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Semantic features and the interchangeability of the verb make with its synonyms in english articles with reference to the vietnamese equivalents

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY

M.A THESIS

SEMANTIC FEATURES AND THE INTERCHANGEABILITIES OF
THE VERB MAKE WITH ITS SYNONYMS IN ENGLISH ARTICLES
WITH REFERENCE TO THE VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS
(ĐẶC ĐIỂM NGỮ NGHĨA VÀ SỰ THAY THẾ CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ MAKE
VỚI CÁC TỪ ĐỒNG NGHĨA TRONG CÁC BÀI BÁO TIẾNG ANH
TRONG SỰ ĐỐI CHIẾU TƯƠNG ĐƯƠNG TIẾNG VIỆT)
TRỊNH HẢI YẾN

Field: English Language
Code: 60220201

Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Van Thanh

Hanoi, 2017

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CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY
I, the undersigned, hereby certify my authority of the study project report entitled
SEMANTIC FEATURES AND THE INTERCHANGEABILITIES OF THE VERB
MAKE WITH ITS SYNONYMS IN ENGLISH ARTICLES WITH REFERENCE TO
THE VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Master in English Language. Except where the
reference is indicated, no other person’s work has been used without due
acknowledgement in the text of the thesis.

Hanoi, 2017

Trinh Hai Yen

Approved by
SUPERVISOR

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Van Thanh
Date:……………………

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost, I would like to express my deep and sincere gratitude to my
supervisor, Assoc.Prof.Dr Le Van Thanh, Hanoi Open University. This study could
have probably not completed without his patient, enthusiastic supervision and
encouragement. His value support has provided my opportunities to carry out the
research which is very useful for the study.
I am deeply grateful to all the lecturers in the Faculty of Post Graduate Studies in
Hanoi Open University for their efforts to enrich, broaden and deepen my knowledge.
I also would like to give my special thanks to other members who have supported,
given advices for me to accomplish my study.

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ABSTRACT
As far as we know, it is difficult to create a system of synonyms of a word.


However, they play an important role in linguistics as well as in translation. Synonyms
also make vocabulary system more diversity, which is suitable with the development
of language. The study focus on the meaning of the verb make in certain contexts and
its interchangeability with synonyms, using the framework developed by Arnold
(1973). The aim of this study helps students in translating the meaning of the verb
make and in English articles and in real contexts. Numerous examples have been
analyzed cautiously by applying qualitative approach and some other ones so as to
achieve the set objectives. In the study, about 71 articles published from 2012 to 2016
are used to analysis the interchangeabilities of synonyms of the verb make. The study
also give synonymic groups of the verb make, the interchangeability of the verb make
with its synonyms in English articles and the similarities and differences of the
meanings of the verb make in English and Vietnamese.
It can be concluded from this study that a word can be replaced by a suitable
synonym without changing its connotation in certain contexts collected from English
articles in various fields. Some recommendations are also given to linguistics leaners
and translators to help them understand thoroughly when studying and translating. It is
hoped that the study will be useful for and students learning English as a foreign
language.

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LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
Diagram 4.1: Understanding about the meanings of the verb make

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Diagram 4.2: Total of incorrect answer in each sentence

56

Table 4.1: Percentages of the students’ incorrect answers

55

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY ............................................................................... i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................... iii
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... iv
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES ............................................................................... v
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 1
1.1. Rationale for the study .......................................................................................... 1
1.2. Aims and objectives of the study .......................................................................... 1
1.3. Research questions ................................................................................................ 2
1.4. Methods of the study ............................................................................................ 2
1.5. The scope of the study .......................................................................................... 3
1.6. Significance of the study ...................................................................................... 3
1.7. Design of the study ............................................................................................... 3
Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................. 5
2.1. Previous studies .................................................................................................... 5
2.2. Overview of semantics ......................................................................................... 6
2.2.1. Definition of semantics .................................................................................. 6
2.2.2. Synonyms ....................................................................................................... 6
2.2.3. Criteria of synonymy ...................................................................................... 7
2.2.4. The dominant synonymy ................................................................................ 8
2.3. Overview of translation theories ........................................................................... 9
2.4. The semantic features of the verb make ............................................................. 10
2.4.1 Denotation of the verb make ......................................................................... 10
2.4.2. Connotation of the verb make ...................................................................... 14
2.5. The semantic features of the verb làm ................................................................ 14

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2.6. The setting of the study....................................................................................... 18
2.7. Summary ............................................................................................................. 19
Chapter 3: SEMANTIC FEATURES AND THE INTERCHANGEABILITY OF THE
VERB MAKE WITH ITS SYNONYMS IN ENGLISH ARTICLES WITH
REFERENCE TO THE VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENTS ......................................... 20
3.1. Synonymic groups of the verb make .................................................................. 20
3.1.1. The evaluative connotation .......................................................................... 20
3.1.2. The causative connotation ............................................................................ 21
3.1.3. The connotation of manner........................................................................... 21
3.1.4. The connotation of attendant features .......................................................... 22
3.1.5. The stylistic connotation .............................................................................. 22
3.2. The interchangeability of the verb make with its synonyms in English articles 22
3.2.1.

Denotations with synonyms: ..................................................................... 23

3.2.2.

Denotations without synonyms ................................................................. 43

3.3. The comparison between the meanings of the verb make in English and their
Vietnamese equivalents ............................................................................................. 46
3.3.1. The similarities between the meanings of the verb make in English and their
Vietnamese equivalents in terms of semantics ....................................................... 46
3.3.2. The differences between the meanings of the verb make in English and their
Vietnamese equivalents in terms of semantics ....................................................... 48
3.4. Summary ............................................................................................................. 51
Chapter 4: DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING WHEN USING MAKE AND ITS
SYNONYMS ................................................................................................................ 53
4.1. Survey questionnaires ......................................................................................... 53
4.1.1. Subject .......................................................................................................... 53
4.1.2. Questionnaires .............................................................................................. 53

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4.1.3. Procedure ...................................................................................................... 53
4.2. Difficulties in translating when using make and its synonyms .......................... 54
4.2.1. Difficulties in translating when using make and its synonyms .................... 54
4.2.2. Causes ........................................................................................................... 57
4.3. Suggestions for choosing equivalences when translating................................... 58
4.4. Summary ............................................................................................................. 58
Chapter 5: CONCLUSION ........................................................................................... 60
5.1. Concluding remarks ............................................................................................ 60
5.2. Limitation of the study........................................................................................ 60
5.3. Recommendations/Suggestions for further study ............................................... 61
REFERENCES .............................................................................................................. 62
APPENDICES............................................................................................................... 73

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Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Rationale for the study
Vocabulary is one of the most important matters when referring a language,
which shows the diversity of a language. The vocabulary of any language is never
stable, but changes and grows or decays constantly (Ginzburg, R. S, Khidekel, S. S,
Knyazeva, G. Y, Sankin, A. A, 1979). The growth or diversity of vocabulary of a
language is not only in the number of words or types of word, but also different
denotations of a word in each context, which forms synonymic groups containing
words having the same denotation, but different form or morphology.
In the study, Arnold (1973) noted all features from range to define a
synonymic group, component semantics, and phonemic shape to interchangeability
of synonyms. Therefore, there are a huge number of researches study semantic
features and synonym. Dimarco, C & Hirst, G & Stede, M. (1993) discussed the
semantic and stylistic differentiation of synonyms and near – synonyms.
Although, synonyms are considered to be one of the most intelligible sections,
English learners often use them incorrectly. Understanding denotation, connotation
and synonyms of a word is very important for those studying English as a foreign
language. The leaners should study word carefully in both denotative and
connotative components to use it accurately in real contexts.
For

these

above

mentioned

reasons,

“Semantic

features

and

the

interchangeability of the verb make with its synonyms in English articles with
reference to the Vietnamese equivalents” is chosen to investigate in order that
learners could use denotations and connotations of the verb make accurately and
confidently.
1.2. Aims and objectives of the study
The aim of this study helps students in translating the meaning of the verb
make in English articles and in real contexts.
To fulfill the aim above, the study is to pursue the following goals:
-

To point out semantic features of the verb make in English and the
interchangeability of the verb make with its synonyms in English articles
1


-

To find out the similarities and differences the verb make in English and their
Vietnamese equivalents in terms of semantic features

-

To give some suggestions for Vietnam learners learning English when
translating the meaning of the verb make

1.3. Research questions
This research seeks to address the following questions:
(i) What are semantic features of the verb make and the interchangeabilities of
the verb make with its synonyms in English article?
(ii) What are similarities and differences between the verb make in English and
their Vietnamese equivalents in terms of semantic features?
(iii) What are suggestions for Vietnamese learners learning English when
translating the meaning of the verb make?
1.4. Methods of the study
A research method is based on the purpose of the field of the study and its
questions. The study investigates the interchangeability of the verb make with its
synonyms, so the analytical methods are chosen as major one. Sentences quoted
from official English articles containing the verb make are analyzed to find out the
denotations and the interchangeability of them.
On the one hand, the descriptive method is used in order to state the
characteristics of denotation, connotation and synonyms of the verb make.
Moreover, some main concepts, definitions from different authors will be
introduced and discussed in the study.
Also, the survey method is done to recognize most difficulties of students
when they translate meanings of the verb make in real context.
Therefore, the considerations, remarks, consumptions, comments and
conclusions in the thesis are mainly based on data analysis. A number of data
relating to the meanings of the verb make in English and their Vietnamese
equivalents are collected from textbooks, short stories, books, dictionaries, articles
on English and Vietnamese languages. Data collected will then be analyzed in order

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to find out the similarities and differences between English and their Vietnamese
equivalents in terms of semantic features.
1.5. The scope of the study
In this project, we focus on the meaning of the word make and its synonymic
groups. Denotations of make are looked up in Oxford Advanced Learner’s
Dictionary – the eighth edition, and synonymic groups of make are collected in
Oxford Learner’s Thesaurus Dictionary. The reason for choosing these Dictionaries
as reference for this project is their popularity. Most of learners learn words and
look up their meaning in these dictionaries. Moreover, they are updated periodically
because vocabulary system changes constantly with the growth of the society. In
addition, both dictionaries have two types including printed dictionary and online
dictionary, which are the same in content and layout so that it is easy and
convenient for learners to use.
In the study, about 71 articles published from 2012 to 2016 are used to
analysis the interchangeabilities of synonyms of the verb make.
1.6. Significance of the study
Theoretically, the study is hoped to give the readers a comprehensive
description of semantic components of a word and understand synonymic
definitions.
Practically, the study will contribute to helping learners using synonyms
correctly with the meaning in context. In addition, the study gives some suggestions
in order that translators choose equivalents in Vietnamese when translating.
1.7. Design of the study
The study consists of the 5 following parts.
Chapter I – Introduction: gives a brief overview of the research with the
rationale for choosing the topic of the research, aims, objectives, scope of the
research, and the structural organization of the study.
Chapter II – Literature Review: reviews the previous studies related to the
research topic, a variety of pragmatic concepts most relevant to the research
topic.
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Chapter III – Semantic features and the interchangeability of the verb make
with its synonyms in English articles with reference to the Vietnamese
equivalents. This chapter focuses on the findings of the study such as
synonymic groups of the verb make, the interchangeability of the verb make
with its synonyms in English articles and the similarities and differences of
the meanings of the verb make in English and Vietnamese
Chapter IV – Applications: Work with some Suggestions for choosing
equivalences when translating
Chapter V – Conclusion: summarizes major findings of the study, points out
the limitations and proposes some suggestions for further research.

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Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Previous studies
A large number of scholars discussed about semantic components of a word
and synonyms.
Ginzburg et al. (1979) highlighted that lexical units can be classified by
criterion of similarity and contrast in meaning, which are called synonym and
antonym respectively. According to Ginzburg et al. (1979), Words often denote real
things, objects, qualities, places, actions and abstract notion. People cannot have
knowledge or thought about objects, phenomenon or anything else unless they are
embodied in words. This study does not refer all features of synonyms so that it is
difficult for leaners or users define and study synonyms.
Dimarco, C & Hirst, G & Stede, M. (1993) discussed the semantic and
stylistic differentiation of synonyms and near – synonyms. This study described
nuances and subtleties of denotation and connotation and those illustrated by the
examples and focus on synonymy within and across languages. This study only
gives differences of synonyms and near – synonyms in examples in many languages.
Tu (2009) investigated deeply into synonyms and their challenges for firstyear students. This study pointed out different aspects of English synonyms. To
accomplish such targets, the author addressed the issue of using some specific
groups of synonyms of the first year students in English Department, College of
Foreign Languages, Vietnam National University, then analyzed the result of the
test, the errors are picked up and examined for causes and sources. Tu also provided
some recommendations for preventative and curative measures to help improve first
year students use of synonyms.
Additionally, by collecting and analyzing abundant examples of the verb
make in English collocations, as well as their Vietnamese equivalents, Minh (2010)
had successfully compared the two verbs, one in English and one in the other
language, regarding their semantic features. In more details, she divided the
meanings of the verb make into several sub-groups and provided translations for
these different meanings of the verb make, she chose only one meaning for the
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Vietnamese word - làm. Then, she stated her final conclusions, both about
similarities and differences in the finding section. However, she studies on semantic
features of the verb make in English collocations.
Therefore,

semantic

features

of

the verb

make

in analysis the

interchangeability with its synonyms has not been dealt with yet. Finding out
synonymic groups of the verb make and learning the ways to use meanings of the
verb make in the real contexts effectively.
2.2. Overview of semantics
2.2.1. Definition of semantics
According to Richmond H. Thomason (1996) semantics is the study of the
meaning of linguistic expressions. The language can be a natural language, such as
English or Navajo, or an artificial language, like a computer programming language.
Meaning in natural languages is mainly studied by linguists. In fact, semantics is
one of the main branches of contemporary linguistics. Theoretical computer
scientists and logicians think about artificial languages. In some areas of computer
science, these divisions are crossed. In machine translation, for instance, computer
scientists may want to relate natural language texts to abstract representations of
their meanings; to do this, they have to design artificial languages for representing
meanings.
Additionally, there is one idea that can be regarded as the most important
subject in contemporary semantics, pointing out that meaningful units could
combine with each other systematically to form larger meaningful unitsand that
understanding sentences is an appropriate method to work out these combinations.
Researchers, therefore, are to look for general rules to indicate the relationships
between forms or arrangements of words in sentences and meaning. It is not an easy
job as these relationships are often very complex.
2.2.2. Synonyms
In terms of lexical meaning of a word, Ginzburg et al. (1979) highlighted that
lexical units can be classified by criterion of similarity and contrast in meaning,

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which are called synonym and antonym respectively. According to Ginzburg et al.
(1979), synonyms are traditionally described as words different in sound-form but
identical or similar in meaning. This definition is right but does not refer all features
of synonyms so that it is difficult for leaners or users define and study synonyms.
Moreover, Arnold (1973) noted in The English Word that
synonyms can be defined as two or more words of the same language, which
are the same part of speech and possess one or more identical or nearly
identical denotative meanings, interchangeable, at least in some contexts
without any considerable alteration in denotative meaning, but differ in
morphemic composition, phonemic shape, shades of meaning, connotations,
style, valency and idiomatic use.
This definition can be considered as a full definition of synonyms which shows all
features clearly, concretely. In comparison between two definitions, it is clear that
the definition of Ginzburg, R. S and et al only mentions two features sound-form
and meaning of synonyms while the later of Arnold shows all features from range to
define a synonymic group, component semantics, and phonemic shape to
interchangeability of synonyms. Furthermore, to define whether a group of word is
synonymic group, it is based on three criteria of synonyms
2.2.3. Criteria of synonymy
According to English Lexicology, three criteria of synonymy are represented:
notional, semantic criteria and the criterion of interchangeability (Antrushina, G. B,
Afanasyeva, O. V, Morozova, N. N, 1985) basing on definition given in the
previous part.
In terms of notional criterion, synonyms are defined as “words of the same
category of parts of speech conveying the same notion but differing either in shades
of meaning or in stylistic characteristics” (Antrushina et al., 1985).
In terms of semantic criterion, synonyms may be defined as “words with the
same denotation, or the same denotative component, but differing in connotations,
or in connotative components” (Antrushina., et al 1985). Synonyms in research are
analysed mainly basing on this criterion.
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In addition, the criterion of interchangeability is sometimes applied in modern
research on synonyms. Accordingly, synonyms are defined as “words which are
interchangeable at least in some contexts without any considerable alteration in
denotation meaning”. (Antrushina., et al 1985). These following examples will
explain for this:
 My mother cooks some cakes for me every weekend.
(Some cakes are made by heating or boiling or frying)
 My mother prepares some cakes for me every weekend.
(Some cakes are made and be ready to eat)
 My mother gets some cakes for me every weekend.
(Some cakes are made and prepared for a meal)
We can see from these simple examples that each of the synonyms (cook, bake,
prepare, get) creates a new situation which clearly differs from the rest that any
attempt at “interchanging” anything can only destroy the utterance.
We have given three criteria of synonymy with the verb “make” in particular.
According to semantic criterion, synonyms will be classified into three types:
ideographic, stylistic and absolute synonyms (Antrushina., et al 1985). The
classification of synonyms may also base on the definition describing synonyms as
words differing in connotations. This seems to be a more modern and a more
effective approach which classifies connotations and differs synonyms from others.
2.2.4. The dominant synonymy
In addition, each synonymic group has a central word having the highest
frequency in use compared with other its synonyms and presenting the denotaion
common to all the synonymic group in the most general way, but not adding any
information to such features as manner, intensity, duration and other features of the
referent. This word is called dominant synonym. (Antrushina., et al 1985). Therfore,
as Antrushina and et al. refered in “English Lexicology” the meaning of dominant
synonym is broad and generalized to cover the meanings of other synonyms in the
group, so that it can be substituted for the rest of synonyms. However, substitution
leads an irreparable loss of the additional information of connotation of each
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synonyms in the group. In conclusion, it can be underlined four features of
dominant synonym as follow: high frequency of usage, broad combinationbility,
broad general meaning, lack of connotations. (Antrushina., et al 1985)
Here are examples of dominant synonyms in synonymic groups of make. The word
make of course, can be considered as dominant synonym of all the following
synonymic groups. However, each synonymic group also has a word beyond make
that can be defined more dominant than others based on above definition and
features of dominant synonym.
 To make – to produce – to manufacture – to build – to develop – to generate.
 To make - to do - to form.
 To cook – to make - to brew – to prepare – to get – to fix.
 To plan – to make - to design – to formulate.
 To cause – to result in something – to lead (something) to something - to
create – to make - to produce – to bring something about – to give rise to
something – induce.
 To make – to lead – to prompt – to motivate – to induce – to predispose.
 To force – to make - to oblige – to compel - to drive – to impel.
 To make – to raise – to fetch – to get – to bring (somebody) in something - to
realize.
 To make – to earn – to net – to gross – to profit- to bring (somebody) in
something – to pocket – to pull something in – to rake something in.
 To make – to become
2.3. Overview of translation theories
According to Cristina, G.T (2008), Translation Studies is an academic
discipline that studies the theory and practice of translation. It is, by nature, a
multilingual but also interdisciplinary field of study since establishes relation ships
with linguistics, cultural studies, philosophy, the information sciences, and so forth.
Firstly, however, a clear distinction should be made between the notions of
translation and Translation Studies. Translation Studies is the discipline that deals

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with the study of translation, and translation is “a skill, a savoir-faire, that consists
in going through the translating process, and being capable of solving the translation
problems that arise in each case” (Hurtado, A., 2001). Translation has been defined
in a countless number of ways. According to Mayoral, R. (2001), there are as many
definitions as there are authors who have written on the subject. Such diversity is
due to the fact that translation is a multifaceted term.
According to Munday (2001). It can refer to:
a) the general subject field
b) the product (the text that has been translated)
c) the process (the act of actually carrying out a translation, otherwise known
as translating)
As a discipline, Translation Studies is also polymorphic. There are many
different possible fields of study and this polymorphism means that a variety of
approaches can be applied. Yet this means that the student and the researcher are
faced with the problem of where to find accurate information, or what approaches
or authors to start with when setting out on the research path.
According to Venuti, L. (1998), translation has been marginalized in literary
studies because it is supposed not to exist as a legitimate mode of textual
transformation; this marginalizing is institutionalized in copyright law, which does
little but obscure the activity of translators and encourage the current imbalance in
translation flows.
2.4. The semantic features of the verb make
2.4.1 Denotation of the verb make
Each word has its own meaning that can be more or less described as a
component of the word through which a concept is communicated. Words often
denote real things, objects, qualities, places, actions and abstract notion. People
cannot have knowledge or thought about objects, phenomenon or anything else
unless they are embodied in words. (Ginzburg., et al 1979). This function of word is
denotative component of meaning or denotation of a word.

10


Based on denotations of make searched from Oxford Advance’s Learner
dictionary, it can be defined that there are nineteen denotations of make used to
identify synonymic groups of this word. According to Oxford Learner’s Thesaurus,
the verb make will be analysed to illustrate for this as follows:
i. Denotation of causing something exist or happen. Synonyms for this
denotation are to create, to produce, to build, to generate.
To create: To create something new that did not exist before
To produce: To create something by using skill
To build: To create a way of life or an impression that you develop or improve over
a period of time.
To generate: To create or produce power, money or ideas.
ii. Denotation of creating or preparing something from parts of material.
Synonyms for this denotation are to do, to form.
To do: To make or prepare something, especially something artistic or something to
eat.
To form: To make something from something.
iii. Denotation of causing something happens as a result of breaking, tearing,
hitting or removing material. This denotation contains synonyms: to cause,
to result in something, to lead (something) to something, to produce, to bring
(something) about, to give rise to something, to create, to induce.
To cause: To cause something bad or unpleasant
To result in something: To cause situation, the loss or increase of something
To lead (something) to something: To be the reason why something happens
To produce: To cause a particular result or reaction
To bring (something) about: To cause something to change over a period of time or
in a number of stage
To give rise to something: To allow something to happen or come into existence.
To create: To produce a particular feeling or impression.
To induce: To cause effect of such as medicine, disease or injury has on the body.

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iv. Denotation of writing, creating or preparing something or making a design
for something. The group of synonyms of this denotation includes to plan,
to design, to formulate.
To plan: To make a design or outline for a thing, piece of writing or plan of action.
To design: To think of or plan a system or way of doing something
To formulate: To create or prepare something carefully, giving particular attention
to the details.
v. Denotation of putting somebody in a situation in which they have to do
something, especially something they do not want to do. “To force, to oblige,
to compel, to drive and to impel “are synonyms of to make.
To force: To put somebody in a situation in which they have to do something that
they do not want to do.
To oblige: To force somebody to do something by law, because it is a duty.
To compel: To use authority to force somebody to do something and make it
necessary
To drive: To force somebody to act in a particular way, often in an extreme way.
To impel: To be forced to do something by a feeling or idea; especially one that
seems to beyond one’s control.
vi. Denotation of getting money, especially by working or doing business. The
group of synonyms include earn, profit, net, bring (somebody) in something,
gross, pocket, pull something in, rake something in.
To earn: to get money as payment for work that you do, or as profit or interest on
money that you lend or invest.
To profit: To make money from activity.
To net”: To make an amount of money as profit after you have paid tax on it.
To Bring somebody in something: To earn or produce money.
To gross : To make an amount of money as profit before you have paid tax on it.
To pocket: To earn or win an amount of money
To pull something in : to make or earn a lot of money.

12


To rake (something) in: To earn or make a lot of money, especially when this is
done easily.
vii. Denotation of creating or preparing something by combining materials or
parts together. The group of synonyms: to cook – to fix – to brew – to
prepare – to get.
To cook: To cook food by heating, boiling and frying it.
To fix: To provide or prepare something, specially food or drink
To brew: To make a hot drink of tea or coffee.
To prepare: To make food ready to be eaten
To get: To prepare a meal.
viii. Denotation of causing somebody/something to do something. The group of
synonyms includes to lead – to prompt – to motivate – to induce – to
predispose.
To lead: To be the reason why somebody does/thinks st
To prompt: To be the reason why somebody decides to do something
To motivate: To be the reason why somebody decides to do something or behaves in
a particular way.
To induce: To persuade or influence somebody to do something.
To predispose: To influence somebody so that they are likely to think or behave in a
particular way.
ix. Denotation of gaining an amount of money by selling something. The group
of synonyms consists of to raise – to fetch – to bring (somebody) in something
– get – realize.
To raise: To collect money for something, by selling something, borrowing money
or asking people to give it.
To get: To gain an amount of money by selling something.
To fetch: To be sold for a particular amount of money.
To bring (somebody) in something: To gain an amount of money by selling
something.
To realize: To be sold for a particular amount of money.
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2.4.2. Connotation of the verb make
Besides, when a word is used, it also communicates the feeling and attitude of
speaker, which is known as connotative component or connotation of a word.
According to “the English word” by Arnold connotation of each word depends on
certain circumstances, style, speaker’s emotion and degree of intensity. Connotation
of a word also conveys about the speaker’s attitude to the social circumstances and
the appropriate functional style as well as speaker’s emotions or degree of intensity.
(Arnold, 1973). For example, make and create both mean to cause something to
exist or happen, but create refers new thing that did not exist before, which shows
evaluative connotation. This is known as difference in connotation among words
called synonyms in a group.
Make has nineteen denotations, but only nine of them have synonymic groups.
Thus, there are nine synonymic groups of the verb make and are classified into five
types of connotations.
 The evaluative connotation
 The causative connotation
 The connotation of manner
 The connotation of attendant features.
 The stylistic connotation
2.5. The semantic features of the verb làm
Generally, like other Vietnamese verbs, làm refers to an action, an activity, a
progress, an impression and feeling, a change, a state, etc…
Làm is used by Vietnamese people in everyday communication in many
contexts and usages. In this section, the meanings of the verb làm are given.
Semantic features have been collected on the basis of Từ Điển Tiếng Việt (2006).
The data for the realization of these semantic features are illustrated with the
examples cited verbatim from this dictionary and stories.
 Làm conveys the meaning of produce or create something
Like the verb make in English, làm in Vietnamese also denotes the act of
producing or creating something that is non-existent before.
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For example:
“Đã lâu, người mình làm thơ hầu hết chỉ làm những bài tám câu, mỗi câu bẩy
chữ.”
“Họ ước mong làm được một ngôi nhà gỗ tốt, có một cuộc sống yên bình.”
Here are some more examples: Chim làm tổ, làm cơm, làm thí nghiệm, làm
thơ, làm nên lịch sử…
 Làm conveys the meaning of cause a state or situation
First, we can use làm to reflect the state or situation caused by
somebody/something. For example: Làm đổ cây, làm hỏng việc, làm náo động, làm
ngập, làm tắc nghẽn, làm tổn hại, làm nhặng xị, etc.
Secondly, làm describes the act of causing somebody to be or to do something.
For example:
“Hắn còn làm mình bật cười hơn nữa cơ lúc hắn đeo lên người hắn đủ cả bộ
lụa là, đủ cả bộ hạt cườm.”
Here are some more examples: Làm vui lòng, làm khó dễ , làm ngạc nhiên,
làm xước, làm yếu, etc.
 Làm conveys the meaning of be or become
This sense of meaning in Vietnamese is similar to that in English. Làm can
indicate the state of being or becoming.
For example:
“Nhà tôi nó mới về làm bạn với tôi đấy u ạ!”
“Sau này, nếu Mĩ-Diệm giết anh, Tnú phải làm cán bộ thay anh. Không học
chữ làm sao làm được cán bộ giỏi.”
“Chúng đặt ra hàng trăm thứ thuế vô lí, làm cho dân ta, nhất là dân cày và
dân buôn, trở nên bần cùng.”
“Tình yêu làm đất lạ hóa quê hương.”
Here are some more examples: Làm duyên làm dáng, làm bạn, làm biếng, làm
thân, làm đỏm, làm gương, làm mối, làm mồi, làm người, làm vua, làm trai, etc.

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 Làm conveys the meaning of work
Probably, this is the most popular meaning of the verb làm in Vietnamese.
With this sense, làm denotes the act of working to earn money to survive.
For example:
“Hắn xăm xăm chạy ra giữa sân, hắn cũng muốn làm một việc gì để dự phần
tu sửa lại căn nhà.”
“…Không biết có phải vì mới làm dâu mà thị tu chí làm ăn không?‟
“Vợ anh đi làm mướn, đi cấy, đi gặt để lấy công”
“Con gái, con trai bằng tuổi chúng ta
Cần cù làm lụng”
Here are some more examples: Làm ở nhà máy, đến giờ đi làm, làm ruộng,
làm nghề dạy học, làm công, làm mướn, etc.
 Làm conveys the meaning of do or carry out
Làm can mean to do or carry out a certain job.
For example:
“…làm như vậy ông sẽ được tất cả, được cho đất nước ông, được cho bản
thân ông!”
“..Vả lại đâu có rủ được anh làm như tôi, khoác cái ba lô lên vai, đi hết làng
nọ đến làng kia…‟
“…Hắn đoán họ ngồi đấy nhặt hạt rơi hạt vãi, hay ai có công việc gì gọi đến
thì làm… “
Moreover, Làm can denote the act of making effort to carry out something
with a particular purpose.
For example:
“Té ra người nông dân nước mình vẫn có thể làm cách mạng, mà làm cách
mạng hăng hái lắm.”
Here are some more examples: Làm nên sự nghiệp; dám nghĩ dám làm, làm
bài tập, làm nghĩa vụ, làm vườn, làm ngầm, etc.

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 Làm conveys the meaning of organize or hold a formal ceremony
Different form the verb make in English, làm in Vietnamese can convey the
meaning of carrying out or holding a formal event when this verb combines with
certain nouns in Vietnamese.
For example: Làm lễ khánh thành, làm lễ chào cờ, làm đám cưới, làm ma chay,
làm lễ ra quân, etc.
 Làm conveys the meaning of pretend
In Vietnamese, làm can be understood as to pretend to be, which means that
someone tries to behave differently in certain situations and this behavior does not
reflect his/her true nature.
For example: Làm ra vẻ thông thạo, làm như không quen biết, làm ngơ, làm ra
vẻ ta đây, etc.
 Làm conveys the meaning of be added together
Làm can indicate a quantitative result or the result of either combination or
separation.
For example:
“Đám tảng, đám hòn chia làm ba hàng chặn ngang trên song đòi ăn chết cái
thuyền.”
Here are some more examples: Tách làm đôi, gộp chung làm một, etc.
 Làm conveys the meaning of kill
Different from the verb make in English, làm in Vietnamese can convey the
meaning of killing an animal for food.
For example: Làm lợn, làm vài con gà đãi khách, làm thịt, etc.
 Làm conveys the meaning of serve as something, be used as something or be
regarded as something
Làm can also be used to describing the use of something.
For example:
‘…ít khi nhờ Xuân Diệu, Huy Cận đứng làm trung gian…”
Làm gương cho mọi người, trồng làm cảnh, chiếm làm của riêng, lấy đêm làm
ngày, câu chuyện làm quà, làm mẫu, etc.
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