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QCVN 41 BGTVT national technical regulation on road signs and signals

SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM

QCVN

41: 2012/BGTVT

National technical regulation on road signs and signals

HANOI - 2012


QCVN 41: 2012/BGTVT

Foreword
- QCVN 41 : 2012/BGTVT is composed by Directorate for Roads of Vietnam, verified by
Ministry of Science and Technology and issued by Ministry of Transport by Circular
No.17/2012/TT-BGTVT dated 29 May, 2012.


QCVN 41: 2012/BGTVT


CONTENTS


QCVN 41: 2012/BGTVT

CHAPTER I
GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 1. Scope of regulation
This document provides regulations on the system of road signalization including: orders by
traffic controllers, traffic light, road/traffic signs, road/pavement markings, road/guard posts,
guard barrier and fence, kilometer post, H post, right of way (RoW) markers, convex safety
mirror and steel corrugated guardrail.
Article 2. Objects of regulation
This regulation is applicable to all roadways in Vietnam roadway network including: national
highway, provincial road, district road, communal road, urban road, service road, and other kinds
of ways in the system participating in international treaties of which Vietnam is a member –
herein after referred to as Asian highways (GMS-CBTA; agreements in ASEAN and other
international agreements).
Article 3. Enforceability priority of signaling system
3.1. When forms of signaling are arranged at the same time in the same area, with confusing
meanings, road users shall follow orders in the following sequence of priority:
3.1.1. Orders by traffic controllers;
3.1.2. Traffic light or flag;
3.1.3. Orders by road signs;
3.1.4. Pavement markings or other signs on the road surface.
3.2. When at the same location where a traffic sign is available but then other sign is temporarily
installed nearby, and two signs have different meanings, road users must comply with orders by
the temporary signs.
Article 4. Interpretation of terminology
The following words and expressions are interpreted with meanings as assigned to them in this
context:
4.1. Expressway refers to the road for motorized vehicles use, with separator to divide two
distinctive carriageways; no at-grade intersection with one or more ways; to be fully equipped
with facilities to promote smooth traffic and safety, with the aim at shortening travel time and it
only organizes entrance and exit at certain points;
4.2. National highway (NH) is the way linking Hanoi Capital with provincial level
administration center; way linking provincial administration center for three localities or more;
linking international seaports, international airports to international border gates and main border
gates on land-way; to be based at location of special importance to regional socio-economic
development;


4.3. Provincial road (PR) refers to the way connecting provincial administration center with the
counterpart of district or neighboring provinces; to be of significance to provincial socioeconomic development;


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4.4. District road (DR) is the route joining district administration center with that of commune,
commune cluster or adjacent district; having crucial role in socio-economic development of the
said district;
4.5. Communal road (CR) means the route for junction of communal administration center with
hamlets, villages, mountain villages, or equivalences or connecting with neighboring communes;
it is important to communal socio-economic growth;
4.6. Urban road (UR) is the way located in the scope of inner city administrative borders.
4.7. Service road (SR) indicates those used for special purposes such as transportation or
travelling of some organizations, agencies, individuals.
4.8. Roadway or land road includes roads, roadway bridges, tunnels, ferries.
4.9. Road for motorized vehicles use only means any route or drive way for motorized vehicles
traffic in isolation from carriageway for non-motorized vehicles and pedestrian by separator or
longitudinal solid markings;
4.10. Road for non-motorized vehicles and pedestrian use only is the way or part of way which
is distinguished from road for motorized vehicles by separator strips or longitudinal solid
markings;
4.11. Major road is the way on which means of transport are given with way by other vehicles
from other directions when passing intersections, to be provided with sign for major road.
4.11.1. Determination of major road (major road) follows these below priority:
- Expressway;
- National highway;
- Urban road;
- Provincial road;
- District road;
- Communal road;
- Service road.
4.11.2 If two roads of the same order, at-grade intersection; priority is specified as below:
- When traffic volume is identical, which one has more public transport cars or which one has
larger vehicular speed will be prioritized. Should traffic volume be different, which way has
greater volume will be prioritized;
- Which way has greater grade of pavement will be prioritized.
4.11.3. It is invalid to specify both ways of at-grade intersection to be major roads.
4.12. Minor roads refers to those of at-grade intersection with major road.
4.13. One-way road pertains to those on which vehicles can only travel in one direction.
4.14. Two-way road implies to roads for shared use by both directions without separators or solid
markings.


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4.15. Dual carriageway indicates roads of which opposite directions are isolated by separators or
solid longitudinal markings.
4.16. Carriageway/drive way means the part of road used for traffic travelling;
4.17. Traffic lane is a part of carriageway, to be split on longitudinal basis, with width enough
for safe vehicular traffic;
4.18. Strip/separator is a component of road to divide the pavement into two distinctive
directions or to divide the carriageway for motorized from non-motorized vehicles, or drive way
for various types of vehicles.
4.19. Intersections are any places where two or more roadways are in junction on the same
plane, including the plane forming such intersections;
4.20. Name of main parts of a road are stated in the following cross section (Figure 1 and 2):
Table 1 – Main parts of road
No
1
2
3
4

5
6
7

Name of part
Carriageway
Roadside
Embankment slope
Road safety corridor

No
8
9
10
11

Embankment
Road center
Shoulder

12
13
14

Name of part
Carriageway edges
Cross fall toe
Median strip
Soil strip along both sides,
for
maintenance,
management and protection
of roadway works
Lane division marking
Consolidated roadside
Side ditches

Figure 1 – Road cross section
NOTE: Width of road safety corridor and land for roadway protection, management and
maintenance follows regulations by the Government.
4.21. Populated areas term is used to indicate any zone of inner city, town, township,
administration center of commune or commune cluster and whatever of the same nature where
roadway goes through. At places defined as “Populated areas”, road users must obey legal
restrictions;


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4.22. Motorized vehicles term insinuates to categories of car; tractors, trailers or semi-trailers
powered by automobiles, traction engine, two-wheeled motorcycles; three-wheeled motorcycles;
motor-assisted pedal cycles (including electric motorbike) and whatsoever;
4.23. Motorcar refers to passenger car of no more than 9 seats including driver, or cargo car with
carrying capacity of no more than 1.5 ton. Motorcar also includes vehicles with similar structure
to three wheeled motorbikes but its self-weight is more than 400kg or above and capacity of less
than 1.5 ton;
4.24. Truck means vehicles for transporting cargo or dedicated equipment with truck tonnage of
1.5 ton or more;
4.25. Passenger car refers to vehicles for passenger carrying with more than 9 seats including
bus. Bus is a kind of passenger car with seats less than footholds.
4.26. Semi-trailer tractor truck is used to point motorize vehicles used exclusively for cargo or
passenger transport of which vehicle body is semi-trailer designed to connect with tractor and to
transmit a considerable part of loading onto the tractor and the tractor truck has no component
for cargo or passenger carrying (tractor is designed to power semi-trailer);
4.27. Trailer tractor truck indicates vehicle designed for special purpose to pull trailer.
4.28. Trailer is a means with structure so that total weight of trailer is not put on the tractor.
4.29. Tractor is a kind of traction engineer self-moving on its chain or rubber tire to perform
works of digging, excavation, lifting, bulldozing, leveling, pulling and pushing;
4.30. Motorcycle is motorized vehicles of two or three wheels and similar ones for carrying
passenger, powered with motor with cylinder capacity of 50cm3 or more, weight no more than
400kg for two wheeled motorcycle or carrying capacity of 350kg to 500kg for three wheeled
motorcycle. This definition shall not cover motor-assisted pedal cycle specified in item 4.31
herein under.
4.31. Motor-assisted pedal cycle refers to vehicle driven by motor, of two or three wheels and
maximum design velocity of no more than 50km/h. If driving is thermos-motor, working
capacity or equivalent capacity shall not be more than 50cm3.
4.32. Non-motorized vehicles includes bicycle (including motor-assisted bike), tri-cycle, cycle
rickshaw, cart, wheelchair for the disable and whatever of the like nature;
4.33. Bicycle is two or three wheeled vehicle which is moved by human power, including special
vehicle for the disable with similar functions;
4.34. Carrier cycle is arranged for carrying goods on a frame or binding on two sides;
4.35. Human powered vehicle (HPV) refers to non-motorized vehicles of one or more wheels to
be driven by human force pulling or pushing, excluding baby buggy and dedicated vehicle for
the invalids;
4.36. Cart means non-motorized vehicles powered by animals.
4.37. Road users (traffic participants) refer to any one controlling and using means of transport
in roadway, animal controllers or guides; walkers;
4.38. Priority vehicles designates vehicles being given with priority according Law on Road
Traffic;


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4.38.1. Below listed vehicles have priorities to go over others when passing intersections from
any approaching direction, with order:
a) Fire engine on duty;
b) Military or police cars on emergency duty; cars guided by police;
c) Ambulance on duty;
d) Dyke protection car or cars in respond with natural disasters, epidemics or cars on duty in
emergency case as regulated by laws.
4.38.2. Vehicles identified in point a, b, c and d, section 4.38.1 herein above, when being on
duty, must present signal such as whistle, flag, light as required; no speed limit; permission to
enter reverse direction way, other approachable ways, even when the signal turns to red and they
only have to follow instruction by traffic controllers;
4.39. Right of way (RoW) markers is used to show any marker to be erected at edges of
pavement to clarify boundaries of land for roadway on horizontal direction;
4.40. Overhead gantry pertains to any framework as hanger for signs over the road surface, and
when signs are installed thereon, lower side of signs (or lower edge of beam if it is lower than
sign lower side) must be at least 5m far from the road surface;

Figure 2 – Overhead Gantry
4.41 Dangerous or hazardous goods means any item containing dangerous substances when
moving on roads, and there is likelihood to harm personal life, health, the environment, safety
and national security;


QCVN 41: 2012/BGTVT

CHAPTER II
TRAFFIC CONTROL ORDERS
Article 5. Methods of traffic control
5.1. Means of traffic control:
a) By arm;
b) By flag;
c) By traffic baton of alternate black and white stripes (light or no light inside);
d) Signaling lamp.
5.2. Method of traffic commanding:
a) Controller;
b) By automatic traffic light system.
Article 5. Traffic controllers’ orders
6.1. Orders made by traffic controllers are shown by hands, flags or traffic baton. In order to
attract attention by road users, traffic controllers, in addition to above means, may also whistle;
6.2. Orders by highway police:
a) Raising arm upright to command all road users in directions to stop;
b) Extending one or both hands to signal road users from his front and behind side to
stop; beckoning users from the controller’s left and right approaching in every directions;
folding left arm behind his nape many times to signal road users on his left to go faster, or
folding his right arm before his chest to show road users on his right side to come faster; or his
left or right hand is on belt position, raising hand up and down to order road users from his left
or right, respectively to slow down; left of right hand of traffic controller raising vertically in
perpendicular with the ground to show that users from his left or right hand to stop;
c) Right arm extending to the front to signal road users from the behind and right of
controller to stop; users form the front is permitted to turn right; road users from the left of
controller may go in any direction; pedestrian crossing behind controllers may go; and his left
arm extending to the front repeatedly in parallel with right arm to signal road users on the left of
controller to turn left in front of the traffic controller.
6.3. Regulations on use of whistle for traffic control by police:
a) One long, strong whistle: stop
b) One short whistle: Go
c) One long and one short whistle: turn left;
d) Two short and strong whistles: Danger, please slow down;
e) Three short and quick whistles: Faster;
g) Continuous several whistles, strong: Stop for checking or signaling of violation.


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6.1. Provided that there is signal or order to stop while vehicles already passes the “Stop line”
and stopping will lead to unsafe traffic, allow to go ahead; Pedestrian still on pedestrian crossing
must accelerate or stop at safety islands, if island are unavailable, stop at the marking dividing
two streams of traffic on reverse direction;
6.5. Controller points his traffic baton to any direction, such direction must stop.
Article 7. Authorities of traffic controllers
All and any driver and walkers must strictly comply with orders by traffic controllers no matter
how his orders are in contrary with traffic light, road signs or markings.
Article 8. Traffic controllers
Traffic controllers must be police wearing uniform as required by Ministry of Public Security or
authorized person wearing red badge of 10cm width at the middle of his right arm.
Article 9. Traffic control with traffic light
9.1. Traffic light for traffic control is commonly used with 3 colors: green, yellow (amber) and
red, mainly in round shape, to be installed vertically or horizontally;
9.1.1. Order of light colors vertically: red on top, yellow in the middle and green underneath;
9.1.2. Order of light colors horizontally: red on the left, yellow in the middle and green on the
right;
9.2. In addition to three main types aforementioned, additional lights may be provided upon
scope of intersections and traffic organization:
9.2.1. Additional lights with arrow to be mounted on horizontal plane with green signal;
9.2.2. For traffic light without additional lights, in each signal of main light, we may insert
arrow; then it is the same as additional lights. If arrow of this kind indicates turn-left permission,
U-turn movement is also allowable;
9.2.3. Traffic light attached with count down timer is useful for showing time of main line;
9.2.4. Traffic light with red-cross symbol signaling to stop. In case vehicle is inside interchange,
it shall get out of that quickly.
9.3. Meanings of traffic light:
9.3.1. Green signal: Go
9.3.2. Yellow signal: Transition of signal. When it luminesces, drivers must stop before “Stop
line”. Should vehicle and pedestrian go over the “Stop line”, and stopping may result in danger,
keep on passing interchanges quickly;
9.3.3. Flickering yellow lights: Going is permissive but be cautious in observation and giving
way to pedestrian crossing or other vehicles;
9.3.4. Red signal: Stop;
9.4. Implications by arrow additional lights:
9.4.1. If lights are provided with additional lights of green arrow shape, vehicles are permitted
going only when the arrow gives a light. Signal of arrow permits left-turn also U-turn
movement;


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9.4.2. When green arrow turns on at the same time with red or yellow light, vehicle controllers
follow the arrow but giving way to vehicles from other directions;
9.4.3. When red arrows turns on at the same time with main green signal, vehicles shall not
follow the arrow direction. At places where such red arrows are provided, establish a turning
waiting lane for vehicles running on prohibited direction.
9.5. Traffic control with two-colored lights
9.5.1. Traffic control for pedestrian is made by two-colored lights: When signal turns to red with
symbol of person in standing position or word “Stop”; When signal turns to green with symbol
of person in walking or word “Go”;
Pedestrian are allowed to go over the road when the signal displays green and walk within the
rows of studs fixed on the pavement or line marking. Flickering green lights signals that light is
about to turn to red;
9.5.2. Lights with two colors of green and red without flickering is used to control traffic at
intersections with railway, ferry, drawbridges, runway for airplane at negligible elevations, and
so on. Green light: To go. Red light: To stop. Green and red lights shall not turn on
simultaneously;
9.5.3. Double red lights with alternate flickering function at intersection with railway, when it
turns to red, every vehicle must stop and go only when the light switches itself off. Beside
flickering red lights, to call attention, electric bell or voice speaker may be equipped to remind of
train approaching.
9.6. So as to control traffic for each type of vehicle, on specific lane, it is possible to apply
double light to be hung on the carriageway, green light with arrow pointing downward, and red
light with two crosses. Signals have meanings as below:
9.6.1. Green signal allows going on the lane denoted;
9.6.2. Red signal prohibits going on the lane that red light is overhead;
9.6.3. Both lights turn off: Prohibiting all vehicles to come into this lane if it is painted with
Marking 1.9 in Appendix K.
Article 10. Enforceability of traffic lights
At intersections where both traffic lights and traffic roads are set up, driver shall follow traffic
lights firstly. In case of turn-off or flickering, they follow traffic signs.
Article 11. Signal of Priority vehicles
11.1. Signals of fire engines on duty:
The fire engines are furnished with rotary lamps on their roofs emitting red or blue light and
with horns to blow priority signals.
11.2. Signals of military vehicles on emergency duty;
11.2.1. Cars are with equipped with rotating lights or flash lights in green or red color attached
on the roof, military flag at the front end on the left of drivers; horn to signal priority;


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11.2.2. Motorbikes are furnished with revolving lights or flash lights in red to be attached on
shaft, in the front or rear, military flag on the front and horn to signal priority;
11.3. Signals of police on emergency duty:
11.3.1. Cars are mounted with rotary lamps on roofs emitting blue-red lights, with police
pennants at the heads of cars to the left of the drivers and with horns to blow priority signals;
11.3.2. Motorbikes are furnished with blue or red light-emitting lamps on front or rear forks,
with police pennants at the heads of the vehicles and with horns to blow priority signals.
11.4. Signals of road-clearance highway police:
11.4.1. Cars are mounted with rotary lamps on roofs emitting blue-red lights, with police
pennants at the heads of cars to the left of the drivers and with horns to blow priority signals;
11.4.2. Motorbikes are furnished with blue or red light-emitting lamps on front or rear forks,
with police pennants at the heads of the vehicles and with horns to blow priority signals;
11.5. Signals of ambulances on duty:
The ambulances are furnished with rotary lamps on roofs emitting red light and with horns to
blow priority signals.
11.6. Signals of dyke protection car or cars on duty in emergency following legal provisions:
11.6.1. Vehicles performing the task of dyke protection carry the signboard "XE HO DE" (dyke
protection vehicle) at the heads of cars to the left of the drivers;
11.6.2. Vehicles performing the tasks of overcoming consequences of natural disasters, epidemic
or emergency state vehicles:
a) Vehicles performing the tasks of overcoming consequences of natural disasters, epidemic shall
bear separate signboards;
b) Emergency state vehicles as required by laws are furnished with flag “EMERGENCY” at the
heads of cars to the left of the drivers.
11.7. Using priority vehicles' signals
11.7.1. The priority vehicles may use priority signals only when they are on urgent missions;
11.7.2. Land road traffic means other than the priority vehicles are strictly forbidden to use
priority vehicles’ horns, pennants, lamps and/or signboards, prescribed in Article 11.1, 11.2,
11.3, 11.4, 11.5 and 11.6 of herein above.
11.8. When priority vehicles signal, road users must as soon as possible slow down, detour or top
close to the right roadside to give a way. Never obstruct prioritized vehicles.
Article 12. Traffic light mounting position and height
12.1. Surface of lights must be in perpendicular with center of road lane to the right of road users
by going direction;
12.2. By road horizontal direction: Lights must be positioned at the roadside or separator and to
be 0.5-5m far from the carriageway edges;
12.3. When arranging lights vertically: Height from the lowest light surface to carriageway edges
ranges from 2m to 3m for three-color-light and from 2m to 2.5m for two-color light of pedestrian


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crossover. When lights are place horizontally, minimum elevation must be 5.2m from the lowest
point of light to the road surface;
12.4. In populated areas, urban areas, lights may be hung at the middle of intersections, over the
driveway. The lowest point thereof to the carriageway ranges from 5m to 5.5m.
Article 13. Dimensions, shape and other regulations on traffic lights
Dimensions, shape and other regulations are stated herein under in Appendix A.

CHAPTER III
TRAFFIC SIGNS
Article 14. Classification of traffic signs
Road traffic signs in the context of this Regulations are generally classified into 6 groups:
14.1. Prohibitory or Restrictive Signs: typically round in shape (apart for Sign 122 “Stop” of an
eight-sided polygon – octagon) to set up prohibition or restriction that road users must strictly
conform. Most of signs have standard color scheme which is red border, black pattern
embleming travelling prohibition or restriction of motorized, no-motorized vehicles and
pedestrian on white background;
This category of prohibitory signs includes 40 types to be numbered from Sign 101 to Sign 140.
14.2. (Danger) Warning Signs: An equilateral triangle with a yellow background and a thick red
border, containing a black symbol as description to warn road users to foresee characteristics of
danger to be prepared for prevention and dealing. This category covers 47 types to be numbered
from 201 to 247;
14.3. Regulatory Signs: Round shape, except for Sign 310 in rectangular shape, on blue
background, excluding Sign 310 in white background, to be displayed with white drawings
symbolling an order to inform the road users of enforceable command. This groups contains 10
types numbered from 301 to 310;
14.4. Guide Signs: Comes in a variety shapes such as rectangular, square or rectangular with a
chamfered end, to provide road users with necessary instruction or useful information during
their journey, on blue background including 47 types numbered form 401 to 447;
14.5. Additional panels or supplementary signboards: In rectangular or square shape, to be
mounted in combination with warning signs, prohibitory signs, regulatory and guide signs to
provide further descriptions to the main signs or used independently. This category includes 9
types numbered from 501 to 509;
14.6. Signs used for Asian highways: This group shall be in accordance with regulations in
international treaties with Vietnam as a member;
14.7. In addition to 6 sign categories here above, this Regulation also covers another kind of
rectangular sign with white lettering on blue color used to give guidance or command to nonmotorized vehicles and pedestrian. For Asian highways, lettered signs must have English words
under Vietnamese version, with the same font size with Vietnamese lettering.
Article 15. Dimensions of traffic signs


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15.1. This regulation specifies parameters on sign dimensions, images inside and lettering for
design speed of ≤60km/h with factor 1 (Refer to Figure 3 and Table 2);
15.2. For roads with higher designed speed, sign dimensions, images and lettering must be
multiplied by corresponding factor in Table 3, dimensions are founded on the following
principle:
- Unit digit ≤ 5, rounded to 5;
- Unit digit > 5, take value of 0 and increase tens digit by 1 unit;

Figure 3 – Dimensions of main signs
Table 2 – Basic dimensions for sign of generation 1
Unit: cm
Roun
d
sign

Sign
Octagonal sign
Triangular signs

Dimension
Width of red border, B
Width of red line, A
External diameter of sign, D
Width of white border, B
Length of triangular side, L
Width of red border, B
Curve radius of red border, R
Distance from peak of circle segment to peak of
basic triangular, c

Size
10
5
60
3
70
5
3.5
3

Table 3 – Dimension factors of signs
Design speed (km/h)
Prohibitory, regulatory, warning signs
Guide signs

101 ÷ 120
1.8
2

81 ÷ 100
1.5
2

61 ÷ 80
1.25
1.5

≤60
1
1

15.3. For urban roads: Depending on operational speed to select dimensions of traffic signs as
appropriate;
15.4. Upon actual conditions, dimensions of guide signs may be increased with approval by
competent authorities;
15.5. Removable, temporary signs in short term may have dimensions of 0.7 times larger than
signs of factor 1;


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15.6. For Asian highways, lettered signs dimension may be adjusted to make room for lettering
as regulated by this Regulation.
Article 16. Enforceability of signs by horizontal direction
16.1. Danger warning and guide signs are enforceable on all lanes of the same direction;
16.2. Prohibition and regulatory signs may enforce either upon all lanes or just one or some lanes
of the same direction. If enforceability of prohibitory and regulatory signs is limited on one or
some lanes, it is imperative to hang signs over the lane (on overhead gantry). Each lane is
mounted with one sign separately and Sign 504 “Lane” must be placed right under the main
sign.
Article 17. Mounting on vertical and horizontal position
17.1. Traffic signs must be mounted so as to make it easily visible to road users and they have
enough time to be in anticipation or change of speed or direction but signs shall in no way
obstruct travelling of road users;
On condition that no visibility distance is calculated, to take a distance of 150m that signs
become visible to road users on high-speed and multi-lane ways; 100m for roads rather than in
populated areas; and of 50m for populated areas;
17.2. Signs must be mounted on the right hand side and surface is perpendicular with direction
of travel. Signs are located vertically; in necessary cases, signs on the left side may be duplicated
to repeat signs installed on the right side;
Lettered signs are applied exclusively for non-motorized vehicles and pedestrian, in restricted
cases, sign surface may be installed in parallel with direction of travel.
17.3. Distance from sign external sign to the carriageway side must be 0.5m far from
carriageway edge. In difficult cases such as no roadside, no footpath, or hidden sight or any
similar case may be, it is possible to displace signs horizontally but sign edges to the
carriageway side shall not cover over the carriageway edge or to be far from carriageway of no
more than 1.7m;
17.4. In populated areas or on sections which with sidewalk higher than the carriageway, it is
permissible to install signs on the sidewalk but sign surface shall not be in projection over the
sidewalk and occupy more than width of the sidewalk. Unless satisfying this principle, signs
shall be mounted overhead the carriageway;
17.5. On sections with areas for non-motorized vehicles separately, distinguished by separator,
allow to place sign on the separator;
17.6. On carriageways of high speed and multiple lanes, signs may be hung over the
carriageway; guide signs for each lane may be installed and signs are mounted on the overhead
gantry;
Article 18. Overhead gantry
18.1. Overhead gantry is a steel structure bearing its own weight, weight of signs and wind,
storm level 12;
18.2. Standing post of overhead gantry is installed on the roadside, sidewalk, to be at least 0.5m
far away from the road surface external border including places with emergency lanes,


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acceleration and deceleration lane. Once standing post of the overhead gantry is in the scope of
separators, it must be situated at 0.5m far from the external edges of the separator;
18.3. Clearance from the lower edge of signs (if hanging signs underneath) or lowest point of
overhead gantry’s horizontal beam (if hanging signs uppermost) to the road surface must be at
least 5m.
Article 19. Sign mounting height
19.1. Signs are steadily mounted on its own post as regulated in Article 21. However, in urban,
residential areas, signs are permitted to be installed on electric poles or permanent works as long
as it satisfies technical specifications in terms of location, height, visibility distance stated
herein;
19.2. In case of hanging signs on post: Mounting height from lower edge of sign to the
carriageway edge is 18m for roads out of populated areas and 2m for roads in populated areas.
Sign 507 “Turn Direction” is situated at 1m to 1.5m. Lettered signs used exclusively for nonmotorized vehicles and pedestrian are placed at 1.8m higher than roadside or sidewalk surface;
19.3. Should signs be suspended overhead the carriageway, lower sign of signs must 5m to 5.5m
higher than carriageway center;
19.4. If it is necessary to install many signs at the same place, such signs may be placed on the
same post but no more than 3 pieces in priority: prohibitory signs (1), warning sign (2),
regulatory sign (3), guide sign (4) as in the below figure:

Figure 4 – Combination chart of signs on the same post
19.5. Distance between sign edges is 5cm, elevation from the center of sign part with
carriageway edge is 1.8m for roads out of populated areas and 2m for roads and streets in
populated areas.
Article 20. Reflection on sign surface
All land road traffic signs must be covered by reflective film in accordance with TCVN
7887:2008 Reflective Film for road signs to be visible in both day time and night time.
Article 21. Regulations on sign posts


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21.1. Sign posts have to be made of solid material (steel or other materials of equivalent
durability) with minimum dimension of 8cm;
21.2. Sign posts must be painted with alternate, parallel or 30 odiagonal red and white stripes
compared to ground plane. Width of each painting stripe is 25cm÷ 30cm, white and red part
width is identical.

CHAPTER IV
PROHIBITORY SIGNS
Article 22. Intended use of prohibitory signs
Prohibitory signs give effect to prohibitions. Road users must conform to such prohibition shown
by signs.
Article 23. Implications by prohibitory signs
23.1. Prohibitory signs include 40 types to be numbered from 101 to 140 with implication as
below:
-

Sign 101: No traffic;

-

Sign 102: No entry;

-

Sign 103 (a): No automobiles;

-

Sign 103 (b, c): No automobiles turning left and right;

-

Sign 104: No motorcycles;

-

Sign 105: No automobiles and motorcycles;

-

Sign 106 (a, b): No trucks;

-

Sign 106 (c): No truck carrying dangerous goods (Sign C, 3h- GMS);

-

Sign 107: No passenger cars and trucks;

-

Sign 108: No automobiles, trailer or semi-trailer tractors;

-

Sign 109: No tractors;

-

Sign 110 (a): No bicycles;

-

Sign 110 (b): No carrier cycles;

-

Sign 111 (a): No motor-assisted pedal cycles;

-

Sign 111 (b) or (c): No motorized three-wheeled vehicles (auto-rickshaw or electric cycle
rickshaw);

-

Sign 111 (d): No non-motorized three-wheeled vehicles (cycle rickshaw);

-

Sign 112: No pedestrians;

-

Sign 113: No human powered vehicles’

-

Sign 114: No cart


QCVN 41: 2012/BGTVT
-

Sign 115: Weight limit

-

Sign 116: Axle weight limit (single axle);

-

Sign 117: Height limit;

-

Sign 118: Width limit;

-

Sign 119: Length limit;

-

Sign 120: Length limit for trailer or semi-trailer tractors;

-

Sign 121: Safety distance;

-

Sign 122: Stop;

-

Sign 123 (a, b): No turn (left, right):

-

Sign 124 (a): No U-turn;

-

Sign 124 (b): No car U-turn;

-

Sign 125: No overtaking;

-

Sign 126: No truck overtaking;

-

Sign 127: Speed limit;

-

Sign 128: No horn;

-

Sign 129: Stop for control;

-

Sign 130: No stopping and parking;

-

Sign 131 (a, b. c): No parking;

-

Sign 132: Give way to motorized vehicles in opposite direction over narrow roads;

-

Sign 133: End of no overtaking;

-

Sign 134: End of speed limit;

-

Sign 135: End of all prohibitions;

-

Sign 136: No straight ahead;

-

Sign 137: No left turn and right turn;

-

Sign 138: No straight ahead and no left turn;

-

Sign 139: No straight ahead and no right turn;

-

Sign 140: No “cong nong” (a kind of tractor for farm use).

23.2. Uses of each sign is detailed in Appendix B.
Article 24. Prohibitory signs with time limit
When it is necessary to prohibit traffic on time limit basis, additional panel Sign 508 should be
installed under the prohibitory sign with notes in Vietnamese and English inscription (if
foreigners to be in traffic in that area or highways of international treaties).


QCVN 41: 2012/BGTVT

Article 25. Prohibitory signs for several vehicles
To prohibit traffic for several means of transport, we may combine inserting symbols of
prohibited vehicles on the same sign as below:
25.1. Motorized vehicles are combined on the same sign (for example Sign 105 and Sign 107);
25.2. Non-motorized vehicles are combined on the same sign (Sign 113 may be combined with
Sign 114);
25.3. To make it easy to see and to make room for arranging images, on each sign only combine
no more than two vehicles;
25.4. Do not combine in one sign for restricting both non-motorized vehicles and motorized ones
except for complex traffic when it is necessary to forbid one type of non-motorized vehicle and
one type of motorized vehicle (for instance, to prohibit cycle rickshaw and lorry, we may
combine Sign 111 and Sign 106);
25.5. Do not mix prohibition of pedestrians and vehicles on the same sign.
Article 26. Dimensions, shape and color scheme of prohibitory signs
Signs are typically round in shape apart for Sign 122 “Stop” to be in octagonal shape; color
scheme is white background, except for Sign 102 and Sign 122 is on red background, Sign 130,
Sign 131 is on blue background. Signs are enclosed by a red border of 10cm width
(corresponding signs of dimension factor 1). Particularly Sign 133, Sign 134 and Sign 135 has
blue border of 2cm width and Sign 122, refer to Appendix B for more details. Signs have
diagonal crosses of 45o, in 5cm wide red color (corresponding signs of dimension factor 1) cut in
center from the upper left to the lower right side (excluding Sign 129 is a horizontal line). Except
for certain signs to be detailed in Appendix B, in general signs have black images overlapping
red crosses.
Dimensions, shape and color of signs are specified in Appendix B and Article 15.
Article 27. Location of placing prohibitory signs by direction of travel and enforceability of
signs
27.1. Prohibitory signs are placed at intersections or put in advance on a certain place on
prohibited way;
Signs become enforceable from the location of placement towards. If due to some reasons, signs
must be placed far from the prohibitory place, establish Sign 502 to clarify distance (stated on
additional panel) from the rear of the prohibitory sign to the point that sign starts to be
enforceable.
27.2. When necessary to indicate effect direction of signs and starting and ending of sign, set up
Sign 503 “Effect direction of signs”;
27.3. There is no need to specify scope of effect/enforceability of signs for those ranging from
Sign 101 to Sign 120, no sign for prohibition ending.
27.4. As attachment to prohibitory signs mentioned in section 27.3, set up directional guide signs
for prohibited vehicles (except for the case road is restricted because of traffic jam without ramp)
as stated in Chapter VIII for guide signs;


QCVN 41: 2012/BGTVT

27.5. Sign 121 and Sign 128 have effect till the end of the prohibited distance stated on Sign 501
or placement location of Sign 135 “End of all prohibitions”;
Sign 123 and Sign 129 are enforceable at their place;
Sign 124 is given with effect at intersections or based on Sign 503;
Signs 125, 126, 127, 130, 131 (a, b, c) are valid to reach intersections or places set up with end
of prohibition signs (Sign 133, 134, 135), Sign 130 and 131 (a, b, c) follows Sign 503.
27.6. If prohibition is applied for a very long road section, at intersections in prohibited area
where vehicles may enter, prohibitory signs must be repeated.

CHAPTER V
WARNING SIGNS
Article 28. Uses of warning signs
Warning signs target to giving precaution of dangerous situations which are likely to occur. They
are used to inform in advance road users, mainly motorized vehicles drivers, of hazard ahead for
prevention. When facing warning signs, drivers have to slow down to necessary velocity, paying
attention to observation and to be ready for handling any possible case to prevent accident.
Article 29. Meanings of warning signs
29.1. There are 47 types of warning signs to be numbered from 201 to 247 as below:
-

Sign 201 (a, b): Dangerous bend;

-

Sign 202 (a, b): Double bend;

-

Sign 203 (a, b, c): Narrow carriageway;

-

Sign 204: Two-way traffic;

-

Sign 205 (a, b, c, d, e): Intersections;

-

Sign 206: Traffic circle/Roundabout;

-

Sign 207 (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, k): Intersection with minor roads;

-

Sign 208: Intersection with major roads;

-

Sign 209: Traffic lights;

-

Sign 210: Railway crossing with barrier;

-

Sign 211 (a): Railway crossing without barrier;

-

Sign 211 (b): Tram crossing;

-

Sign 212: Narrow bridge;

-

Sign 213: Temporary bridge;

-

Sign 214: Drawbridge;

-

Sign 215: Riverside road;


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-

Sign 216: Underground way;

-

Sign 217: Ferry;

-

Sign 218: Underpass;

-

Sign 219: Descending hill;

-

Sign 220: Ascending hill;

-

Sign 221 (a): Bumpy road;

-

Sign 221 (b): Uneven road;

-

Sign 222 (a): Slippery road;

-

Sign 222 (b): Dangerous roadside;

-

Sign 223 (a, b): Dangerous mountain side;

-

Sign 224: Pedestrian crossing;

-

Sign 225: Children crossing ahead;

-

Sign 226: Cyclist crossing;

-

Sign 227: Roadworks

-

Sign 228 (a, b): Falling rocks;

-

Sign 228 (c): Loose chippings;

-

Sign 229: Airplane runway;

-

Sign 230: Cattle;

-

Sign 231: Wild animal crossing;

-

Sign 232: Cross wind;

-

Sign 233: Danger;

-

Sign 234: Intersection with two-way traffic;

-

Sign 235: Start of dual carriageway;

-

Sign 236:End of dual carriageway;

-

Sign 237: Hump bridge road;

-

Sign 238: Expressway ahead;

-

Sign 239: Overhead electric cable;

-

Sign 240: Tunnel;

-

Sign 241: Traffic queue;

-

Sign 242 (a, b): Railway perpendicular crossing;

-

Sign 243: Railway non-perpendicular crossing;

-

Sign 244: Hazard of accident;


QCVN 41: 2012/BGTVT
-

Sign 245 (a, b): Slow (a), Slow by international treaties (b);

-

Sign 246 (a, b, c): Obstacle ahead;

-

Sign 247: Parking ahead

29.2. See Appendix C for further details of these signs uses.
Article 30. Dimensions, shape and color of warning signs
30.1. Warning signs usually take the shape of an equilateral triangle, with its apexes to be turned
round; having one horizontal side and its opposite apex is upward, except for Sign 208
“Intersection with major roads” where opposite apex is downward;
30.2. Dimensions of signs are in proportion with designed speed; background is light yellow
enclosed in a read border of 5cm width (sign of dimension factor 1), excluding Sign 247 having
dimension of 0.6 times larger than factor 1 signs; images inside signs are usually black unless
otherwise specified;
Specific dimensions of images and color schemes are stated in details in Appendix C and Article
15.
Article 31. Placement of warning sign and effectiveness of signs
Warning signs are generally placed in advance at a distance from its danger location, depending
upon average speed of vehicles within the scope of 10km at its installation place; distance is
provided herein under:
Table 4 – Distance from installation place to danger location
Average speed of vehicles within 10km from Distance from installation place to danger
installation place
location
- Less than 20km/h
- Less than 50m
- From 20km/h to <35km/h
- 50m to <100m
- 35km/h to <50km/h
- 100m to >150m
- From 50km/h or more
- From 150m to 250m
31.2. Distance from sign to danger location must be consistent on the whole section with the
same average speed. In special case where it is necessary, signs may be sited nearer or further
but Sign 502 “Distance to signaled object” must be added;
Sign 208 “Intersection with major roads”: In populated areas, to place it directly before the
intersections with major roads; out of populated areas: depending on nearness or farness to
intersection with major roads to add Sign 502.
31.3. Each kind of signs indicates one potential hazard at a particular location or short or long
section. In case placing Sign 202 (a, b, c), 219, 220, 221a, 225, 228, 231, 232, while
dangerousness happens on a long distance, Sign 505 “Scope of effect” should be supplemented
to point out length of dangerous road section. If the length of the same hazard is more than
500m, signs must be reproduced on each interval of 500m in association with Sign 501 to clarify
length of the next dangerous section;
31.4. In scope of speed limited sections:


QCVN 41: 2012/BGTVT

31.4.1. For dangerous bend where maximum speed of less than 25km/h, there is no need to
install dangerous bend sign (Sign 201 a, b and Sign 202 a, b, c);
31.4.2. In situations of bad road, uneven or slippery road, with speed limit from 10km/h to
15km/h, it is not mandatory to set signs for uneven and slippery road (Sign 221 a, b and Sign
222a, b);
31.5. On streets where vehicles must run slowly, and there are continuous
junctions/intersections, it is unneedful to install Sign 205 (a, b, c, d, e) “Intersection”.

CHAPTER VI
REGULATORY SIGNS
Article 32. Use of regulatory signs
Regulatory signs are traffic signs intended to instruct road users what they must or should do (or
not do) under a given set of circumstances. When in traffic, all vehicles and road users must
comply with signs.
Article 33. Implications by regulatory signs
33.1. Regulatory signs are categorized in 10 types to be numbered from 301 to 310 with
implications as below:
-

Sign 301 (a, b, c, d, e, f, h, i): Direction to follow;

-

Sign 302 (a, b): Detour direction to avoid obstacle;

-

Sign 303: Intersection by roundabout;

-

Sign 304: Non-motorized vehicles only;

-

Sign 305: Pedestrians only;

-

Sign 306: Minimum speed limit;

-

Sign 307: End of minimum speed limit;

-

Sign 308 (a, b): Straight ahead or turn left (right) on flyover;

-

Sign 309: Sound horn;

-

Sign 310 (a, b, c): Direction for truck carrying dangerous goods”

33.2. Please refer to Appendix D for details of each sign type.
Article 34. Dimensions, shape and color of regulatory signs
34.1. Regulatory signs are in round shape, dimensions are in proportion with designed speed, on
blue background, legend, images, number are in white color. Sign 307 has red diagonal strokes
of 9cm width (sign of dimension factor 1), to be lined from upper right to lower left side. These
diagonal strokes combine with a horizontal line of 30 o angle and overlap lettering. Sign 310 is
rectangular on white background;
34.2. See Appendix D and Article 15 for detailed dimensions and images on signs.


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Article 35. Location of regulatory signs erection by direction of travel and effects of signs
35.1. Regulatory signs must be directly erected near the place of regulation, if it is hard to do so
leading to farther place, attach Sign 502;
35.2. Regulatory signs become effective from its place of erection. For Sign 301a, if it is laid
after junction, its effectiveness begins from the placement to the next junction. In no case signs
prohibit turning left or right into personal house or alleys on the same road where signs have
enforceability.

CHAPTER VII
GUIDE SIGNS
Article 36. Usage of guide signs
36.1. Guide signs are used to indicate direction or necessary information to assist road users in
controlling vehicles, for smooth and safe traffic control;
36.2. For road users who are not familiar with the way, guide signs are indispensable.
Article 37. Implications by guide signs
37.1. There are 47 types of guide signs to be numbered from 401 to 447 as below:
-

Sign 401: Start of major road;

-

Sign 402: End of major road;

-

Sign 403 (a, b): Motor vehicles only;

-

Sign 404 (a, b): End of motor vehicles way;

-

Sign 405 (a, b, c): Dead end;

-

Sign 406: Prioritized over narrow roads;

-

Sign 407 (a, b, c): One-way roads;

-

Sign 408: Parking zone;

-

Sign 409: U-turn;

-

Sign 410: U-turn zone;

-

Sign 411: Direction on each lane on multiple lane way divided by line marking;

-

Sign 412 (a, b, c, d): “Lanes for specific vehicles”;

-

Sign 413 (a): Road with passenger car lane;

-

Sign 413 (b, c): Turn to road with passenger car lane;

-

Sign 414 (a, b, c, d): Direction pointing;

-

Sign 415: Directional arrows;

-

Sign 416: Detour;

-

Sign 417 (a, b, c): Direction to follow by each kind of vehicles;


QCVN 41: 2012/BGTVT
-

Sign 418: Carriageway for no-turning places;

-

Sign 419: Boundaries instruction;

-

Sign 420: Start of populated areas;

-

Sign 421: End of populated areas;

-

Sign 422: Historical monuments;

-

Sign 423 (a, b): Pedestrian crossing;

-

Sign 424 (a, b): Pedestrian overhead bridge;

-

Sign 424 (c, d): Pedestrian underpass;

-

Sign 425: Hospital;

-

Sign 426: First aid;

-

Sign 427 (a): Repair workshop;

-

Sign 427 (b): Weigh station;

-

Sign 428: Petrol;

-

Sign 429: Car wash;

-

Sign 430: Telephone;

-

Sign 431: Service area;

-

Sign 432: Motel;

-

Sign 433: Vacation;

-

Sign 434 (a): Bus stop;

-

Sign 434 (b): Truck depot;

-

Sign 435: Tram station

-

Sign 436: Highway police station;

-

Sign 437: Expressway;

-

Sign 438: End of expressway;

-

Sign 439: Name of bridge;

-

Sign 440: Under construction

-

Sign 441 (a, b, c): Ahead works;

-

Sign 442: Market;

-

Sign 443: Trailer tractor;

-

Sign 444: Location guide sign;

-

Sign 445: Description of road status;

-

Sign 446: Handicapped parking;


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