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Collins gem easy learning japanese phrasebook 2nd edition

Collins
easy learning

Japanese
phrasebook

for languages.



11

Collins
«

9em

easy learning

Japanese
phrase book



Consultant
Miyoko Yam ashita

First published 2007
This edition published 2010
Copyright © HarperCollins Publishers
Reprint 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Typeset by Davidson Pre-Press, Glasgow
Printed in Malaysia for Imago
www.collinslanguage.com
ISBN 978-0-00-735850-2


Using your phrasebook
Your Collins Gem Phrasebook is designed to help you
locate the exact phrase you need, when you need it,
whether on holiday or for business. If you want to
adapt the phrases, you can easily see where to
substitute your own words using the dictionary
section, and the clear, full-colour layout gives you
direct access to the different topics.

The Gem Phrasebook includes:
• Over 70 topics arranged thematically. Each phrase
is accom panied by a sim ple pronunciation guide
which elim inates any problem s pronouncing
foreign words.
• A top ten tips section to safeguard against any
cultural faux pas, giving essential dos and don’ts
for situations involving local custom s or etiquette.
• Practical hints to make your stay trouble free,
show ing you where to go and what to do when
dealing with everyday matters such as travel or
hotels and offering valuable tourist information.

3



o Face to face sections so that you understand
what is being said to you. These exam ple m ini­
dialogues give you a good idea of w hat to expect
from a real conversation.
©Common announcem ents and m essages you may
hear, ensuring that you never m iss the important
information you need to know when out and about.
• A clearly laid-out dictionary m eans you will never
be stuck for words.
• A basic gram m ar section which will enable you to
build on your phrases.
• A list of public holidays to avoid being caught out
by unexpected opening and closing hours, and to
make sure you don’t m iss the celebrations!
It’s worth spending tim e before you em bark on your
travels ju st looking through the topics to see what is
covered and becom ing fam iliar with what m ight be
said to you.
W hatever the situation, your Gem Phrasebook is sure
to help!

4


Contents
Using your
phrasebook
Pronouncing
Japanese
Top ten tips

Staying somewhere
Hotel (booking)
Hotel desk
7 Cam ping
11 Self-catering
3

Talking to people

13 Shopping
Hello/goodbye, yes/noi3 Shopping phrases
Key phrases
15 Shops
Work
19 Food (general)
Weather
20 Food (fruit and veg)
22 Clothes
Getting around
22 Clothes (articles)
Asking the way
25 Maps and guides
Bus and coach
28 Post office
Metro
30 Photos
Train
Taxi
Boat and ferry
Air travel
Custom s control

Driving
Car hire
Driving
Petrol
Breakdown
Car parts
Road signs

34

Leisure

Sightseeing and
38
tourist office
40 Entertainm ent
.. Leisure/interests
42
^ Music
42
Cinem a
44
45 Theatre/opera
Television
46

51
51
54
55
57
58
58
60
61
62
64
66
67
68
69
70

36

47

S P0 r t

49 Skiing

70
71
72
72
73
74
76
77
79

5


W alking

81

Communications

82

Telephone and mobile
Text m essaging
E-m ail
Internet
Fax

82

86
86

Reference

88

94

M easurements and
quantities
Num bers
Days and m onths
Tim e
Tim e phrases

120
122

95

Eating out

123

96

Food in Japan
Reading the menu
Vegetarian
Wines and spirits

89
90

Money
Paying
Luggage
Repairs
Laundry
Com plaints
Problems
Em ergencies

90

100

Health

103

6

109

Disabled travellers
With kids

Practicalities

Pharm acy
Body
Doctor
Dentist

Different types of
travellers

92

97
98

105

Grammar
Public holidays
Signs and notices
Dictionary

107

English - Japanese

103
104

109

110
112
112
115
117

123
130
146

150
151
160
162

172


Although the Japanese writing system is rather
complicated, pronouncingjapanese is easy once
you know the few basic rules. This book has been
designed so that as you read the pronunciation of
the phrases, you can follow the Japanese. This will
help you to recognize the different sounds and give
you a feeling for the rhythm of the language. A few
rules for you to note are below.
In Japanese the basic unit of speech is the
syllable, not the letter. Each syllable is pronounced
approximately the same length and rather flatly.
Japanese has a pitched accent (high and low) but
tone doesn’t change the meaning, as it does in
Chinese. It is more important not to stress any one
part of a word. For example, in English the word
Paris Is pronounced paris and In French paree.
Japanese gives equal strength to both syllables: pari.
Japanese has relatively few sounds. Each vowel has
only one sound.

7

Pronouncing Japanese

Pronouncingjapanese


Japanese vowels

Pronouncing Japanese

sounds like

a

u
e
o

a’
i’
u’
e’
o’

as in
as in
as in
as in
as in

bath
police
put
let
got

Longvowel sounds
a a, ii, uu, ee, oo

approximately double the
length of other syllables

15 Basic consonants
k, s, t, n, h, m , y, r, w , g, z, d, b, p, n /m

Except n /m , and sh i, c h i and tsu , a consonant
takes one vowel to create a syllable as in
K i-m o -n o
traditional Japanese costume
T a -n a -k a
Japanese surname
These consonants are close to their English
equivalents but note the following:
g is pronounced as in golf, not as in Germany
y is pronounced as in young, not as in cry
8


Japanese also lacks the si sound (as in ‘to sit’): shi
is used instead, with often embarrassing results!
Other English sounds that do not exist in Japanese
are hu (as in ‘hook’: fu is used instead); th (as in
‘thin’: shi is used instead); and ti (as in 'tin': chi is
used instead).
Double consonants, like kk, pp, ssand ttare
written before a vowel, which indicates a pause
equivalent to one syllable in length before that
consonant. The sound before the pause tends to
become sharper than at other times.

kitte
kippu

Pronunciation

Meaning

ki (pause) te
ki (pause) pu

stamp
ticket

ki, shi, chi, ni ,hi, mi, ri, gi, ji, bi and pi sounds can
be combined with ya, yu or yo to create combined
consonants. For example, ki + ya become kya, ki +
yu become kyu and ki + yo become kyo. Examples

9

Pronouncing Japanese

Since Japanese lacks the consonants I and v, foreign
loanwords with these letters are pronounced with r
and b, respectively. Thus, English words ‘love’ and
‘rub’ both become indistinguishable as ra-bu in
Japanese.


Pronouncing Japanese

of this can be found in the words Tookyoo and
Kyooto, where it is pronounced as two sounds,
but said very quickly with the same length of one
syllable.

m atchi

Pronunciation

Meaning

ma (pause) chi

match

In the case of the chi syllable, a double consonant
sound is written as tchi as in the example above.
You should also remember that Japanese does not
have a silent e at the end of a word such as in the
English ‘to take’, if ‘take’ Is read as the Japanese
word take (bamboo), it should be pronounced
tah-keh. Similarly sake (rice wine), is pronounced
sah-keh,etc.
However, the vowel u at the end of a sentence such
as M ike desu will sound very weak.

10


1 Always remember to remove your shoes before
entering someone’s home. Before stepping on
tatam i matting, slippers must also be removed.
Slippers must be changed when going to the
toilet. Remember not to leave the toilet still
wearing the toilet slippers, as it would be very
embarrassing!
2 Always make sure that you do not have any holes
in your socks or tights, as you may have to take
your shoes off unexpectedly.
3 Shaking hands is uncommon In Japan;
the Japanese greet each other by bowing.
However, foreigners are sometimes greeted
with a handshake.4
4 Sum im asen is a word with many purposes;

it can be used to attract someone’s attention
before making a request, or to get past people
on a crowded train. It can also be used to say
“sorry”.

11

Top ten tips

Top ten tips


Top ten tips

5

Credit cards are only accepted in the more
expensive hotels, shops and restaurants.

6

If you receive a gift from a Japanese visitor,
remember to express delight at the wrapping as
well as the gift itself. If you are invited to a
Japanese person’s house, make sure you take
gift-wrapped present with you.

7 You can only buy cigarettes and alcohol if you
are over 20 years of age.
8 The Japanese tend not to use assertive words
such as “yes” and “no”. Good alternatives are ii
desu ne for “yes” and chotto for “no”.
9

Cleanliness is important to the Japanese. Never
drop or leave rubbish.

10 It's advisable that you carry proof of identity at

all times, so make sure that you always have
your passport with you.

12


Hello/goodbye, yes/no

Hell o/good bye, yes/no
In Japanese there is no exact equivalent for the
word ‘hello’ - different greeting words are used
based on the time of the day. Similarly, the word
c h o tto (whose literal meaning is ‘a bit’) is
influenced by body language: if said with one’s
head slightly tilted, it means ‘no’.
Hello

oA/Ic.'Sli
konnichiwa

Good morning
Good evening

ohayoogozaimasu
clA /liA /lct
kombanwa

Goodnight
oyasu mi nasal
Goodbye

£

sayoonara
See you later
ja mata
13


See you tomorrow
How are you?

mata ashita
£>7üM T 53‘ fa
ogenki desu ka?

Talking to people

Fine, thanks
hai.genkidesu
And you?
Please

anata wa?
f c lÜ lA U S f
onegaishimasu

Thank you
arigatoo(gozaimasu)
You’re welcome
dooitashlmashlte
Excuse me!
gomennasai!
Sorry!
Yes
No
Urn...
Yes, please
No, thanks
14

sumimasen!
(á u
hal
IH A X .
iie
S c t o t ...
chotto...
IS l/ \ S H l A U S f
hai.onegai shimasu
UHAX.C i S S T - f
iie, kekkoodesu


Sir...

...R
...shi

Mr.. ./Madam.../
Mrs.../Ms.../
Miss...
1don’t
understand
1don’t speak
Japanese

...Z h u
...san

to * ' D S t t A ,
w a k a rim a se n
w a ta sh i w a n ih o n g o g a

Key phrases

hanasem asen

Key phrases
There is no gender, article or singular/plural form in
Japanese. Different counters are used together with
numbers (please see the number section for more
detail).
museum

mm
b iju tsu k a n

the station

IR
eki

the shops

IS
m ise

the houses
ie / u c h i

15


a/one

—O
hltotsu

a ticket

"J h —■f t
chlketto Ichlmal

Talking to people

one stamp
kltte Ichim al

a room

-S P S

one bottle

—*

hlto heya
Ippon

some (countable)
Ikutsuka

some
(uncountable)

some wine

IK

S fr

ikuraka

I K K 5 A'
w ain Ikuraka

some fruit
furuutsu Ikutsuka

some biscuits

K K o A '
bisuketto Ikutsuka

Do you have...?

...( ia p D ir t * '
...w aarlm asu ka?

Do you have
a timetable?
Do you have
a room?
Do you have
milk?
16

jlko ku h yo o w a a rlm a su ka?
h e y a w a arim asu ka?
gyuunyuu w aarim asu ka?


l/W e ’d like...

...(» 1 9 ) f c l i V C f
...(verb) taid esu

I/W e ’d like...
...(noun) ga h o sh iid e su
I’d like an
ice cre a m
W e ’d like to
go h o m e
A n o th er...

aisukuriim u ga hoshii desu
* £ ! liiD f c l,\ - C T
ie ni kaeritai desu
. . . J d jM

d

O

Key phrases

...okawari
S o m e m o re...
...m oosukoshi
S o m e m o re bread
pan m oo sukoshi
S o m e m ore
g la s s e s

IK W & k

bo 'J H s

n om im ono m oosukoshi

0

A n o th e r
Ja p a n e se te a
A n o th e r beer

o ch a okawari

e -jL s f e d 'b o
biiru okawari

S o m e m o re w a te r
om izu m oosukoshi
H o w m u c h is it?
korew aikuradesu ka?
large
ookii
sm a ll

/ J v £ lA
chiisai

V


w ith

£
to

w ith o u t
nukide

Talking to people

W he re is/are ...?

..A t£ Z .-£ t± '
... w ad o ko d e su ka

W he re is/a re
th e nearest...?



...

H o w do I ge t...?
...ew adooyatte ikim asu ka?
to th e m u s e u m
bijutsukan ewa
to th e statio n

IR'Mi
eki ewa

to Kyoto
Kyooto ewa
T h e re is/a re ...
...gaarim asu
T h e re is n ’t /
a re n ’t any...

...# £ D S tA j
...gaarim asen

W hen?
itsu?
A t w h a t tim e ...?
nanjini...?
to d ay

<%B
Kyoo

to m o rro w

B£B
ashita

18

A'

ichiban chikai ...w a d o ko d e su ka?


C an I...?
...dekim asu ka?
sm o k e

mm

taste it

t iS

kitsuen
shishoku
w ork?
W h a t d oes th is
m ean?

3

E

-5^

0

T jg U

St

ts

kore w a dooyatte tsukaim asu ka?

¡1ftfi i: -5U5MBfrXtt'

kore w a d o o iu imi desu ka?

W ork

H o w d o e s th is

Work
T h e Ja p a n e se te n d to te ll yo u w h ere th e y w o rk
rather th a n w h a t th e y do.

S X ’4’1S'

W h a t do yo u do?

otsutom e w a dochira desu ka?

o X '^ ’tS'

H o w ’s y o u r w o rk?

s h ig o to w a d o o d e su ka?
I’m ...

m t...
w atashiw a...

a d o cto r

m m xt

a m anager

m m ^xt

ishadesu
keieishadesu

> Leisure/interests (p 70 ) > Sport (p 7 7 )

19


a housewife

H EjU T?'?'
shufu desu

I work from home f A l i
w atashi w aza itaku -kin m u desu

Talking to people

I’m self-em ployed f A t t i= ii= S IT ? '3 "
w atashi w ajieigyoo desu

Weather
tenki-yohoo
B fttl

hare

H U

warui

1 0

kumori

weather forecast
fine
cloudy
changeable w eather

kawariyasui tenki
It’s s u n n y
te n k ig a ii
It’s m u g g y

$U 1U
m ushiatsui

It’s ra in in g
a m e ga fu tte iru
It’s s n o w in g
yuki gafutteiru

20


It’s windy
kaze ga tsuyoi
W h a t a lo ve ly day! £ C / u T l / ' b ' E l
nante ¡¡hi!
W h a t aw ful
w eather!

nante hidoi tenki!

W h a t w ill the
w e a th e r be

ashitano tenki w a doo desu ka?

like to m orro w ?
D o you th in k it’s
am e ga furisoo desu ka?

W eather

g o in g to rain?
It’s v e ry h ot
to d ay

kyoo w a totem o atsui desu

It’s ve ry cold
to day

kyoo w a totem o sam ui desu

Do you th in k
the re w ill be

arashi ni naru to o m oim asu ka?

a storm ?
D o you th in k it
w ill sno w ?

si
yuki ni naru to om oim asu ka?

W ill it be fo ggy?

Ml

W h a t is the

kiri ni n arvto om oim asu ka?
fu S U M /g T -T A '

te m p e ratu re?

kion w a nando desu ka?

21


Getting around
>

G e ttin g a ro u n d

Askingthe way
I5M

hantai

...® ® i

...notonari

...® j£ <

M3

...n ochikaku

shingoo
o o dan-hodoo

( M lS ff l)

ft

opposite
next to...
near to...
traffic lights
crossroads
corner (of road)

(dooro no) kado

FACE T O FACE

A f ^

i th j,

s u m im a s e n , eki m a d e d o o y a tte ikim a su ka?

Excuse me, how do I get to the station?
B

T C 'n

massugu itte, hitotsu-me no kado o migi/
hidari ni magatte kudasai
Keep straight on, turn right/left at the first corner
22


A itU T -T * '

tooi desu ka?
Is It far?

B U \^ jL 2 0 0 * -h ;i//5 # < 5 lV T ? -r

iie, nihyaku-meetoru/go-fun kurai desu
No, about 2 0 0 m etres/five m inutes

A ®DA '“
arigatoo!
A sking the Way

Thank you!

doo itashimashite
You’re w elcom e

L>tc

W e ’re lo st

m ichi nl m ayoim ashita
W e ’re lo o k in g fo r........ i E t S U T b ' S ' i T
...o sagash ite imasu
Is th is th e rig h t
w a y to...?

...IC if r < f f i i i C t V C l / U A ' d r

t >'
...ni iku nowa korede iidesu ka?

C a n l/ w e w a lk
there?

^rZ. c P .U ' & l ' } t } '
soko m ade arukem asu ka?

23


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