Tải bản đầy đủ

Nghiên cứu sự phụ thuộc của quá trình phân hủy nhiệt và tốc độ nổ vào thành phần thuốc nổ hỗn hợp trên nền hexogen tt tiếng anh

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

MINISTRY OF NATIONAL

AND TRAINING

DEFENCE

ACADEMY OF MILITARY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

NGUYEN MAU VUONG

STUDY THE DEPENDENCE OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION
PROCESS AND VELOCITY OF DETONATION ON THE
COMPOSITION OF EXPLOSIVE MIXTURE BASED ON HEXOGEN

Major: Theoretical and Physical Chemistry.

Code: 9 44 01 19

SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL THESIS


Ha Noi - 2020


CôBỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO

BỘ QUỐC PHÒNG

TẠO
VIỆN KHOA HỌC VÀ CÔNG NGHỆ QUÂN SỰ


The work was completed in :
Academy of Military Science and Technology, Ministry of Defence

Science intructors:
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ngo Van Giao
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dang Van Duong

Reviewer 1: Prof. Dr. Thai Hoang
Vietnam Academmy of Science and Technology
Reviewer 2: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dam Quang Sang
Military Technical Academy
Reviewer 3: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ninh Duc Ha
Academy of Military Science and Technology

The thesis is protected at the doctoral thesis evaluation council meeting at:
Military Science and Technology Institute
At: ……….., date: …../…../2020

Thesis can be searched at:
- Academy of Military Science and Technology Library
- National Library of Vietnam.


LIST OF SCIENTIFIC WORK PUBLISHED

1. Nguyen Mau Vuong, Ngo Van Giao, Nguyen Ngoc Tu (2014), Thermal
decomposition studies on cast mixture of TNT and RDX, Proceedings The
3th Academic Conference on Natural Science for Master and PhD Students


from Asean Contries, Publishing House for Science and Technology,
p.411-417.
2. Nguyen Mau Vuong, Ngo Van Giao, Dang Van Duong (2015), Study the
dependence of velocity of detonation on the composition of mixed explosive
ТГ, Journal of Military Science and Technology Research, Issue number
HH-VL, 10-2015, Academy of Military Science and Technology, p.220227.
3. Nguyen Mau Vuong, Ngo Van Giao, Dang Van Duong (2015),
Research into thermal decomposition of a mixture of RDX and insensitive,
Proceedings The 4th Academic Conference on Natural Science for Young
Scientists, Master and PhD Students from Asean Contries, Publishing
House for Science and Technology, p.216-222.
4. Nguyen Mau Vuong, Ngo Van Giao (2016), Study the dependence of
velocity of detonation on the composition of mixed explosive A-IX-1,
Journal

of

Chemistry

and

Application,

number

1(33)/2016,

Vietnam Chemical Association, p.42-44.
5. Nguyen

Mau

Vuong,

Ngo

Van

Giao,

Dang

Van

Duong,

Research results of dependence of explosive heat on the composition of
explosive ТГ, Journal of Chemistry and Application, topical number
(02)

/2019, Vietnam Chemical Association, p.4-8.


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OPENING
1. The urgency of the thesis
Hexogen or RDX is the common name of cyclonite; 1,3,5-trinitro1,3,5-triazocyclohecxan, hay cyclotrimetylen trinitramin, with the formula
C3H6O6N6. RDX (symbol is , RDX) is one of the strong classic explosives.
RDX explosive has a high detonation velocity (8380 m/s at a density of 1.70
g/cm3), a high fertility force measured by the lead bomb method is (450 ÷
520) ml. However, RDX is highly sensitive (70 ÷ 80%), does not tolerate
compression and decomposes before melting. Therefore, people often use it
in combination with a high-tech explosive (fusible, not decomposing when
molten) like TNT to cast into the heart of bombs, mines, bullets, explosive
primers or with domestication reduces sensitivity, increases compressive
resistance to load into concave bullets, explosive ammunition destroys
damage.
Currently, the military has invested in RDX'sproduction on an
industrial scale. Same with the TNT's production line, this line has been in
production for the past time. At the same time, the military has been and
will continue to invest in production lines and repair of mortar bullets, antitank bullets and low-level anti-aircraft missiles. However, studies on the
process of thermal decomposition, the dependence of detonation velocity
on the mixture components on the RDX platform, although already
mentioned but still limited. This research determines the ability of the
technology to load mixed explosive into the bomb core, researching the
effect of ingredients on explosive speed will determine the power of
explosives. This issue has also been studied but is not have much public
documents.
Especially in our country, this subject has not been mentioned. We
received technology transfer, load making under contract, but there is no
scientific basis to serve the design and manufacture of new types of
ammunition suitable to the level of technology and combat capability for
our army. Therefore, the PhD student: "Studying the dependence of
explosive speed and decomposition process on the composition of
explosive mixture based on hexogen" is not only scientifically meaningful
but also practical, urgent as a scientific basis for the research, design and
manufacture of new types of ammunition suitable to the technological and
operational conditions of the army.
In calculating the design of bullets and explosive blocks currently,
the world has used the copyrighted software ANSYS (Autodyn, LS-Dyna),
MSC (Nastran, Dytran) to simulate explosive effects with accuracy. , very
high reliability. From these simulations, people shorten the time and money
to come up with an optimal design for each type of product in accordance
with the set goals. Each ammunition design (or explosive device) will be
optimized with a specific type of explosive.


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In the military, with the initial tactical specifications set for the
design of ammunition, bombs and mines, especially with the use of
concave explosive effect, the parameters put in the software for the most
important explosive were density, detonation velocity. When changing
these important parameters, the results obtained are completely different for
a given design. There will be parameters to ensure that the design achieves
the optimal effect of the explosion, sometimes it is economically optimal
while still ensuring the initial specifications. Therefore, it is urgent to set up
a manual of explosive systems (with all important parameters). At the same
time, studying the thermal decomposition process will help determine the
safe casting temperature range, the half-life of the drug depends on the
storage temperature. This is also the basis to determine the durability of the
product and guide the storage conditions of ammunition storage.
2. The objectives of the thesis
Research theoretical and experimental basis on the explosion
process of two explosive explosives on the basis of RDX (T, A-IX-1) to
build the orientation database for setting up a single explosive component
suitable for use in researching and designing shaped bullets, concave
bullets, bullets with strong destructive power; determine the safe casting
temperature range, predict the life of the product based on the calculation of
the half-life of explosives and indicate the importance of temperature factor
to the life of the product in preservation process, fire safety of bullets and
explosives.
3. The content of the thesis research
- Calculate the dependence of oxygen balance, oxygen coefficient,
assumed molecular formula, explosive heat on the composition of
combined explosive T, A-IX-1.
- Determination of kinematic parameters of the decomposition
process when changing explosive components T nổ, A-IX-1. From there,
calculate the half-life of explosives, predict product durability.
- Determining the experimental equation depending on the
explosive speed, explosive heat on explosive components T, A-IX-1.
4. Scientific, practical and new contributions of the thesis
- Starting from the actual need to study these two types of
explosives in order to build a database for the design of a single component
in accordance with the requirements of the design and manufacture of
bullets (especially concave bullet, bullet shaping), bombs and mines.
- Based on the method of thermal analysis, determining the safe
casting temperature range, predicting the life of the product based on the
calculation of the half-life of explosives and showing the importance of the
factor. temperature to the shelf life of the product during safe storage of fire
and explosion.


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* Research Methods
The project uses a combination of methods of theoretical
calculation and empirical measurement with high precision on modern and
advanced equipment and facilities (from the method of prototyping,
uniform sample preparation). small errors to the use of modern, highprecision equipment) to establish reliable empirical laws.
* The layout of the thesis
The thesis includes: Introduction, four chapters, conclusions, list of
references.
Heading
Describe the urgency of the thesis topic, general overview of the
objectives, content, research methods, scientific and practical meanings of
the thesis and briefly introduce the layout of the thesis.
Chapter I. Overview
Analyzing and evaluating the domestic and foreign research
situation, related issues and issues to be addressed in the thesis.
Chapter II. Research methods
Presentation of prototyping methods, calculation methods and
measurement methods for explosive explosives.
Chapter III Results and Discussion
This chapter focuses on solving the researched content of the
thesis.
CONTENTS OF THE THESIS
CHAPTER I: OVERVIEW
Regarding RDX explosives and RDX-based mixtures, analyzing
and evaluating domestic and foreign research situation, related issues and
issues to be addressed in the thesis.
CHAPTER II: SUBJECTS AND METHODS OF THE STUDY
2.1. Research subjects
2.1.1. Object:
The research object of the thesis is ТГ and A-IX-1 explosive systems.
2.1.2. Chemistry
Korean chemicals (RDX), China: TNT, serezin, sudan, Malaysia: stearic
acid;
2.2. Research Methods
2.2.1. Method of calculating oxygen balance and oxygen coefficient
2.2.2. Method of measurement and calculation of explosive heat
2.2.3. Methods and equipment for determining the explosion rate
2.2.4. Thermal analysis method
2.2.5. Conformity assessment method and thermal endurance by DSC
2.2.6. Method of calculating kinematic parameters
2.2.7. Scanning electron microscope SEM


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2.2.8. Measurement of particle size distribution by laser scattering
2.2.9. Method of manufacturing research samples
2.2.10. Methods for determining the composition of explosive products.
2.2.11. Methods of processing empirical data
CHAPTER III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Oxygen balance and oxygen factor and composition of explosive
products
3.1.1. Calculation of factors and components of explosive products
3.1.1.1. Explosive system TГ
Table 3.1. Oxygen balance and oxygen factor of some ТГ mixtures.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Compound
name
ТГ-23
ТГ-25
ТГ-30
ТГ-35
ТГ-40
ТГ-45
ТГ-50
ТГ-55
ТГ-60

TNT, %

RDX, %

23
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60

77
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40

Molecular formula
assumption
C3.90H5.77O6.00N5.32
C3.98H5.75O6.00N5.26
C4.18H5.70O6.00N5.11
C4.38H5.66O6.00N4.97
C4.58H5.61O6.00N4.82
C4.78H5.56O6.00N4.67
C4.98H5.51O6.00N4.52
C5.18H5.46O6.00N4.37
C5.38H5.41O6.00N4.22

Kb , %

A, %

-33.7
-34.7
-37.3
-40.0
-42.6
-45.2
-47.8
-50.4
-53.1

59.7
59.1
57.6
56.1
54.5
53.0
51.5
50.0
48.5

Based on the above results and applying the Avakian method to
calculate the composition of explosive products, the explosive
decomposition reaction of explosives marks ТГ can be written as follows:
ТГ-23: C17.27H25.54O26.54N23.54 = 3.02CO2 + 10.74H2O + 9.76CO + 2.03H2 + 4.49C +11.77N2
ТГ-25: C16.20H23.41O24.41N21.41= 2.73CO2 + 9.81H2O + 9.13CO + 1.89H2 + 4.34C + 10.70N2
ТГ-30: C14.16H19.32O20.32N17.32= 2.18CO2 + 8.03H2O + 7.92CO + 1.63H2 + 4.06C +8.66N2
ТГ-35: C12.70H16.39O17.39N14.39 = 1.79CO2 + 6.76H2O + 7.04CO + 1.43H2 + 3.86C +7.20N2
ТГ-40: C11.60H14.20O15.20N12.20 = 1.51CO2 + 5.82H2O + 6.37CO + 1.29H2 + 3.72C +6.10N2
ТГ-45: C10.75H12.50O13.50N10.50 = 1.29CO2 + 5.08H2O + 5.85CO + 1.17H2 + 3.62C +5.25N2
ТГ-50: C10.07H11.14O12.14N9.14 = 1.11CO2 + 4.49H2O + 5.42CO + 1.07H2 + 3.54C +4.57N2
ТГ-55: C9.51H10.02O11.02N8.02 = 0.97CO2 + 4.02H2O + 5.06CO + 0.99H2 + 3.48C +4.01N2
ТГ-60: C9.05H9.09O10.09N7.09 = 0.85CO2 + 3.62H2O + 4.76CO + 0.93H2 + 3.43C +3.55N2
3.1.1.2. Explosive system A-IX-1
Table 3.3. Oxygen balance and oxygen factor of dynamite A-IX-13
No.
1
2
3
4

Compound
name
A-IX-13 (6.5)
A-IX-13 (6.0)
A-IX-13 (5.5)
A-IX-13 (5.0)

RDX, %

CTH, %

93.50
94.00
94.50
95.00

6.50
6.00
5.50
5.00

Molecular formula
assumption
C3.91H7.83O5.83N5.79
C3.84H7.69O5.85N5.81
C3.77H7.54O5.86N5.82
C3.69H7.40O5.87N5.84

Kb , %

A, %

-41.22
-39.71
-38.20
-36.70

62.43
62.76
63.08
63.41


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Table 3.4. Oxygen balance and oxygen factor of explosive A-IX-11
No.
1
2
3
4

Compound
name
A-IX-13 (6.5)
A-IX-13 (6.0)
A-IX-13 (5.5)
A-IX-13 (5.0)

RDX.
%
93.50
94.00
94.50
95.00

Serezin.
%
6.50
6.00
5.50
5.00

Molecular formula
assumption
C4.00H8.05O5.86N5.86
C3.92H7.89O5.87N5.87
C3.84H7.73O5.88N5.88
C3.76H7.56O5.89N5.89

Kb . %

A. %

-42.59
-40.98
-39.37
-37.75

62.34
62.67
63.00
63.34

Based on the above results and applying Avakian method to
calculate the composition of explosive products, the decomposition reaction
of explosive A-IX-13 can be approximated as follows:
A-IX-1 (6.5): C4.05H8.12O6.04N6.00= 0.08CO2 + 3.32H2O + 2.56CO + 0.74H2 + 1.41C +3.00N2
A-IX-1 (6.0): C3.96H7.94O6.04N6.00 = 0.14CO2 + 3.26H2O + 2.50CO + 0.71H2 + 1.33C +3.00N2
A-IX-1 (5.5): C3.88H7.77O6.04N6.00 = 0.19CO2 + 3.21H2O + 2.44CO + 0.68H2 + 1.25C +3.00N2
A-IX-1 (5.0): C3.80H7.60O6.03N6.00 = 0.25CO2 + 3.15H2O + 2.38CO + 0.65H2 + 1.17C +3.00N2
Based on the above results and applying the Avakian method to
calculate the composition of explosive products, the decomposition reaction
of explosive A-IX-11 (5.0) can be approximated as follows:
A-IX-1 (6.5): C4.10H8.25O6.00N6.00 = 0.03CO2 + 3.35H2O + 2.60CO + 0.77H2 + 1.47C +3.00N2
A-IX-1 (6.0): C4.01H8.06O6.00N6.00 = 0.08CO2 + 3.30H2O + 2.54CO + 0.74H2 + 1.39C +3.00N2
A-IX-1 (5.5): C3.83H7.70O6.00N6.00 = 0.14CO2 + 3.24H2O + 2.47CO + 0.70H2 + 1.30C +3.00N2
A-IX-1 (5.0): C3.83H7.70O6.00N6.00 = 0.20CO2 + 3.18H2O + 2.41CO + 0.67H2 + 1.22C +3.00N2
3.1.2. Experimental qualitative composition of explosive products
The quantitative analysis is extremely complex and not enough
equipment to implement so the subject has used the existing equipment to
determine the calculation of the explosive product components of the
combination explosive representative ТГ-50, A-IX-13 and A-IX-11 with
CTH content of 5.5%.
Use NARL8514 Lightweight gas analyzer. MODEL 4016, showing
the results of explosive gas products on the gas chromatography clearly
show the pic of CO2, CO, N2. O2 gas is made weak in explosive products of
drugs A-IX-1, not existing in explosive products of explosives ТГ-50.
The result is also consistent with the calculation of the oxygen
balance and the oxygen coefficient of the explosives. The more explosives
there are negative (or A less positive) than the amount of oxygen in the
explosive product. The presence of oxygen in the composition of an
explosion caused by itself in a bomb when a vacuum can not fully complete
the atmosphere (oxygen-ready) reaches 0.03-0.04 bar, so the remaining
stain for the A-IX-1 explosive product is reasonable. For explosives ТГ-50
due to the more negative coefficient (-47.82%) It is recommended that the


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oxygen itself involved in the reaction of the produced (C, CO) products is
stronger and almost no stain is detected.
Using an infrared absorption measurement device Jasco 4600, the
resulting absorption spectrometer of the liquid product is similared to the
infrared absorption spectrum of the sample ionized distilled water samples.
As such, it is obvious that the condensation fluid on the main is H2O.
Use ofscanning electron micrograph JSM-6510 LV-X-ray
dispersing probes for the composition of solid products of explosive A-IX13, A-IX-11, ТГ-50, theresults obtained from solid products show the
apparent presence of carbon. Besides, there are also elements: Cu, Zn, W,
O, Cl, Si, Pb, K. These elements are present as a result of decomposition of
compounds that are in the fire medicine and explosive medicine in the
copper differential. The substances are: Si, KClO4, W, Pb (N3)2, Zn. The
casing is made from copper (Cu).
The results are clearly visible to the existence of C, CO, CO2, N2,
H2O in explosive decomposition products of all three types of explosives.
In addition, there are O2 in explosive products A-IX-1. Currently, there is
no sufficiently sensitive measuring head to determine the presence of H2 in
explosive products.
3.2. Study the compatibility of the system
RDX has the original distribution as shown in Figure 3.14, surface
image as Figure 3.15. Photos of explosive surface TГ after mixing are
shown in Figures 3.16 and 3.17

Pic 3.14. Particle size
distribution of RDX

Pic 3.15. SEM image of grain
surface of RDX


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Pic 3.16. SEM image of the outer Pic 3.17. SEM image of inner
surface TГ after casting
surface TГ after casting
SEM images show the adhesion, encapsulation of RDX explosive
particles by molten TNT. TNT here is also similar to the domesticated
substance, which binds explosive particles that are not subject to RDX
compression.
Parameter measurement results are shown in Table 3.12.
Table 3.12. Explosive parameters of explosives according to DSC curve
No. Compound name Tonset, oC
T p, oC
Conclude
∆Tp, oC
1 RDX
229.1085 243.0735
2 TГ-60/40
229.7773 241.8040
-1.2695
Compatible
The ∆Tp result shows that TNT is compatible with RDX. Thus, the
use of these two explosives to create a new explosive mixture is perfectly
suitable.
3.2.2. Explosive system A-IX-1
Images of A-IX-1 explosive surface after mixing are shown in
3.21.

Pic 3.8. SEM image of A-IX-1 explosive surface
SEM images show the adhesion, encapsulation of RDX explosive
particles by a mixture of domesticated substances. Thus, mechanically, the
mixture of domestication is suitable for wrapping RDX explosive particles,


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which makes the surface has a sensitive and favorable layer for bonding
process by compression method. We obtain the physical parameters
according to Table 3.13.
Table 3.13. Decomposition parameters of types A-IX-1
No. Compound name
Tonset
Tp, oC
∆Tp, oC
Conclude
1
RDX
229.1085 243.0735
2
A-IX-11
229.8489 248.383
5.3095 Compatible
3
A-IX-13
243.2557 0.1822 Compatible
The ∆Tp result shows that the two types of CTH are compatible
with RDX. Thus, the use of these two types of CTH to create A-IX-1
explosive mixture is perfectly suitable.
3.3. Isothermal decomposition process of explosive
3.3.1. Explosive system TГ
The test samples are in direct contact with the air, heated at
different speeds. Devices used are DTA 404EP, NETZSCH GROUP.
The results show that the melting temperature of the mixture
changes in a narrow range. With the heating rate of 5 oC / minute, the
melting point only changes in the range (78.3 ÷ 79) oC. This shows that
although the RDX content ranges from (40 ÷ 77) %, the temperature to start
melting the mixture is only less than the temperature of TNT not exceeding
2.8 oC. Thus, the mixture when pouring is very convenient because it can
use hot water to cast and the mixture is stable at ambient temperature after
casting (do not melt when the temperature is up to 70 oC).
Similarly, the results of the temperature of decomposition start of
the mixture also changes in a small range, from (215,3 ÷ 219,2) oC when
the heating rate of 5 °C/minute, only lower than the captured temperature.
The decomposition head of RDX (220.6 oC) is about 5.3 oC. Thus, it can be
seen that these explosive mixtures are absolutely durable when using water
or steam to melt the mixture at a temperature of (100 ÷ 150) oC serving
casting into bombs and bullets.
From the two comments above, it is shown that the combination of
these two explosives together to create a new explosive mixture in the
study area still fully retains the casting technology of TNT and ensures fire
safety with temperature. Casting when using water (or steam) as TNT
melting solvent.
At the same time, also from the results of decomposition durability
of ТГ mixture in the range (215,3 ÷ 219,2) oC when heating speed 5
o
C/min, showing a special attention in the pouring technology: Do not use a
direct source of heat above 200 °C to melt the ТГ mixture because of the
very high risk of fire and explosion, causing unsafe loading of bombs and
ammunition (even when war occurs). Ideally, to ensure safety, only use a
source of heat not exceeding 150 oC.
Based on the results of measurement and graph of Kissinger's
equation, the value of the activation energy E, the pre-exponential factor Z


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and the reaction rate kT at temperature (T) are determined as shown in table
3.18.
Table 3.18. Kinematic parameters and reaction rate constants of ТГ
mixtures.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

E, kJ.mol-1
193.417
194.564
200.434
203.153
207.068
213.370
218.284
219.606
224.162
232.193
235.128
238.820
241.705
243.434
244.881
247.907
110.801

Compound name
ТГ-60.0
ТГ-57.5
ТГ-55.0
ТГ-52.5
ТГ-50.0
ТГ-47.5
ТГ-45.0
ТГ-42.5
ТГ-40.0
ТГ-37.5
ТГ-35.0
ТГ-32.5
ТГ-30.0
ТГ-27.5
ТГ-25.0
ТГ-23.0
TNT

Z, s-1
3.84x1019
5.61x1019
2.87x1020
6.29x1020
1.76x1021
9.90x1021
3.90x1022
5.90x1022
1.92x1023
1.41x1024
3.57x1024
9.83x1024
2.04x1025
3.33x1025
1.72x1026
1.07x1026
1.96x109

kT, s-1
3.84x1019x e-23264/T
5.61x1019x e-23402/T
2.87x1020x e-24108/T
6.29x1020x e-24435/T
1.76x1021x e-24906/T
9.90x1021x e-25664/T
3.90x1022x e-26255/T
5.90x1022x e-26414/T
1.92x1023x e-26962/T
1.41x1024x e-27928/T
3.57x1024x e-28281/T
9.83x1024x e-28725/T
2.04x1025x e-29072/T
3.33x1025x e-29280/T
1.72x1026x e-29454/T
1.07x1026x e-29818/T
1.96x 109x e-13327/T

It is important to have calculated the decomposition reaction rate
equation on the basis of temperature T. The results of calculating the
decomposition rate constant at different temperatures are given in Table
3.19.
Bảng 3.19. The decomposition reaction rate of ТГ mixtures
No.

Compound
name

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

ТГ-60.0
ТГ-57.5
ТГ-55.0
ТГ-52.5
ТГ-50.0
ТГ-47.5
ТГ-45.0
ТГ-42.5
ТГ-40.0
ТГ-37.5
ТГ-35.0
ТГ-32.5
ТГ-30.0
ТГ-27.5
ТГ-25.0
ТГ-23.0

Constant reaction decomposition rate at different temperature, s-1
10 C
20 oC
30 oC
40 oC
50 oC
75 oC
19
19
19
19
19
3.53x10
3.54x10
3.55x10
3.56x10
3.57x10
3.59x1019
5.16x1019 5.18x1019 5.19x1019 5.21x1019 5.22x1019
5.24x1019
20
20
20
20
20
2.64x10
2.64x10
2.65x10
2.66x10
2.66x10
2.68x1020
20
20
20
20
20
5.77x10
5.79x10
5.80x10
5.82x10
5.83x10
5.86x1020
1.61x1021 1.62x1021 1.62x1021 1.63x1021 1.63x1021
1.64x1021
21
21
21
21
21
9.04x10
9.07x10
9.10x10
9.12x10
9.14x10
9.20x1021
22
22
22
22
22
3.55x10
3.56x10
3.58x10
3.59x10
3.59x10
3.62x1022
22
22
22
22
22
5.37x10
5.39x10
5.41x10
5.42x10
5.44x10
5.47x1022
23
23
23
23
23
1.75x10
1.76x10
1.76x10
1.77x10
1.77x10
1.78x1023
1.28x1024 1.28x1024 1.29x1024 1.29x1024 1.29x1024
1.30x1024
24
24
24
24
24
3.23x10
3.24x10
3.25x10
3.26x10
3.27x10
3.29x1024
24
24
24
24
24
8.88x10
8.91x10
8.94x10
8.97x10
8.99x10
9.05x1024
1.84x1025 1.84x1025 1.85x1025 1.86x1025 1.86x1025
1.87x1025
25
25
25
25
25
3.01x10
3.02x10
3.03x10
3.04x10
3.04x10
3.06x1025
25
25
25
25
25
4.52x10
4.53x10
4.55x10
4.56x10
4.58x10
4.61x1025
25
25
25
25
25
9.67x10
9.70x10
9.74x10
9.77x10
9.80x10
9.86x1025
o


10
g

From the results of the calculation of the decomposition rate
constant, found that at the same temperature, the rate constant decreases
with increasing TNT content in the mixture. This is due to the offset effect,
between the activation energy E falling and the pre-factor (frequency) Z
decreasing [4], [5]. According to the Arrhenius equation, kT is inversely
proportional to E and proportional to Z. It can be seen that Z decreases
when the concentration of TNT increases due to the thickening of the RDX
particles due to TNT, making the opportunity for contact between RDX
particles plummeted. This effect is greater than the activation energy
reduction effect E when the TNT content increases. Therefore, in general,
the reaction rate kT decreases with increasing TNT content.
From this constant, we can calculate the half-life at different
temperatures as shown in Table 3.20. On this basis, we can see that the
durability of the product depends largely on the storage temperature.
Table 3.20. The half-life of ТГ mixture
1
2

Compound
name
ТГ-60.0
ТГ-57.5

10 oC
2.88x1008
3.21x1008

The half - life at different temperatures, years
20 oC
30 oC
40 oC
50 oC
07
06
05
1.74x10
1.27x10
1.09x10
1.09x1004
07
06
05
1.91x10
1.37x10
1.16x10
1.14x1004

75 oC
6.18x1001
6.28x1001

3
4
5

ТГ-55.0
ТГ-52.5
ТГ-50.0

7.59x1008
1.10x1009
2.07x1009

4.15x1007
5.78x1007
1.03x1008

2.74x1006
3.68x1006
6.22x1006

2.16x1005
2.80x1005
4.50x1005

1.99x1004
2.50x1004
3.83x1004

9.34x1001
1.09x1002
1.51x1002

6

ТГ-47.5

5.38x1009

2.43x1008

1.35x1007

9.03x1005

7.13x1004

2.37x1002

ТГ-45.0

1.10x10

10

4.65x10

08

2.41x10

07

1.52x10

06

1.13x10

05

3.29x1002

10

5.28x10

08

2.70x10

07

1.66x10

06

1.22x10

05

3.43x1002

No.

7
8

ТГ-42.5

1.28x10

9

ТГ-40.0

2.72x1010

1.05x1009

5.04x1007

2.94x1006

2.04x1005

5.08x1002

ТГ-37.5

1.12x10

11

3.88x10

09

1.67x10

08

8.77x10

06

5.54x10

05

1.11x1003

11

5.11x10

09

2.11x10

08

1.07x10

07

6.53x10

05

1.21x1003

10
11

ТГ-35.0

1.55x10

12

ТГ-32.5

2.70x1011

8.45x1009

3.32x1008

1.61x1007

9.38x1005

1.58x1003

13

ТГ-30.0

4.44x10

11

10

08

07

06

2.06x1003

14

ТГ-27.5

5.66x1011

1.66x1010

6.12x1008

2.79x1007

1.54x1006

2.29x1003

15

ТГ-25.0

2.02x10

11

09

08

06

05

7.30x1002

16

ТГ-23.0

1.17x1012

2.53x1006

3.33x1003

1.33x10
5.80x10

3.22x1010

5.04x10
2.10x10

1.12x1009

2.35x10
9.41x10

4.83x1007

1.33x10
5.11x10

From table 3.20, it is shown that storage temperature greatly affects
product durability. In the normal temperature range in our country (about
10-50 oC), this type of explosive has a half-life of about 10 times when
reducing 10 oC of storage temperature. Durability decreases sharply when
the storage temperature is near the melting point of TNT. The higher the
RDX content, the higher the durability of the mixture and vice versa the
greater the concentration of TNT, the lower the product durability. In fact,
TNT is easier to melt and more degraded than RDX. Therefore, during


11
g

Activation energy, kJ/mol

storage, to increase the shelf life of the product, it is necessary to cool the
storage, especially the warehouses in areas with high weather temperatures
during the year.
Based on the calculation results of the activation energy E and the
pre-exponential factor the Z of the explosive mixtures ТГ, we can establish
the dependence of these two quantities on the mixture components as
shown in Figure 3.44 and 3.45.
260,0
250,0
240,0
230,0
220,0
210,0
200,0
190,0
180,0

y = -1.5776x + 287.51
r² = 0.9872

20,0

30,0

40,0

TNT, %

50,0

60,0

Pre-exponential factor ,s-1

Pic 3.44. Graph of dependence of activation energy on TNT content
in explosive mixture ТГ
1,20E+26
1,00E+26
8,00E+25
6,00E+25

y = 5.E+30.e-0.428x
r² = 0.9874

4,00E+25
2,00E+25
1,00E+18
20,0

30,0

40,0
50,0
TNT, %

60,0

70,0

Pic 3.45. Dependent graph of the pre-exponential factor the Z to the
TNT content in the explosive mixture ТГ.
Thus, on the basis of these two types of graphs, we can approximate
the activation energy, the pre-exponential factor the Z of a mixture of
dynamite ТГ with specific components whose RDX content is in the range (
40 ÷ 77)% or TNT content is in the range (23 ÷ 60)% with high reliability
(r2 is greater than 0.98).


12
g

Activation energy of the mixture depends on the TNT content
following the first order equation: y = -1.5776x + 287.51 with correlation
coefficient r2 = 0.9872.
The pre-exponential factor the Z of the mixture depends on the
TNT content following the equation: y = 5.1030.e-0.428x with the correlation
coefficient r2 = 0.9874.
From this, we can determine the decomposition rate constant and
predict the durability through the half-life of a mixture of ТГ with specific
components within the studied.
3.3.2. Explosive system A-IX-1
3.3.2.1. CTH 3 components
Based on the results of DTA measurement and Kissinger's equation
graph, the value of activating energy E, pre-exponential factor Z and the
reaction rate constant at temperature (T) are determined as table 3.27.
Table 3.27. Kinetic parameters and decomposition reaction
constants of A-IX-13
No.
1
2
3
4
5

Compound name
RDX
A-IX-13 (M1)
A-IX-13 (M2)
A-IX-13 (M3)
A-IX-13 (M4)

E, kJ.mol-1
252.579
164.384
158.631
142.868
134.437

Z, s-1
1.17 x1026
8.17x1016
2.47x1016
4.74x1014
5.40x1013

kT, s-1
1.17 x1026x e-30380/T
8.17x1016x e-19772/T
2.47x1016x e-19080/T
4.74x1014x e-17184/T
5.40x1013x e-16170/T

It is important to calculate the equation for the decomposition
reaction rate based on the temperature of T. The result of calculating the
decomposition rate constant at different temperatures is given in Table
3.28.
Table 3.28. The decomposition reaction rate of a mixture of A-IX-13
No.

Compound
name

1

A-IX-13 (M1)

Constant reaction decomposition rate at different temperature, s-1
10 oC
20 oC
30 oC
40 oC
50 oC
60 oC
16
16
16
16
16
7.62x10
7.64x10
7.65x10
7.67x10
7.69x10
7.70x1016

2
3
4

A-IX-13 (M2)
A-IX-13 (M3)
A-IX-13 (M4)

2.31x1016
4.46x1014
5.10x1013

2.32x1016
4.47x1014
5.11x1013

2.32x1016
4.48x1014
5.12x1013

2.33x1016
4.48x1014
5.13x1013

2.33x1016
4.49x1014
5.14x1013

2.33x1016
4.50x1014
5.15x1013

From the results of the calculation of the decomposition rate
constant, found that at the same temperature, the rate constant decreases
with increasing the content of CTH in the mixture. This is due to the offset
effect between activating energy E and decreasing pre-exponential factor
(frequency) Z. According to the Arrhenius equation, kT is inversely
proportional to E and proportional to Z. It can be seen that Z decreases
when the concentration of bio-energy increases due to the thickening of the
RDX particles because the self-created domesticated explosives makes the
opportunity for contact between RDX particles are falling sharply. This


13
g

effect is greater than the activation energy reduction E effect when the bioenergy content increases. Therefore, in general, the reaction rate kT
decreases with increasing bio-energy content.
From this constant, the half-life can be calculated at different
temperatures as shown in Table 3.29. On this basis, it can be seen that the
durability of the product greatly depends on the storage temperature.
Table 3.29. The half-life of a mixture of domesticated A-IX-13.
A-IX-13 (M1)

10 oC
5.87x1005

The half - life at different temperatures, years
20 oC
30 oC
40 oC
50 oC
04
03
02
5.41x10
5.84x10
7.26x10
1.03x1002

60 oC
1.64x1001

A-IX-13 (M2)
A-IX-13 (M3)
A-IX-13 (M4)

1.70x1005
1.07x1004
2.65x1003

1.70x1004
1.35x1003
3.78x1002

6.81x1000
1.18x1000
4.99x10-1

No.

Compound
name

1
2
3
4

1.98x1003
1.95x1002
6.11x1001

2.65x1002
3.19x1001
1.11x1001

4.01x1001
5.84x1000
2.24x1000

Activation energy, kJ/mol

From table 3.29, we see that storage temperature greatly affects
product durability. In the normal temperature range in our country (about
10-50 oC), this type of explosive has a half-life of about 10 times when
reducing 10 oC of storage temperature. Durability decreases sharply when
the storage temperature is near the melting point of stearic acid (67-70) oC.
The greater the RDX content, the higher the durability of the mixture and
vice versa the higher the content of the CTH, the more the product
durability decreases. In fact, stearic acid and serezin have a much lower
melting point than RDX. Therefore, during storage, to increase the shelf
life of the product, it is necessary to cool the storage, especially the
warehouses in areas with high weather temperatures during the year.
Based on the results of calculating the activation energy E and the
pre-exponential factor the Z of the explosive mixtures A-IX-1, we can
establish the dependence of these two quantities on the composition as
shown in the figure. 3.56 and 3.57.
170,0
160,0
150,0
140,0

y = -21.118x + 271.49
r² = 0.9704

130,0
4,5

5,0

5,5
6,0
CTH, %

6,5

7,0

Pic 3.56. Graph of the dependence of activation energy A-IX-13 on
the content of CTH.


14

Pre-exponential factor , 1/s

g

1,40E+17
1,20E+17
1,00E+17
8,00E+16
6,00E+16

y = 2E+28e-5.184x
r² = 0.9636

4,00E+16
2,00E+16
0,00E+00
4,5

5,0

5,5
6,0
CTH, %

6,5

7,0

Pic 3.57. Graph of dependence of the pre-exponential coefficient of
A-IX-13 on the content of CTH.
Thus, on the basis of these two types of graphs, we can
approximate the activation energy, the pre-exponential factor the Z of an AIX-1 explosive mixture (self-contained 3 substances) Specifically, the
content of RDX is in the range (93.5 ÷ 95.0)% or the content of CTH is in
the range (5.0 ÷ 6.5)% with high reliability (r2 is greater than 0.96). ).
Activation energy of the mixture depends on the content of CTH
(including 3 substances) according to the first-order equation: y = -21.118x
+ 271.49 with a correlation coefficient r2 = 0.9704.
The pre-exponential factor the Z of the mixture depends on the
content of CTH (including 3 substances) according to the equation: y =
2.10-197.e-5.1836x with the correlation coefficient r2 = 0.9636.
From this, it is possible to determine the decomposition rate
constant and predict the durability through the half-life of A-IX-1 mixture
when the RDX content (or the mixture of domesticated substances) is
determined in explosive.
3.3.2.2. With CTH 1 component
Based on DTA measurement results and Kissinger's equation
graph, we can determine the value of activating energy E, pre-exponential
factor the Z and constant reaction rate kT at temperature (T) as shown in
Table 3.35.
According to the results in Table 3.35, it was found that: Activation
energy decreases with increasing concentration of bio-energy (serezin).
This also has similarities with the use of 3 substances in CTH. However,
the activation energy of these A-IX-1 models is much lower than that of
using 3 substances in CTH. This means that to stimulate the thermal
decomposition of this A-IX-1 mixture we will need more energy.


15
g

Table 3.35. Kinetic parameters and reaction rate constants of A-IX-11
No.
1
2
3
4

Compound
A-IX-11 (M5)
A-IX-11 (M6)
A-IX-11 (M7)
A-IX-11 (M8)

E, kJ.mol-1
233.8
231.5
228.3
219.8

Z, s-1
3.03x1024
1.64x1024
7.17x1023
7.43x1022

kT, s-1
3.03x1024x e-28126/T
1.64x1024x e-27850/T
7.17x1023x e-27459/T
7.43x1022x e-26440/T

It is important to calculate the equation for the decomposition
reaction rate based on the temperature of T. The results of calculating the
decomposition rate constant at different temperatures are given in Table
3.36.
Table 3.36. The decomposition reaction rate constants of A-IX-11
No.

Compound

1
2
3
4

A-IX-11 (M5)
A-IX-11 (M6)
A-IX-11 (M7)
A-IX-11 (M8)

Constant reaction decomposition rate at different temperature, s-1
10 oC
20 oC
30 oC
40 oC
50 oC
75 oC
24
24
24
24
24
2.74x10
2.75x10
2.76x10
2.77x10
2.78x10
2.79x1024
24
24
24
24
24
1.48x10
1.49x10
1.49x10
1.50x10
1.50x10
1.51x1024
23
23
23
23
23
6.51x10
6.53x10
6.55x10
6.57x10
6.59x10
6.63x1023
6.77x1022 6.79x1022 6.81x1022 6.83x1022 6.85x1022 6.89x1022

From the results of the calculation of the decomposition rate
constant, it is found that at the same temperature, the rate constant
decreases with increasing the content of bio-energy (serezin) in the mixture.
This is due to the offset effect between activating energy E and decreasing
pre-factor (frequency) Z [4], [5]. According to the Arrhenius equation, kT is
inversely proportional to E and proportional to Z. Similarly, it can be seen
that Z decreases when the content of TNT (serezin) increases due to the
thickening of RDX particles by CTH (serezin). has made the opportunity
for contact between RDX particles sharply decrease. This effect is greater
than the activation energy reduction effect E when the content of bioenergy (serezin) increases. In general, the reaction rate kT decreases with
increasing concentration of bio-energy (serezin).
From the result of this constant, the half-life can be calculated at
different temperatures as shown in Table 3.37. On this basis, we can see
that the durability of the product depends largely on the storage
temperature.
Table 3.37. The half-life of A-IX-11.
A-IX-11 (M5)
A-IX-11 (M6)

10 oC
1.05x1011
7.36x1010

The half - life at different temperatures, years
20 oC
30 oC
40 oC
50 oC
09
08
06
3.55x10
1.49x10
7.69x10
4.76x1005
09
08
06
2.56x10
1.11x10
5.90x10
3.75x1005

75 oC
9.14x1002
7.66x1002

A-IX-11 (M7)
A-IX-11 (M8)

4.22x1010
1.11x1010

1.54x1009
4.58x1008

5.68x1002
2.93x1002

No.

Compound

1
2
3
4

6.98x1007
2.33x1007

3.86x1006
1.44x1006

2.55x1005
1.05x1005

From table 3.37, it is shown that storage temperature greatly
influences product durability. In the normal temperature range in our
country (about 10-50 oC), this type of explosive has a half-life of about 10
times when reducing 10 oC of storage temperature. Durability decreases


16
g

sharply when the storage temperature is near the melting point of serezin.
The content of CTH increases, the durability of products decreases and vice
versa. In fact, serezin has a much lower melting point than RDX.
Therefore, during storage, to increase the shelf life of the product, it is
necessary to cool the storage, especially those in areas with high weather
temperatures during the year.
Based on the results of calculating the activation energy E and the
pre-exponential factor the Z of the explosive mixtures A-IX-1, we can
establish the dependence of these two quantities on the composition as
shown in the figure. 3.66 and 3.67.
Activation energy,
kJ/mol

240,0
235,0
230,0
225,0

y = -9.0606x + 280.47
r² = 0.9076

220,0
215,0
4,5

5,0

5,5
6,0
CTH, %

6,5

7,0

Pic 3.66. Graph of dependence of activating energy A-IX-11 on the
content of CTH.

Pre-exponential factor , 1/s

3,50E+24
3,00E+24
2,50E+24

y = 7.E+29.e-2.39x
r² = 0.9041

2,00E+24
1,50E+24
1,00E+24
5,00E+23
0,00E+00

4,5

5,0

5,5
6,0
CTH, %

6,5

7,0

Pic 3.67. Graph of dependence of exponential factor of A-IX-11 on
content of CTH
Thus, on the basis of these two graphs, we can calculate the
approximate activation energy, the pre-exponential factor the Z of an
explosive mixture of A-IX-1 ( is serezin) with specific composition. If the


17
g

content of RDX is within (93.5 ÷ 95.0)% or the content of CTH is in the
range (5.0 ÷ 6.5)% with high reliability (r2 is greater than 0.90) .
Activation energy of the mixture depends on the content of bioenergy (serezin) following the first order equation: y = -9.0606x + 280.47
with the correlation coefficient r2 = 0.9076.
The pre-exponential factor Z of the mixture depends on the content
of bio-energy (serezin) according to the equation: y = 7.1029.e-2.39x with the
correlation coefficient r2 = 0.9041.
From this, we can determine the decomposition rate constant and
predict the durability through the half-life of A-IX-1 mixture (type 1
domestication is serezin).
Comment:
Thus, it can be seen that when increasing the content of
domestication, the temperature of the mixture begins to melt significantly.
The above result confirms that the safe temperature range for the use of AIX-1 explosive with hypersensitivity mixture (serezin, stearic acid, sudan)
or a domestication (serezin) is (293 ÷ 473) K or (20 ÷ 200) oC. However,
temperature is extremely important in preserving to avoid degradation of
product quality. Therefore, always keep cool, low temperature is the
decisive condition to the time of storage and use of the product.
3.4. Dependence of explosive heat on explosive components
3.4.1. Explosive system TГ
Experimental equation of explosive energy on the content of TNT
and RDX as shown in Figure 3.68.
Q, kcal/kg

1400,0
1380,0
1360,0
1340,0
1320,0
1300,0
1280,0
1260,0

y = -3.101x + 1461.332
r² = 0.999
20,0

30,0

40,0

50,0

60,0
TNT, %

Fig 3.68. Graph the dependence of the explosive heat of ТГ into the
TNT content
It can be concluded: The explosive heat of the explosive explosive
mixture ТГ depends on the TNT content according to the first order
equation: y = -3.101x + 1461.332 with correlation coefficient r2 = 0.999.
Where x is the TNT content (% mass).


18
g

3.4.2. Explosive system A-IX-1
3.4.2.1. CTH 3 components
The equation obtains the result as a graph as shown in Figure 3.69.
Q, kcal/kg
1365,0
1360,0
1355,0
1350,0
1345,0
1340,0
1335,0
1330,0
1325,0

y = -21.005x + 1463.185
r² = 0.996

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

6,5

7,0

CTH, %
Fig. 3.69. Graph of dependence of explosive heat of A-IX-13 on
content of CTH
Thus, it can be concluded: The explosive heat of A-IX-1 mixed
explosive (kcal/kg) at the density of 1.62 g/cm3 depends on the content of
CTH (including 3 substances) according to the first-order equation : y = 21.005x + 1463.185 with correlation coefficient r2 = 0.996. In which, x is
the content of CTH (% mass).
3.4.2.2. CTH 1 component
We obtain the result of the equation as the graph in Figure 3.70.
Q, kcal/kg
1360,0
1355,0
1350,0
1345,0
1340,0
1335,0
1330,0
1325,0
1320,0
1315,0

y = -21.620x + 1461.740
r² = 0.998

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

6,5

7,0

CTH, %
Pic 3.70. Graph of dependence of explosive heat of A-IX-11 on the
content of CTH.
Thus, it is possible to conclude: The explosive heat of A-IX-1
mixed explosive (1 domesticated substance) at the density of 1.62 g/cm3
depends on the content of CTH according to the first order equation: y = -


19
g

21.620x + 1461.740 with the correlation coefficient r2 = 0.998. In which, x
is the content of CTH (% mass).
3.5. Dependence on explosion rate on explosive components
3.5.1. Explosive system TГ
3.5.1.1. Dependent equation of explosive density
The result is obtained as the graph in Figure 3.71.
𝜌, mg/cm3

1760
1740
1720
1700
1680
1660

y = -1.884x + 1783.563
r² = 0.986

10,0

20,0

30,0

40,0

50,0

60,0

70,0
TNT, %
Pic 3.71. Graph of dependence of the highest molding density of
explosives TГ (mg/cm3) on TNT content (%)
Thus, we can conclude: The highest casting density of explosive
TГ (mg/cm3) depends on the content of TNT (x,%) in the first order: y = 1.884x + 1783.563 with r2 = 0.986.
3.5.1.2. Dependent equation for velocity of detonation on TNT content
a. At the same density
We built the graph as Figure 3.72
D, m/s
8000,0
7900,0
7800,0
7700,0
7600,0
7500,0
7400,0
7300,0

y = -15.350x + 8288.087
r² = 0.996
20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0 50,0 55,0 60,0 65,0

TNT, %
Fig 3.72. Graph of dependence of velocity of detonation of TГ
(m/s) on TNT content (%) at density of 1.60 g/cm3


20
g

Thus, we can conclude: Explosive speed of explosives TГ depends
on the composition of TNT in the first order function: y = -15.350x +
8288.087 with correlation coefficient r2 = 0.996.
b. At the highest casting density
We built the graph as shown in Figure 3.73.
D, m/s

8300,0
8200,0
8100,0
8000,0
7900,0
7800,0
7700,0
7600,0
7500,0
7400,0
7300,0

y = -21.733x + 8729.624
r² = 0.980
15,0 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0 50,0 55,0 60,0 65,0

TNT, %
Fig 3.73. The dependent graph of velocity of detonation of TГ (m/s) in the
TNT content (%) at highest casting density
Thus, we can conclude: The velocity of detonation of explosive TГ
(mg/cm3) depends on the content of TNT (%) at the highest casting density
according to the first order function: y = -21.733x + 8729.624 with
correlation coefficient r2 = 0.980.
Based on the above equations, we can approximate the highest
casting density parameter, corresponding explosion rate at that density or
explosion rate at commonly used density of 1.60 g/cm3 of any TГ mixture
has TNT content of about (23 ÷ 60)% or RDX of about (40 ÷ 77)%.
3.5.2. Explosive system A-IX-1
3.5.2.1. With CTH 3 components
The most common domestication mixture for making A-IX-1 is:
60% serezin + 38.8% stearic acid + 0.2% sudan.
Using the above domestication mixture results in a graph as shown
in Figure 3.74.
Thus, we can conclude: The velocity of explosive of A-IX-13
depends on the composition of CTH with the first function: y = 146.494x +
7024.091 with correlation coefficient r2 = 0.995.


21
g

D, m/s
8000,0
7950,0
7900,0
7850,0
7800,0
7750,0
7700,0

y = -146.49x + 8708.8
r² = 0.995
4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

7,0 CTH, %

6,5

Fig 3.74. Graph of dependence of velocity of detonation of A-IX-13 on
content of CTH (%)
3.5.2.2. With CTH 1 component
We can use a single-component domestication for A-IX-1. To
make a comparison with the domesticated mixture of 3 substances, we use
the domesticated substance, serezin.
We obtain the result as the graph in Figure 3.75.
D, m/s

y = -146.14x + 8686.2
r² = 0.991

8000,0
7950,0
7900,0

7850,0
7800,0
7750,0
7700,0
4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

6,5

7,0 CTH, %

Fig 3.75. Graph of dependence of velocity of detonation of A-IX-11 on
content of CTH (%)
Thus, we can conclude:
+ Explosive speed of explosive A-IX-11 depends on the
composition of CTH with the first function: y = 146.138x + 7005.658 with
correlation coefficient r2 = 0.991.
+ Based on the newly developed empirical equations, we can
calculate the approximate explosion rate of A-IX-1 (using domesticated
substance serezin) at any RDX content in the range (93.5 ÷ 95)% with high
accuracy.


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