oxygen factor of dynamite A-IX-13

No.

1

2

3

4

Compound

name

A-IX-13 (6.5)

A-IX-13 (6.0)

A-IX-13 (5.5)

A-IX-13 (5.0)

RDX, %

CTH, %

93.50

94.00

94.50

95.00

6.50

6.00

5.50

5.00

Molecular formula

assumption

C3.91H7.83O5.83N5.79

C3.84H7.69O5.85N5.81

C3.77H7.54O5.86N5.82

C3.69H7.40O5.87N5.84

Kb , %

A, %

-41.22

-39.71

-38.20

-36.70

62.43

62.76

63.08

63.41

5

g

Table 3.4. Oxygen balance and oxygen factor of explosive A-IX-11

No.

1

2

3

4

Compound

name

A-IX-13 (6.5)

A-IX-13 (6.0)

A-IX-13 (5.5)

A-IX-13 (5.0)

RDX.

%

93.50

94.00

94.50

95.00

Serezin.

%

6.50

6.00

5.50

5.00

Molecular formula

assumption

C4.00H8.05O5.86N5.86

C3.92H7.89O5.87N5.87

C3.84H7.73O5.88N5.88

C3.76H7.56O5.89N5.89

Kb . %

A. %

-42.59

-40.98

-39.37

-37.75

62.34

62.67

63.00

63.34

Based on the above results and applying Avakian method to

calculate the composition of explosive products, the decomposition reaction

of explosive A-IX-13 can be approximated as follows:

A-IX-1 (6.5): C4.05H8.12O6.04N6.00= 0.08CO2 + 3.32H2O + 2.56CO + 0.74H2 + 1.41C +3.00N2

A-IX-1 (6.0): C3.96H7.94O6.04N6.00 = 0.14CO2 + 3.26H2O + 2.50CO + 0.71H2 + 1.33C +3.00N2

A-IX-1 (5.5): C3.88H7.77O6.04N6.00 = 0.19CO2 + 3.21H2O + 2.44CO + 0.68H2 + 1.25C +3.00N2

A-IX-1 (5.0): C3.80H7.60O6.03N6.00 = 0.25CO2 + 3.15H2O + 2.38CO + 0.65H2 + 1.17C +3.00N2

Based on the above results and applying the Avakian method to

calculate the composition of explosive products, the decomposition reaction

of explosive A-IX-11 (5.0) can be approximated as follows:

A-IX-1 (6.5): C4.10H8.25O6.00N6.00 = 0.03CO2 + 3.35H2O + 2.60CO + 0.77H2 + 1.47C +3.00N2

A-IX-1 (6.0): C4.01H8.06O6.00N6.00 = 0.08CO2 + 3.30H2O + 2.54CO + 0.74H2 + 1.39C +3.00N2

A-IX-1 (5.5): C3.83H7.70O6.00N6.00 = 0.14CO2 + 3.24H2O + 2.47CO + 0.70H2 + 1.30C +3.00N2

A-IX-1 (5.0): C3.83H7.70O6.00N6.00 = 0.20CO2 + 3.18H2O + 2.41CO + 0.67H2 + 1.22C +3.00N2

3.1.2. Experimental qualitative composition of explosive products

The quantitative analysis is extremely complex and not enough

equipment to implement so the subject has used the existing equipment to

determine the calculation of the explosive product components of the

combination explosive representative ТГ-50, A-IX-13 and A-IX-11 with

CTH content of 5.5%.

Use NARL8514 Lightweight gas analyzer. MODEL 4016, showing

the results of explosive gas products on the gas chromatography clearly

show the pic of CO2, CO, N2. O2 gas is made weak in explosive products of

drugs A-IX-1, not existing in explosive products of explosives ТГ-50.

The result is also consistent with the calculation of the oxygen

balance and the oxygen coefficient of the explosives. The more explosives

there are negative (or A less positive) than the amount of oxygen in the

explosive product. The presence of oxygen in the composition of an

explosion caused by itself in a bomb when a vacuum can not fully complete

the atmosphere (oxygen-ready) reaches 0.03-0.04 bar, so the remaining

stain for the A-IX-1 explosive product is reasonable. For explosives ТГ-50

due to the more negative coefficient (-47.82%) It is recommended that the

6

g

oxygen itself involved in the reaction of the produced (C, CO) products is

stronger and almost no stain is detected.

Using an infrared absorption measurement device Jasco 4600, the

resulting absorption spectrometer of the liquid product is similared to the

infrared absorption spectrum of the sample ionized distilled water samples.

As such, it is obvious that the condensation fluid on the main is H2O.

Use ofscanning electron micrograph JSM-6510 LV-X-ray

dispersing probes for the composition of solid products of explosive A-IX13, A-IX-11, ТГ-50, theresults obtained from solid products show the

apparent presence of carbon. Besides, there are also elements: Cu, Zn, W,

O, Cl, Si, Pb, K. These elements are present as a result of decomposition of

compounds that are in the fire medicine and explosive medicine in the

copper differential. The substances are: Si, KClO4, W, Pb (N3)2, Zn. The

casing is made from copper (Cu).

The results are clearly visible to the existence of C, CO, CO2, N2,

H2O in explosive decomposition products of all three types of explosives.

In addition, there are O2 in explosive products A-IX-1. Currently, there is

no sufficiently sensitive measuring head to determine the presence of H2 in

explosive products.

3.2. Study the compatibility of the system

RDX has the original distribution as shown in Figure 3.14, surface

image as Figure 3.15. Photos of explosive surface TГ after mixing are

shown in Figures 3.16 and 3.17

Pic 3.14. Particle size

distribution of RDX

Pic 3.15. SEM image of grain

surface of RDX

7

g

Pic 3.16. SEM image of the outer Pic 3.17. SEM image of inner

surface TГ after casting

surface TГ after casting

SEM images show the adhesion, encapsulation of RDX explosive

particles by molten TNT. TNT here is also similar to the domesticated

substance, which binds explosive particles that are not subject to RDX

compression.

Parameter measurement results are shown in Table 3.12.

Table 3.12. Explosive parameters of explosives according to DSC curve

No. Compound name Tonset, oC

T p, oC

Conclude

∆Tp, oC

1 RDX

229.1085 243.0735

2 TГ-60/40

229.7773 241.8040

-1.2695

Compatible

The ∆Tp result shows that TNT is compatible with RDX. Thus, the

use of these two explosives to create a new explosive mixture is perfectly

suitable.

3.2.2. Explosive system A-IX-1

Images of A-IX-1 explosive surface after mixing are shown in

3.21.

Pic 3.8. SEM image of A-IX-1 explosive surface

SEM images show the adhesion, encapsulation of RDX explosive

particles by a mixture of domesticated substances. Thus, mechanically, the

mixture of domestication is suitable for wrapping RDX explosive particles,

8

g

which makes the surface has a sensitive and favorable layer for bonding

process by compression method. We obtain the physical parameters

according to Table 3.13.

Table 3.13. Decomposition parameters of types A-IX-1

No. Compound name

Tonset

Tp, oC

∆Tp, oC

Conclude

1

RDX

229.1085 243.0735

2

A-IX-11

229.8489 248.383

5.3095 Compatible

3

A-IX-13

243.2557 0.1822 Compatible

The ∆Tp result shows that the two types of CTH are compatible

with RDX. Thus, the use of these two types of CTH to create A-IX-1

explosive mixture is perfectly suitable.

3.3. Isothermal decomposition process of explosive

3.3.1. Explosive system TГ

The test samples are in direct contact with the air, heated at

different speeds. Devices used are DTA 404EP, NETZSCH GROUP.

The results show that the melting temperature of the mixture

changes in a narrow range. With the heating rate of 5 oC / minute, the

melting point only changes in the range (78.3 ÷ 79) oC. This shows that

although the RDX content ranges from (40 ÷ 77) %, the temperature to start

melting the mixture is only less than the temperature of TNT not exceeding

2.8 oC. Thus, the mixture when pouring is very convenient because it can

use hot water to cast and the mixture is stable at ambient temperature after

casting (do not melt when the temperature is up to 70 oC).

Similarly, the results of the temperature of decomposition start of

the mixture also changes in a small range, from (215,3 ÷ 219,2) oC when

the heating rate of 5 °C/minute, only lower than the captured temperature.

The decomposition head of RDX (220.6 oC) is about 5.3 oC. Thus, it can be

seen that these explosive mixtures are absolutely durable when using water

or steam to melt the mixture at a temperature of (100 ÷ 150) oC serving

casting into bombs and bullets.

From the two comments above, it is shown that the combination of

these two explosives together to create a new explosive mixture in the

study area still fully retains the casting technology of TNT and ensures fire

safety with temperature. Casting when using water (or steam) as TNT

melting solvent.

At the same time, also from the results of decomposition durability

of ТГ mixture in the range (215,3 ÷ 219,2) oC when heating speed 5

o

C/min, showing a special attention in the pouring technology: Do not use a

direct source of heat above 200 °C to melt the ТГ mixture because of the

very high risk of fire and explosion, causing unsafe loading of bombs and

ammunition (even when war occurs). Ideally, to ensure safety, only use a

source of heat not exceeding 150 oC.

Based on the results of measurement and graph of Kissinger's

equation, the value of the activation energy E, the pre-exponential factor Z

9

g

and the reaction rate kT at temperature (T) are determined as shown in table

3.18.

Table 3.18. Kinematic parameters and reaction rate constants of ТГ

mixtures.

No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

E, kJ.mol-1

193.417

194.564

200.434

203.153

207.068

213.370

218.284

219.606

224.162

232.193

235.128

238.820

241.705

243.434

244.881

247.907

110.801

Compound name

ТГ-60.0

ТГ-57.5

ТГ-55.0

ТГ-52.5

ТГ-50.0

ТГ-47.5

ТГ-45.0

ТГ-42.5

ТГ-40.0

ТГ-37.5

ТГ-35.0

ТГ-32.5

ТГ-30.0

ТГ-27.5

ТГ-25.0

ТГ-23.0

TNT

Z, s-1

3.84x1019

5.61x1019

2.87x1020

6.29x1020

1.76x1021

9.90x1021

3.90x1022

5.90x1022

1.92x1023

1.41x1024

3.57x1024

9.83x1024

2.04x1025

3.33x1025

1.72x1026

1.07x1026

1.96x109

kT, s-1

3.84x1019x e-23264/T

5.61x1019x e-23402/T

2.87x1020x e-24108/T

6.29x1020x e-24435/T

1.76x1021x e-24906/T

9.90x1021x e-25664/T

3.90x1022x e-26255/T

5.90x1022x e-26414/T

1.92x1023x e-26962/T

1.41x1024x e-27928/T

3.57x1024x e-28281/T

9.83x1024x e-28725/T

2.04x1025x e-29072/T

3.33x1025x e-29280/T

1.72x1026x e-29454/T

1.07x1026x e-29818/T

1.96x 109x e-13327/T

It is important to have calculated the decomposition reaction rate

equation on the basis of temperature T. The results of calculating the

decomposition rate constant at different temperatures are given in Table

3.19.

Bảng 3.19. The decomposition reaction rate of ТГ mixtures

No.

Compound

name

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

ТГ-60.0

ТГ-57.5

ТГ-55.0

ТГ-52.5

ТГ-50.0

ТГ-47.5

ТГ-45.0

ТГ-42.5

ТГ-40.0

ТГ-37.5

ТГ-35.0

ТГ-32.5

ТГ-30.0

ТГ-27.5

ТГ-25.0

ТГ-23.0

Constant reaction decomposition rate at different temperature, s-1

10 C

20 oC

30 oC

40 oC

50 oC

75 oC

19

19

19

19

19

3.53x10

3.54x10

3.55x10

3.56x10

3.57x10

3.59x1019

5.16x1019 5.18x1019 5.19x1019 5.21x1019 5.22x1019

5.24x1019

20

20

20

20

20

2.64x10

2.64x10

2.65x10

2.66x10

2.66x10

2.68x1020

20

20

20

20

20

5.77x10

5.79x10

5.80x10

5.82x10

5.83x10

5.86x1020

1.61x1021 1.62x1021 1.62x1021 1.63x1021 1.63x1021

1.64x1021

21

21

21

21

21

9.04x10

9.07x10

9.10x10

9.12x10

9.14x10

9.20x1021

22

22

22

22

22

3.55x10

3.56x10

3.58x10

3.59x10

3.59x10

3.62x1022

22

22

22

22

22

5.37x10

5.39x10

5.41x10

5.42x10

5.44x10

5.47x1022

23

23

23

23

23

1.75x10

1.76x10

1.76x10

1.77x10

1.77x10

1.78x1023

1.28x1024 1.28x1024 1.29x1024 1.29x1024 1.29x1024

1.30x1024

24

24

24

24

24

3.23x10

3.24x10

3.25x10

3.26x10

3.27x10

3.29x1024

24

24

24

24

24

8.88x10

8.91x10

8.94x10

8.97x10

8.99x10

9.05x1024

1.84x1025 1.84x1025 1.85x1025 1.86x1025 1.86x1025

1.87x1025

25

25

25

25

25

3.01x10

3.02x10

3.03x10

3.04x10

3.04x10

3.06x1025

25

25

25

25

25

4.52x10

4.53x10

4.55x10

4.56x10

4.58x10

4.61x1025

25

25

25

25

25

9.67x10

9.70x10

9.74x10

9.77x10

9.80x10

9.86x1025

o

10

g

From the results of the calculation of the decomposition rate

constant, found that at the same temperature, the rate constant decreases

with increasing TNT content in the mixture. This is due to the offset effect,

between the activation energy E falling and the pre-factor (frequency) Z

decreasing [4], [5]. According to the Arrhenius equation, kT is inversely

proportional to E and proportional to Z. It can be seen that Z decreases

when the concentration of TNT increases due to the thickening of the RDX

particles due to TNT, making the opportunity for contact between RDX

particles plummeted. This effect is greater than the activation energy

reduction effect E when the TNT content increases. Therefore, in general,

the reaction rate kT decreases with increasing TNT content.

From this constant, we can calculate the half-life at different

temperatures as shown in Table 3.20. On this basis, we can see that the

durability of the product depends largely on the storage temperature.

Table 3.20. The half-life of ТГ mixture

1

2

Compound

name

ТГ-60.0

ТГ-57.5

10 oC

2.88x1008

3.21x1008

The half - life at different temperatures, years

20 oC

30 oC

40 oC

50 oC

07

06

05

1.74x10

1.27x10

1.09x10

1.09x1004

07

06

05

1.91x10

1.37x10

1.16x10

1.14x1004

75 oC

6.18x1001

6.28x1001

3

4

5

ТГ-55.0

ТГ-52.5

ТГ-50.0

7.59x1008

1.10x1009

2.07x1009

4.15x1007

5.78x1007

1.03x1008

2.74x1006

3.68x1006

6.22x1006

2.16x1005

2.80x1005

4.50x1005

1.99x1004

2.50x1004

3.83x1004

9.34x1001

1.09x1002

1.51x1002

6

ТГ-47.5

5.38x1009

2.43x1008

1.35x1007

9.03x1005

7.13x1004

2.37x1002

ТГ-45.0

1.10x10

10

4.65x10

08

2.41x10

07

1.52x10

06

1.13x10

05

3.29x1002

10

5.28x10

08

2.70x10

07

1.66x10

06

1.22x10

05

3.43x1002

No.

7

8

ТГ-42.5

1.28x10

9

ТГ-40.0

2.72x1010

1.05x1009

5.04x1007

2.94x1006

2.04x1005

5.08x1002

ТГ-37.5

1.12x10

11

3.88x10

09

1.67x10

08

8.77x10

06

5.54x10

05

1.11x1003

11

5.11x10

09

2.11x10

08

1.07x10

07

6.53x10

05

1.21x1003

10

11

ТГ-35.0

1.55x10

12

ТГ-32.5

2.70x1011

8.45x1009

3.32x1008

1.61x1007

9.38x1005

1.58x1003

13

ТГ-30.0

4.44x10

11

10

08

07

06

2.06x1003

14

ТГ-27.5

5.66x1011

1.66x1010

6.12x1008

2.79x1007

1.54x1006

2.29x1003

15

ТГ-25.0

2.02x10

11

09

08

06

05

7.30x1002

16

ТГ-23.0

1.17x1012

2.53x1006

3.33x1003

1.33x10

5.80x10

3.22x1010

5.04x10

2.10x10

1.12x1009

2.35x10

9.41x10

4.83x1007

1.33x10

5.11x10

From table 3.20, it is shown that storage temperature greatly affects

product durability. In the normal temperature range in our country (about

10-50 oC), this type of explosive has a half-life of about 10 times when

reducing 10 oC of storage temperature. Durability decreases sharply when

the storage temperature is near the melting point of TNT. The higher the

RDX content, the higher the durability of the mixture and vice versa the

greater the concentration of TNT, the lower the product durability. In fact,

TNT is easier to melt and more degraded than RDX. Therefore, during

11

g

Activation energy, kJ/mol

storage, to increase the shelf life of the product, it is necessary to cool the

storage, especially the warehouses in areas with high weather temperatures

during the year.

Based on the calculation results of the activation energy E and the

pre-exponential factor the Z of the explosive mixtures ТГ, we can establish

the dependence of these two quantities on the mixture components as

shown in Figure 3.44 and 3.45.

260,0

250,0

240,0

230,0

220,0

210,0

200,0

190,0

180,0

y = -1.5776x + 287.51

r² = 0.9872

20,0

30,0

40,0

TNT, %

50,0

60,0

Pre-exponential factor ,s-1

Pic 3.44. Graph of dependence of activation energy on TNT content

in explosive mixture ТГ

1,20E+26

1,00E+26

8,00E+25

6,00E+25

y = 5.E+30.e-0.428x

r² = 0.9874

4,00E+25

2,00E+25

1,00E+18

20,0

30,0

40,0

50,0

TNT, %

60,0

70,0

Pic 3.45. Dependent graph of the pre-exponential factor the Z to the

TNT content in the explosive mixture ТГ.

Thus, on the basis of these two types of graphs, we can approximate

the activation energy, the pre-exponential factor the Z of a mixture of

dynamite ТГ with specific components whose RDX content is in the range (

40 ÷ 77)% or TNT content is in the range (23 ÷ 60)% with high reliability

(r2 is greater than 0.98).

12

g

Activation energy of the mixture depends on the TNT content

following the first order equation: y = -1.5776x + 287.51 with correlation

coefficient r2 = 0.9872.

The pre-exponential factor the Z of the mixture depends on the

TNT content following the equation: y = 5.1030.e-0.428x with the correlation

coefficient r2 = 0.9874.

From this, we can determine the decomposition rate constant and

predict the durability through the half-life of a mixture of ТГ with specific

components within the studied.

3.3.2. Explosive system A-IX-1

3.3.2.1. CTH 3 components

Based on the results of DTA measurement and Kissinger's equation

graph, the value of activating energy E, pre-exponential factor Z and the

reaction rate constant at temperature (T) are determined as table 3.27.

Table 3.27. Kinetic parameters and decomposition reaction

constants of A-IX-13

No.

1

2

3

4

5

Compound name

RDX

A-IX-13 (M1)

A-IX-13 (M2)

A-IX-13 (M3)

A-IX-13 (M4)

E, kJ.mol-1

252.579

164.384

158.631

142.868

134.437

Z, s-1

1.17 x1026

8.17x1016

2.47x1016

4.74x1014

5.40x1013

kT, s-1

1.17 x1026x e-30380/T

8.17x1016x e-19772/T

2.47x1016x e-19080/T

4.74x1014x e-17184/T

5.40x1013x e-16170/T

It is important to calculate the equation for the decomposition

reaction rate based on the temperature of T. The result of calculating the

decomposition rate constant at different temperatures is given in Table

3.28.

Table 3.28. The decomposition reaction rate of a mixture of A-IX-13

No.

Compound

name

1

A-IX-13 (M1)

Constant reaction decomposition rate at different temperature, s-1

10 oC

20 oC

30 oC

40 oC

50 oC

60 oC

16

16

16

16

16

7.62x10

7.64x10

7.65x10

7.67x10

7.69x10

7.70x1016

2

3

4

A-IX-13 (M2)

A-IX-13 (M3)

A-IX-13 (M4)

2.31x1016

4.46x1014

5.10x1013

2.32x1016

4.47x1014

5.11x1013

2.32x1016

4.48x1014

5.12x1013

2.33x1016

4.48x1014

5.13x1013

2.33x1016

4.49x1014

5.14x1013

2.33x1016

4.50x1014

5.15x1013

From the results of the calculation of the decomposition rate

constant, found that at the same temperature, the rate constant decreases

with increasing the content of CTH in the mixture. This is due to the offset

effect between activating energy E and decreasing pre-exponential factor

(frequency) Z. According to the Arrhenius equation, kT is inversely

proportional to E and proportional to Z. It can be seen that Z decreases

when the concentration of bio-energy increases due to the thickening of the

RDX particles because the self-created domesticated explosives makes the

opportunity for contact between RDX particles are falling sharply. This

13

g

effect is greater than the activation energy reduction E effect when the bioenergy content increases. Therefore, in general, the reaction rate kT

decreases with increasing bio-energy content.

From this constant, the half-life can be calculated at different

temperatures as shown in Table 3.29. On this basis, it can be seen that the

durability of the product greatly depends on the storage temperature.

Table 3.29. The half-life of a mixture of domesticated A-IX-13.

A-IX-13 (M1)

10 oC

5.87x1005

The half - life at different temperatures, years

20 oC

30 oC

40 oC

50 oC

04

03

02

5.41x10

5.84x10

7.26x10

1.03x1002

60 oC

1.64x1001

A-IX-13 (M2)

A-IX-13 (M3)

A-IX-13 (M4)

1.70x1005

1.07x1004

2.65x1003

1.70x1004

1.35x1003

3.78x1002

6.81x1000

1.18x1000

4.99x10-1

No.

Compound

name

1

2

3

4

1.98x1003

1.95x1002

6.11x1001

2.65x1002

3.19x1001

1.11x1001

4.01x1001

5.84x1000

2.24x1000

Activation energy, kJ/mol

From table 3.29, we see that storage temperature greatly affects

product durability. In the normal temperature range in our country (about

10-50 oC), this type of explosive has a half-life of about 10 times when

reducing 10 oC of storage temperature. Durability decreases sharply when

the storage temperature is near the melting point of stearic acid (67-70) oC.

The greater the RDX content, the higher the durability of the mixture and

vice versa the higher the content of the CTH, the more the product

durability decreases. In fact, stearic acid and serezin have a much lower

melting point than RDX. Therefore, during storage, to increase the shelf

life of the product, it is necessary to cool the storage, especially the

warehouses in areas with high weather temperatures during the year.

Based on the results of calculating the activation energy E and the

pre-exponential factor the Z of the explosive mixtures A-IX-1, we can

establish the dependence of these two quantities on the composition as

shown in the figure. 3.56 and 3.57.

170,0

160,0

150,0

140,0

y = -21.118x + 271.49

r² = 0.9704

130,0

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

CTH, %

6,5

7,0

Pic 3.56. Graph of the dependence of activation energy A-IX-13 on

the content of CTH.

14

Pre-exponential factor , 1/s

g

1,40E+17

1,20E+17

1,00E+17

8,00E+16

6,00E+16

y = 2E+28e-5.184x

r² = 0.9636

4,00E+16

2,00E+16

0,00E+00

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

CTH, %

6,5

7,0

Pic 3.57. Graph of dependence of the pre-exponential coefficient of

A-IX-13 on the content of CTH.

Thus, on the basis of these two types of graphs, we can

approximate the activation energy, the pre-exponential factor the Z of an AIX-1 explosive mixture (self-contained 3 substances) Specifically, the

content of RDX is in the range (93.5 ÷ 95.0)% or the content of CTH is in

the range (5.0 ÷ 6.5)% with high reliability (r2 is greater than 0.96). ).

Activation energy of the mixture depends on the content of CTH

(including 3 substances) according to the first-order equation: y = -21.118x

+ 271.49 with a correlation coefficient r2 = 0.9704.

The pre-exponential factor the Z of the mixture depends on the

content of CTH (including 3 substances) according to the equation: y =

2.10-197.e-5.1836x with the correlation coefficient r2 = 0.9636.

From this, it is possible to determine the decomposition rate

constant and predict the durability through the half-life of A-IX-1 mixture

when the RDX content (or the mixture of domesticated substances) is

determined in explosive.

3.3.2.2. With CTH 1 component

Based on DTA measurement results and Kissinger's equation

graph, we can determine the value of activating energy E, pre-exponential

factor the Z and constant reaction rate kT at temperature (T) as shown in

Table 3.35.

According to the results in Table 3.35, it was found that: Activation

energy decreases with increasing concentration of bio-energy (serezin).

This also has similarities with the use of 3 substances in CTH. However,

the activation energy of these A-IX-1 models is much lower than that of

using 3 substances in CTH. This means that to stimulate the thermal

decomposition of this A-IX-1 mixture we will need more energy.

15

g

Table 3.35. Kinetic parameters and reaction rate constants of A-IX-11

No.

1

2

3

4

Compound

A-IX-11 (M5)

A-IX-11 (M6)

A-IX-11 (M7)

A-IX-11 (M8)

E, kJ.mol-1

233.8

231.5

228.3

219.8

Z, s-1

3.03x1024

1.64x1024

7.17x1023

7.43x1022

kT, s-1

3.03x1024x e-28126/T

1.64x1024x e-27850/T

7.17x1023x e-27459/T

7.43x1022x e-26440/T

It is important to calculate the equation for the decomposition

reaction rate based on the temperature of T. The results of calculating the

decomposition rate constant at different temperatures are given in Table

3.36.

Table 3.36. The decomposition reaction rate constants of A-IX-11

No.

Compound

1

2

3

4

A-IX-11 (M5)

A-IX-11 (M6)

A-IX-11 (M7)

A-IX-11 (M8)

Constant reaction decomposition rate at different temperature, s-1

10 oC

20 oC

30 oC

40 oC

50 oC

75 oC

24

24

24

24

24

2.74x10

2.75x10

2.76x10

2.77x10

2.78x10

2.79x1024

24

24

24

24

24

1.48x10

1.49x10

1.49x10

1.50x10

1.50x10

1.51x1024

23

23

23

23

23

6.51x10

6.53x10

6.55x10

6.57x10

6.59x10

6.63x1023

6.77x1022 6.79x1022 6.81x1022 6.83x1022 6.85x1022 6.89x1022

From the results of the calculation of the decomposition rate

constant, it is found that at the same temperature, the rate constant

decreases with increasing the content of bio-energy (serezin) in the mixture.

This is due to the offset effect between activating energy E and decreasing

pre-factor (frequency) Z [4], [5]. According to the Arrhenius equation, kT is

inversely proportional to E and proportional to Z. Similarly, it can be seen

that Z decreases when the content of TNT (serezin) increases due to the

thickening of RDX particles by CTH (serezin). has made the opportunity

for contact between RDX particles sharply decrease. This effect is greater

than the activation energy reduction effect E when the content of bioenergy (serezin) increases. In general, the reaction rate kT decreases with

increasing concentration of bio-energy (serezin).

From the result of this constant, the half-life can be calculated at

different temperatures as shown in Table 3.37. On this basis, we can see

that the durability of the product depends largely on the storage

temperature.

Table 3.37. The half-life of A-IX-11.

A-IX-11 (M5)

A-IX-11 (M6)

10 oC

1.05x1011

7.36x1010

The half - life at different temperatures, years

20 oC

30 oC

40 oC

50 oC

09

08

06

3.55x10

1.49x10

7.69x10

4.76x1005

09

08

06

2.56x10

1.11x10

5.90x10

3.75x1005

75 oC

9.14x1002

7.66x1002

A-IX-11 (M7)

A-IX-11 (M8)

4.22x1010

1.11x1010

1.54x1009

4.58x1008

5.68x1002

2.93x1002

No.

Compound

1

2

3

4

6.98x1007

2.33x1007

3.86x1006

1.44x1006

2.55x1005

1.05x1005

From table 3.37, it is shown that storage temperature greatly

influences product durability. In the normal temperature range in our

country (about 10-50 oC), this type of explosive has a half-life of about 10

times when reducing 10 oC of storage temperature. Durability decreases

16

g

sharply when the storage temperature is near the melting point of serezin.

The content of CTH increases, the durability of products decreases and vice

versa. In fact, serezin has a much lower melting point than RDX.

Therefore, during storage, to increase the shelf life of the product, it is

necessary to cool the storage, especially those in areas with high weather

temperatures during the year.

Based on the results of calculating the activation energy E and the

pre-exponential factor the Z of the explosive mixtures A-IX-1, we can

establish the dependence of these two quantities on the composition as

shown in the figure. 3.66 and 3.67.

Activation energy,

kJ/mol

240,0

235,0

230,0

225,0

y = -9.0606x + 280.47

r² = 0.9076

220,0

215,0

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

CTH, %

6,5

7,0

Pic 3.66. Graph of dependence of activating energy A-IX-11 on the

content of CTH.

Pre-exponential factor , 1/s

3,50E+24

3,00E+24

2,50E+24

y = 7.E+29.e-2.39x

r² = 0.9041

2,00E+24

1,50E+24

1,00E+24

5,00E+23

0,00E+00

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

CTH, %

6,5

7,0

Pic 3.67. Graph of dependence of exponential factor of A-IX-11 on

content of CTH

Thus, on the basis of these two graphs, we can calculate the

approximate activation energy, the pre-exponential factor the Z of an

explosive mixture of A-IX-1 ( is serezin) with specific composition. If the

17

g

content of RDX is within (93.5 ÷ 95.0)% or the content of CTH is in the

range (5.0 ÷ 6.5)% with high reliability (r2 is greater than 0.90) .

Activation energy of the mixture depends on the content of bioenergy (serezin) following the first order equation: y = -9.0606x + 280.47

with the correlation coefficient r2 = 0.9076.

The pre-exponential factor Z of the mixture depends on the content

of bio-energy (serezin) according to the equation: y = 7.1029.e-2.39x with the

correlation coefficient r2 = 0.9041.

From this, we can determine the decomposition rate constant and

predict the durability through the half-life of A-IX-1 mixture (type 1

domestication is serezin).

Comment:

Thus, it can be seen that when increasing the content of

domestication, the temperature of the mixture begins to melt significantly.

The above result confirms that the safe temperature range for the use of AIX-1 explosive with hypersensitivity mixture (serezin, stearic acid, sudan)

or a domestication (serezin) is (293 ÷ 473) K or (20 ÷ 200) oC. However,

temperature is extremely important in preserving to avoid degradation of

product quality. Therefore, always keep cool, low temperature is the

decisive condition to the time of storage and use of the product.

3.4. Dependence of explosive heat on explosive components

3.4.1. Explosive system TГ

Experimental equation of explosive energy on the content of TNT

and RDX as shown in Figure 3.68.

Q, kcal/kg

1400,0

1380,0

1360,0

1340,0

1320,0

1300,0

1280,0

1260,0

y = -3.101x + 1461.332

r² = 0.999

20,0

30,0

40,0

50,0

60,0

TNT, %

Fig 3.68. Graph the dependence of the explosive heat of ТГ into the

TNT content

It can be concluded: The explosive heat of the explosive explosive

mixture ТГ depends on the TNT content according to the first order

equation: y = -3.101x + 1461.332 with correlation coefficient r2 = 0.999.

Where x is the TNT content (% mass).

18

g

3.4.2. Explosive system A-IX-1

3.4.2.1. CTH 3 components

The equation obtains the result as a graph as shown in Figure 3.69.

Q, kcal/kg

1365,0

1360,0

1355,0

1350,0

1345,0

1340,0

1335,0

1330,0

1325,0

y = -21.005x + 1463.185

r² = 0.996

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

6,5

7,0

CTH, %

Fig. 3.69. Graph of dependence of explosive heat of A-IX-13 on

content of CTH

Thus, it can be concluded: The explosive heat of A-IX-1 mixed

explosive (kcal/kg) at the density of 1.62 g/cm3 depends on the content of

CTH (including 3 substances) according to the first-order equation : y = 21.005x + 1463.185 with correlation coefficient r2 = 0.996. In which, x is

the content of CTH (% mass).

3.4.2.2. CTH 1 component

We obtain the result of the equation as the graph in Figure 3.70.

Q, kcal/kg

1360,0

1355,0

1350,0

1345,0

1340,0

1335,0

1330,0

1325,0

1320,0

1315,0

y = -21.620x + 1461.740

r² = 0.998

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

6,5

7,0

CTH, %

Pic 3.70. Graph of dependence of explosive heat of A-IX-11 on the

content of CTH.

Thus, it is possible to conclude: The explosive heat of A-IX-1

mixed explosive (1 domesticated substance) at the density of 1.62 g/cm3

depends on the content of CTH according to the first order equation: y = -

19

g

21.620x + 1461.740 with the correlation coefficient r2 = 0.998. In which, x

is the content of CTH (% mass).

3.5. Dependence on explosion rate on explosive components

3.5.1. Explosive system TГ

3.5.1.1. Dependent equation of explosive density

The result is obtained as the graph in Figure 3.71.

𝜌, mg/cm3

1760

1740

1720

1700

1680

1660

y = -1.884x + 1783.563

r² = 0.986

10,0

20,0

30,0

40,0

50,0

60,0

70,0

TNT, %

Pic 3.71. Graph of dependence of the highest molding density of

explosives TГ (mg/cm3) on TNT content (%)

Thus, we can conclude: The highest casting density of explosive

TГ (mg/cm3) depends on the content of TNT (x,%) in the first order: y = 1.884x + 1783.563 with r2 = 0.986.

3.5.1.2. Dependent equation for velocity of detonation on TNT content

a. At the same density

We built the graph as Figure 3.72

D, m/s

8000,0

7900,0

7800,0

7700,0

7600,0

7500,0

7400,0

7300,0

y = -15.350x + 8288.087

r² = 0.996

20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0 50,0 55,0 60,0 65,0

TNT, %

Fig 3.72. Graph of dependence of velocity of detonation of TГ

(m/s) on TNT content (%) at density of 1.60 g/cm3

20

g

Thus, we can conclude: Explosive speed of explosives TГ depends

on the composition of TNT in the first order function: y = -15.350x +

8288.087 with correlation coefficient r2 = 0.996.

b. At the highest casting density

We built the graph as shown in Figure 3.73.

D, m/s

8300,0

8200,0

8100,0

8000,0

7900,0

7800,0

7700,0

7600,0

7500,0

7400,0

7300,0

y = -21.733x + 8729.624

r² = 0.980

15,0 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0 50,0 55,0 60,0 65,0

TNT, %

Fig 3.73. The dependent graph of velocity of detonation of TГ (m/s) in the

TNT content (%) at highest casting density

Thus, we can conclude: The velocity of detonation of explosive TГ

(mg/cm3) depends on the content of TNT (%) at the highest casting density

according to the first order function: y = -21.733x + 8729.624 with

correlation coefficient r2 = 0.980.

Based on the above equations, we can approximate the highest

casting density parameter, corresponding explosion rate at that density or

explosion rate at commonly used density of 1.60 g/cm3 of any TГ mixture

has TNT content of about (23 ÷ 60)% or RDX of about (40 ÷ 77)%.

3.5.2. Explosive system A-IX-1

3.5.2.1. With CTH 3 components

The most common domestication mixture for making A-IX-1 is:

60% serezin + 38.8% stearic acid + 0.2% sudan.

Using the above domestication mixture results in a graph as shown

in Figure 3.74.

Thus, we can conclude: The velocity of explosive of A-IX-13

depends on the composition of CTH with the first function: y = 146.494x +

7024.091 with correlation coefficient r2 = 0.995.

21

g

D, m/s

8000,0

7950,0

7900,0

7850,0

7800,0

7750,0

7700,0

y = -146.49x + 8708.8

r² = 0.995

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

7,0 CTH, %

6,5

Fig 3.74. Graph of dependence of velocity of detonation of A-IX-13 on

content of CTH (%)

3.5.2.2. With CTH 1 component

We can use a single-component domestication for A-IX-1. To

make a comparison with the domesticated mixture of 3 substances, we use

the domesticated substance, serezin.

We obtain the result as the graph in Figure 3.75.

D, m/s

y = -146.14x + 8686.2

r² = 0.991

8000,0

7950,0

7900,0

7850,0

7800,0

7750,0

7700,0

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

6,5

7,0 CTH, %

Fig 3.75. Graph of dependence of velocity of detonation of A-IX-11 on

content of CTH (%)

Thus, we can conclude:

+ Explosive speed of explosive A-IX-11 depends on the

composition of CTH with the first function: y = 146.138x + 7005.658 with

correlation coefficient r2 = 0.991.

+ Based on the newly developed empirical equations, we can

calculate the approximate explosion rate of A-IX-1 (using domesticated

substance serezin) at any RDX content in the range (93.5 ÷ 95)% with high

accuracy.

## Nghiên cứu tính ổn định của quá trình ngắt mạch

## Nghiên cứu cơ sở lí thuyết quá trình phân loại sản phẩm nghiền theo kích thước hạt trong thiết bị phân li kiểu li tâm

## Tài liệu GIẢI TÍCH MẠNG - CHƯƠNG 8: NGHIÊN CỨU TÍNH ỔN ĐỊNH CỦA QUÁ TRÌNH QUÁ ĐỘ ppt

## nghiên cứu sự phát triển của công nghệ cơ sở dữ liệu và khai phá dữ liệu

## NGHIÊN CỨU CƠ SỞ LÝ THUYẾT QUÁ TRÌNH PHÂN LOẠI SẢN PHẨM NGHIỀN THEO KÍCH THƯỚC HẠT TRONG THIẾT BỊ PHÂN LY KIỂU LY TÂM pot

## NGHIÊN CỨU KHOA HỌC-ĐỀ TÀI: "quá trình phát triển và thoái hóa của đá cacbonat tuổi miocen trên đới nâng tri tôn phần nam bể trầm tích sông hồng" ppt

## GIẢI TÍCH MẠNG_CHƯƠNG 8: NGHIÊN CỨU TÍNH ỔN ĐỊNH CỦA QUÁ TRÌNH QUÁ ĐỘ (tt) pps

## Nghiên cứu sự tạo phức của Zn(II) với Eriocrom đen T bằng phương pháp trắc quang

## nghiên cứu sự ổn định của công trình bảo vệ bờ biển do ảnh hưởng của tải trọng động

## nghiên cứu sự tham gia của cộng đồng trong việc xây dựng và quản lý đường giao thông thônbản ở huyện thanh thủy, tỉnh phú thọ

Tài liệu liên quan