Using your phrasebook Your Collins Gem Phrasebook is designed to help you locate the exact phrase you need, when you need it, whether on holiday or for business. If you want to adapt the phrases, you can easily see where to substitute your own words using the dictionary section, and the clear, full-colour layout gives you direct access to the different topics.
The Gem Phrasebook includes: • Over 70 topics arranged thematically. Each phrase is accom panied by a sim ple pronunciation guide which elim inates any problem s pronouncing foreign words. • A top ten tips section to safeguard against any cultural faux pas, giving essential dos and don’ts for situations involving local custom s or etiquette. • Practical hints to make your stay trouble free, show ing you where to go and what to do when dealing with everyday matters such as travel or hotels and offering valuable tourist information.
Contents Using your phrasebook Pronouncing Japanese Top ten tips
Staying somewhere Hotel (booking) Hotel desk 7 Cam ping 11 Self-catering 3
Talking to people
13 Shopping Hello/goodbye, yes/noi3 Shopping phrases Key phrases 15 Shops Work 19 Food (general) Weather 20 Food (fruit and veg) 22 Clothes Getting around 22 Clothes (articles) Asking the way 25 Maps and guides Bus and coach 28 Post office Metro 30 Photos Train Taxi Boat and ferry Air travel Custom s control
Driving Car hire Driving Petrol Breakdown Car parts Road signs
Sightseeing and 38 tourist office 40 Entertainm ent .. Leisure/interests 42 ^ Music 42 Cinem a 44 45 Theatre/opera Television 46
51 51 54 55 57 58 58 60 61 62 64 66 67 68 69 70
S P0 r t
70 71 72 72 73 74 76 77 79
Telephone and mobile Text m essaging E-m ail Internet Fax
M easurements and quantities Num bers Days and m onths Tim e Tim e phrases
Food in Japan Reading the menu Vegetarian Wines and spirits
Money Paying Luggage Repairs Laundry Com plaints Problems Em ergencies
Disabled travellers With kids
Pharm acy Body Doctor Dentist
Different types of travellers
Grammar Public holidays Signs and notices Dictionary
English - Japanese
110 112 112 115 117
123 130 146
150 151 160 162
Although the Japanese writing system is rather complicated, pronouncingjapanese is easy once you know the few basic rules. This book has been designed so that as you read the pronunciation of the phrases, you can follow the Japanese. This will help you to recognize the different sounds and give you a feeling for the rhythm of the language. A few rules for you to note are below. In Japanese the basic unit of speech is the syllable, not the letter. Each syllable is pronounced approximately the same length and rather flatly. Japanese has a pitched accent (high and low) but tone doesn’t change the meaning, as it does in Chinese. It is more important not to stress any one part of a word. For example, in English the word Paris Is pronounced paris and In French paree. Japanese gives equal strength to both syllables: pari. Japanese has relatively few sounds. Each vowel has only one sound.
u e o
a’ i’ u’ e’ o’
as in as in as in as in as in
bath police put let got
Longvowel sounds a a, ii, uu, ee, oo
approximately double the length of other syllables
15 Basic consonants k, s, t, n, h, m , y, r, w , g, z, d, b, p, n /m
Except n /m , and sh i, c h i and tsu , a consonant takes one vowel to create a syllable as in K i-m o -n o traditional Japanese costume T a -n a -k a Japanese surname These consonants are close to their English equivalents but note the following: g is pronounced as in golf, not as in Germany y is pronounced as in young, not as in cry 8
Japanese also lacks the si sound (as in ‘to sit’): shi is used instead, with often embarrassing results! Other English sounds that do not exist in Japanese are hu (as in ‘hook’: fu is used instead); th (as in ‘thin’: shi is used instead); and ti (as in 'tin': chi is used instead). Double consonants, like kk, pp, ssand ttare written before a vowel, which indicates a pause equivalent to one syllable in length before that consonant. The sound before the pause tends to become sharper than at other times.
ki (pause) te ki (pause) pu
ki, shi, chi, ni ,hi, mi, ri, gi, ji, bi and pi sounds can be combined with ya, yu or yo to create combined consonants. For example, ki + ya become kya, ki + yu become kyu and ki + yo become kyo. Examples
Since Japanese lacks the consonants I and v, foreign loanwords with these letters are pronounced with r and b, respectively. Thus, English words ‘love’ and ‘rub’ both become indistinguishable as ra-bu in Japanese.
of this can be found in the words Tookyoo and Kyooto, where it is pronounced as two sounds, but said very quickly with the same length of one syllable.
ma (pause) chi
In the case of the chi syllable, a double consonant sound is written as tchi as in the example above. You should also remember that Japanese does not have a silent e at the end of a word such as in the English ‘to take’, if ‘take’ Is read as the Japanese word take (bamboo), it should be pronounced tah-keh. Similarly sake (rice wine), is pronounced sah-keh,etc. However, the vowel u at the end of a sentence such as M ike desu will sound very weak.
1 Always remember to remove your shoes before entering someone’s home. Before stepping on tatam i matting, slippers must also be removed. Slippers must be changed when going to the toilet. Remember not to leave the toilet still wearing the toilet slippers, as it would be very embarrassing! 2 Always make sure that you do not have any holes in your socks or tights, as you may have to take your shoes off unexpectedly. 3 Shaking hands is uncommon In Japan; the Japanese greet each other by bowing. However, foreigners are sometimes greeted with a handshake.4 4 Sum im asen is a word with many purposes;
it can be used to attract someone’s attention before making a request, or to get past people on a crowded train. It can also be used to say “sorry”.
Top ten tips
Top ten tips
Top ten tips
Credit cards are only accepted in the more expensive hotels, shops and restaurants.
If you receive a gift from a Japanese visitor, remember to express delight at the wrapping as well as the gift itself. If you are invited to a Japanese person’s house, make sure you take gift-wrapped present with you.
7 You can only buy cigarettes and alcohol if you are over 20 years of age. 8 The Japanese tend not to use assertive words such as “yes” and “no”. Good alternatives are ii desu ne for “yes” and chotto for “no”. 9
Cleanliness is important to the Japanese. Never drop or leave rubbish.
10 It's advisable that you carry proof of identity at
all times, so make sure that you always have your passport with you.
Hell o/good bye, yes/no In Japanese there is no exact equivalent for the word ‘hello’ - different greeting words are used based on the time of the day. Similarly, the word c h o tto (whose literal meaning is ‘a bit’) is influenced by body language: if said with one’s head slightly tilted, it means ‘no’. Hello
Good morning Good evening
ohayoogozaimasu clA /liA /lct kombanwa
Goodnight oyasu mi nasal Goodbye
sayoonara See you later ja mata 13
See you tomorrow How are you?
mata ashita £>7üM T 53‘ fa ogenki desu ka?
Talking to people
Fine, thanks hai.genkidesu And you? Please
anata wa? f c lÜ lA U S f onegaishimasu
Thank you arigatoo(gozaimasu) You’re welcome dooitashlmashlte Excuse me! gomennasai! Sorry! Yes No Urn... Yes, please No, thanks 14
sumimasen! (á u hal IH A X . iie S c t o t ... chotto... IS l/ \ S H l A U S f hai.onegai shimasu UHAX.C i S S T - f iie, kekkoodesu
Mr.. ./Madam.../ Mrs.../Ms.../ Miss... 1don’t understand 1don’t speak Japanese
...Z h u ...san
to * ' D S t t A , w a k a rim a se n w a ta sh i w a n ih o n g o g a
Key phrases There is no gender, article or singular/plural form in Japanese. Different counters are used together with numbers (please see the number section for more detail). museum
mm b iju tsu k a n
IS m ise
the houses ie / u c h i
"J h —■f t chlketto Ichlmal
Talking to people
one stamp kltte Ichim al
-S P S
hlto heya Ippon
some (countable) Ikutsuka
I K K 5 A' w ain Ikuraka
some fruit furuutsu Ikutsuka
K K o A ' bisuketto Ikutsuka
Do you have...?
...( ia p D ir t * ' ...w aarlm asu ka?
Do you have a timetable? Do you have a room? Do you have milk? 16
jlko ku h yo o w a a rlm a su ka? h e y a w a arim asu ka? gyuunyuu w aarim asu ka?
l/W e ’d like...
...(» 1 9 ) f c l i V C f ...(verb) taid esu
I/W e ’d like... ...(noun) ga h o sh iid e su I’d like an ice cre a m W e ’d like to go h o m e A n o th er...
aisukuriim u ga hoshii desu * £ ! liiD f c l,\ - C T ie ni kaeritai desu . . . J d jM
...okawari S o m e m o re... ...m oosukoshi S o m e m o re bread pan m oo sukoshi S o m e m ore g la s s e s
IK W & k
bo 'J H s
n om im ono m oosukoshi
A n o th e r Ja p a n e se te a A n o th e r beer
o ch a okawari
e -jL s f e d 'b o biiru okawari
S o m e m o re w a te r om izu m oosukoshi H o w m u c h is it? korew aikuradesu ka? large ookii sm a ll
/ J v £ lA chiisai
w ith o u t nukide
Talking to people
W he re is/are ...?
..A t£ Z .-£ t± ' ... w ad o ko d e su ka
W he re is/a re th e nearest...?
H o w do I ge t...? ...ew adooyatte ikim asu ka? to th e m u s e u m bijutsukan ewa to th e statio n
IR'Mi eki ewa
to Kyoto Kyooto ewa T h e re is/a re ... ...gaarim asu T h e re is n ’t / a re n ’t any...
...# £ D S tA j ...gaarim asen
W hen? itsu? A t w h a t tim e ...? nanjini...? to d ay
to m o rro w
ichiban chikai ...w a d o ko d e su ka?
C an I...? ...dekim asu ka? sm o k e
kitsuen shishoku w ork? W h a t d oes th is m ean?
T jg U
kore w a dooyatte tsukaim asu ka?
¡1ftfi i: -5U5MBfrXtt'
kore w a d o o iu imi desu ka?
H o w d o e s th is
Work T h e Ja p a n e se te n d to te ll yo u w h ere th e y w o rk rather th a n w h a t th e y do.
S X ’4’1S'
W h a t do yo u do?
otsutom e w a dochira desu ka?
o X '^ ’tS'
H o w ’s y o u r w o rk?
s h ig o to w a d o o d e su ka? I’m ...
m t... w atashiw a...
a d o cto r
m m xt
a m anager
m m ^xt
> Leisure/interests (p 70 ) > Sport (p 7 7 )
H EjU T?'?' shufu desu
I work from home f A l i w atashi w aza itaku -kin m u desu
Talking to people
I’m self-em ployed f A t t i= ii= S IT ? '3 " w atashi w ajieigyoo desu
Weather tenki-yohoo B fttl
weather forecast fine cloudy changeable w eather
kawariyasui tenki It’s s u n n y te n k ig a ii It’s m u g g y
$U 1U m ushiatsui
It’s ra in in g a m e ga fu tte iru It’s s n o w in g yuki gafutteiru
It’s windy kaze ga tsuyoi W h a t a lo ve ly day! £ C / u T l / ' b ' E l nante ¡¡hi! W h a t aw ful w eather!
nante hidoi tenki!
W h a t w ill the w e a th e r be
ashitano tenki w a doo desu ka?
like to m orro w ? D o you th in k it’s am e ga furisoo desu ka?
g o in g to rain? It’s v e ry h ot to d ay
kyoo w a totem o atsui desu
It’s ve ry cold to day
kyoo w a totem o sam ui desu
Do you th in k the re w ill be
arashi ni naru to o m oim asu ka?
a storm ? D o you th in k it w ill sno w ?
si yuki ni naru to om oim asu ka?
W ill it be fo ggy?
W h a t is the
kiri ni n arvto om oim asu ka? fu S U M /g T -T A '
te m p e ratu re?
kion w a nando desu ka?
Getting around >
G e ttin g a ro u n d
Askingthe way I5M
...® ® i
...® j£ <
shingoo o o dan-hodoo
( M lS ff l)
opposite next to... near to... traffic lights crossroads corner (of road)
(dooro no) kado
FACE T O FACE
A f ^
i th j,
s u m im a s e n , eki m a d e d o o y a tte ikim a su ka?
Excuse me, how do I get to the station? B
T C 'n
massugu itte, hitotsu-me no kado o migi/ hidari ni magatte kudasai Keep straight on, turn right/left at the first corner 22
A itU T -T * '
tooi desu ka? Is It far?
B U \^ jL 2 0 0 * -h ;i//5 # < 5 lV T ? -r
iie, nihyaku-meetoru/go-fun kurai desu No, about 2 0 0 m etres/five m inutes
A ®DA '“ arigatoo! A sking the Way
doo itashimashite You’re w elcom e
W e ’re lo st
m ichi nl m ayoim ashita W e ’re lo o k in g fo r........ i E t S U T b ' S ' i T ...o sagash ite imasu Is th is th e rig h t w a y to...?
...IC if r < f f i i i C t V C l / U A ' d r
t >' ...ni iku nowa korede iidesu ka?
C a n l/ w e w a lk there?
^rZ. c P .U ' & l ' } t } ' soko m ade arukem asu ka?