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Sưu tầm: Thầy Linh Cani

No one can say when sports began. Since it is impossible to (1)_______ a time when children did
not spontaneously run races or wrestle, it is clear that children have always included sports in
their play, but one can only speculate about the (2) _______ of sports as autotelic physical
contests for (3) _______. Hunters are depicted in prehistoric art, but it cannot be known (4)
_______ the hunters pursued their prey in a mood of grim necessity or with the joyful abandon of
sportsmen. It is certain, (5) _______, from the rich literary and iconographic evidence of all ancient
civilizations that hunting soon became an end in itself at least for royalty and nobility.
Archaeological evidence also indicates that ball games were common among ancient people as
(6) _______ as the Chinese and the Aztecs. If ball games were contests rather than (6) _______
ritual performances, such as the Japanese football game Kemari, then they were sports in the
most rigorously (7) _______ sense. That it cannot (8) _______ be assumed that they were
contests is clear from the evidence presented by Greek and Roman antiquity, which indicates that
ball games had been for the most part playful pastimes (9) _______ those recommended for
healthy by the Greek physician Galen in the 2nd century AD.

Question 1

A. think

B. see

C. have

D. imagine

Question 2

A. emergence

B. emerge

C. emergency

D. immersion

Question 3

A. people

B. children

C. adults

D. society

Question 4

A. when

B. whether

C. how

D. why

Question 5

A. therefore

B. so

C. consequently

D. however

Question 6

A. different

B. far

C. similar

D. old

Question 7

A. competitive

B. competitively

C. noncompetitive D. competition

Question 8

A. definite

B. defined

C. definitive

D. definition

Question 9

A. really

B. actually

C. usually

D. simply

Question 10

A. as

B. like

C. alike

D. of

1. D

2. A

3. C

4. B

5. D

6. A

7. C

8. B

9. D

10. B

Sưu tầm: Thầy Linh Cani

Etymologically, anthropology is the science of humans. In fact, however, it is only once of the
sciences of humans, bringing together those disciplines the common aims of which are to
describe human beings and explain them on the basis of the biological and cultural characteristics
of the populations among which they are distributed and to emphasize, through time, the
differences and variations of these populations. The concept of race, on the one hand, and that
of culture, on the other, have received special attention; and although their meaning is still subject
to debate, these terms are doubtless the most common of those in the anthropologist’s
Anthropology, which is concerned with the study of human differences, was born after the Age of
Discovery had opened up societies that had remained outside the technological civilization of the
modern West. In fact, the field of research was at first restricted to those societies that had been
given one unsatisfactory label after another. “savage”, “primitive”, “tribal”, “traditional”, or even
“preliterate”, “prehistorical”, and so on. What such societies had in common, above all, was being
the most “different” or the most foreign to the anthropologist; and in the early phases of
anthropology, the anthropologists were always European or North American. The distance
between the researcher and the object of his study has been a characteristic of anthropological
research; it has been said of the anthropologists that he was the “astronomer of the sciences of
Anthropologists today study more than just primitive societies. Their research extends not only to
village communities, within modern societies but also to cities, even to industrial enterprises.
Nevertheless, anthropology’s first field of research, and the one that perhaps remains the most
important, shaped its specific point of view with regard to the other sciences of man and defined
its theme. If, in particular, it is concerned with generalizing about patterns of human behaviour
seen in all their dimensions and with achieving a total description of social and cultural
phenomena, this is because anthropology has observed small-scale societies, which are simpler
or at least more homogeneous than modern societies and which change at a slower pace. Thus
they are easier to see whole.
What has just been said refers especially to branch of anthropology concerned with the cultural
characteristics of man? Anthropology has, in fact, gradually divided itself into two major sphres,
the study of man’s biological characteristics and the study of his cultural characteristics. The
reasons for this split are manifold, one being the rejection of the initial mistakes regarding
correlations between race and culture. More generally speaking, the vast field of 19th century
anthropology was subdivided into a series of increasingly specialized disciplines, using their own
methods and techniques, that were given different labels according to national traditions.

Question 1: According to the passage, anthropology is most likely defined as the study of

one of the sciences of humans
the biological and cultural characteristics of human beings
the lives of people all over the world
the distribution of human beings the world over


Sưu tầm: Thầy Linh Cani

Question 2: Which of the following is NOT stated in the passage?

Anthropology has been subdivided into specialized disciplines
Anthropology gives special attention to the concept of race.
Anthropology is concerned with the study of human differences.
Anthropologists are agreed on the meaning of race and culture.

Question 3: It is implied in the passage that the early anthropologists did research only on
A. large societies
B. modern groups

C. racial minorities
D. civilized societies

Question 4: It can be inferred from the passage that anthropology was first developed in _______.
A. Europe and North America
B. some primitive societies

C. some tribal societies
D. some prehistoric societies

Question 5: Anthropologists of the early phases were regarded as the “astronomers of the
sciences of man” because _______.

they also studied the sun, the moon, stars, planets, etc.
they also studied our planets as the sciences of man
they did not belong to the societies into which they did research
they applied the sciences of man to astronomy

Question 6: According to the passage, modern anthropologists study _______.

only primitive and tribal societies
both communities and modern societies
only modern industrial societies
both primitive and modern societies

Question 7: The phrase “first field of research” in paragraph 3 most likely refers to the study of
A. modern societies
B. primitive societies

C. large societies
D. industrial societies

Question 8: Small societies are preferable to anthropological research because they are

simple, homogenous, and change slowly
small, isolated, and easy to study
ancient, exotic, and interesting
similar to primitive societies

Question 9: It is mentioned in the passage that the split of anthropology into two major areas is
partly due to _______.
A. more knowledge to be gained
B. the development of the sciences of humans
C. the interpretation of race and culture

Sưu tầm: Thầy Linh Cani

D. the development of modern anthropology
Question 10: It is mentioned in the passage that anthropology began to divided into various
disciplines in _______.
C. the 20th century
D. the 19th century

A. prehistoric times
B. the Age of Discovery


generalize: khái quát hóa
dimension: mặt, khía cạnh
small-scale: phạm vi nhỏ
homogeneous: đồng nhất, đồng đều
primitive: nguyên thủy
manifold: rất nhiều
correlation: sự tương quan
subdivide: chia nhỏ ra
civilization: nền văn minh
tribal: thuộc bộ lạc

1. B

2. D

3. C

4. A

5. C

6. D


7. B

8. A

9. C

10. D

Sưu tầm: Thầy Linh Cani

It may seem as if the art of music by its nature would not lend itself to the exploration and
expression of really characteristic of Romanticism, but that is not so. True, music does not tell
stories or paint pictures, but it stirs feeling and evokes moods, through both of which various kinds
of reality can be suggested or expressed. It was in the rationalist 18th century that musicians rather
mechanically attempted to reproduce stories and subjects in sound. These literal renderings
naturally failed, and the Romanticists profited from the error. Their discovery of new realms of
experience proved communicable in the first place because they were in touch with the spirit of
renovation, particularly through poetry. What Goethe meant to Beethoven and Berlioz and what
German folk tales and contemporary lyricists meant to Weber, Schumann, and Schubert are
familiar to all who are acquainted with the music of these men.
There is, of course, no way to demonstrate that Beethoven’s Egmont music or, indeed, its overture
alone corresponds to Goethe’s drama and thereby enlarges the hearer’s consciousness of it; but
it cannot be accident or an aberration that the greatest composers the period employed the
resources of their art for the creation of works expressly related to such lyrical and dramatic
subjects. Similarly, the love of nature stirred Beethoven, Weber and Berlioz, and here too the
correspondence is felty and persuades the fit listener that his own experience is being expanded.
The words of the creators themselves record this new comprehensiveness. Beethoven referred
to his activity of mingled of contemplation and composition as dichten, making a poem; and Berlioz
tells in his Memoires of the impetus given to his genius by the music of Beethoven and Weber,
by the poetry of Goethe and Shakespeare, and not least by the spectacle of nature. Nor did the
public that ultimately understood their works gainsay their claims.
It must be added that the Romantic musicians including Chopin, Mendelssohn, Glinka, and Liszt
had at their disposal greatly improved instruments. The beginning of the 19th century produced
the modern piano, of greater range and dynamics than theretofore, and made all wind instruments
more exact and powerful by the use of the keys and valves. The modern full orchestra was the
result. Berlioz, whose classic treatise on instrumentation and orchestration helped to give it
definite form, was also the first to exploit its resources to the full, in the Symphonic fantastique of
1830. This work, besides its technical significance just mentioned, can also be regarded as uniting
the characteristics of Romanticism in music, it is both lyrical and dramatic, and, although it makes
use of a “story”, that use is not to describe the scenes but to connect them; its slow movement is
a “nature poem” in the Beethovenian manner; the second, fourth, and fifth movements include
“realistic” detail of the most vivid kind; and the opening one is an introspective reverie.

Question 1: Music can suggest or express various kinds reality by _______.

telling stories or minting pictures
stirring feelings and evoking moods
exploring and expressing reality
depicting nature and reality

Question 2: The word “error” in paragraph 1 refers to _______.
A. the feelings and moods of the Romanticist musicians
B. the exploration and expression of reality of Romanticism

Sưu tầm: Thầy Linh Cani

C. the works of the Romanticist musicians in the 18th century
D. musicians’ mechanical reproduction of stories and subjects
Question 3: It is stated in the passage that the Romanticists were influenced by _______.

the works of the rationalist musicians in the 18th century
Goethe, German folk tales and contemporary
the thoughts of Beethoven, Weber, and Berlioz
the art of music by the rationalist musicians

Question 4: The word “accident” in paragraph 2 is closet in meaning to _______.
A. unplanned happening
B. collision or similar incident

C. unusual occurrence
D. unpleasant event

Question 5: The passage indicates that the Romanticist composers were inspired not only by
lyrical and dramatic subjects but also by _______.
A. the rationalists
B. the creation of works

C. the love of nature
D. the poetry of Goethe

Question 6: It can be inferred from the passage that Berlioz were _______.
A. a rationalist musician
B. an English writer

C. a composer and critic
D. a German poet

Question 7: The Romantic musicians also made use of modern technologies such as _______.
A. improved wind instruments
B. powerful keys and valves

C. greater range and dynamics
D. instrumentation and orchestration

Question 8: Romanticism in music is characterized as being _______.
A. exact and powerful
B. realistic and vivid

C. great and dynamic
D. lyrical and dramatic

Question 9: All of the following are true about the Symphonic fantastique EXCEPT _______.

It is both lyrical and dramatic
It was composed by Beethoven
It was issued in 1830
It unites the characteristics of Romanticism

Question 10: According to the passage, Romanticism in music extended over _______.

the 18th and 19th centuries
the late 18th century
the early 19th century
the beginning of the 20th century


Sưu tầm: Thầy Linh Cani


rationalist: người theo chủ nghĩa duy lý
reproduce: tái sản xuất, mô phỏng
renovation: sự đổi mới, cải tiến
aberration: sự lầm lạc
mingle: trộn lẫn
impetus: sự thúc đẩy
spectacle: quang cảnh
gainsay: nói trái lại
overture: khúc mở màn
introspective: nội tâm

1. B

2. D

3. B

4. A

5. C

6. C


7. A

8. D

9. B

10. C

Sưu tầm: Thầy Linh Cani


Why does English spelling have a reputation for being difficult? English was first written down
when Christian monks came to England In Anglo-Saxon (1) ________. They used the 23 letters
of Latin to write down the sound of Anglo-Saxon (2) ________ as they heard it. However, English
has a (3) ________ range of basic sounds (over 40) than Latin. The alphabet was too small, and
so combinations of letters were needed to (4) ________ the different sounds. Inevitably, there
were inconsistencies in the way that letters were combined.
With the Norman invasion of England, the English language was put at risk, English survived, but
the spelling of many English words changed to follow French (5) ________, and many French
words were introduced into the language. The result was more irregularity.
When the printing press was (6) ________ in the fifteenth century, many early printers of English
texts spoke other first languages. They made little effort to respect English spelling. Although one
of the short-term (7) ________ of printing was to produce a number of variant spelling, in the long
term it created fixed spellings. People became used to seeing words spelt in the same way. Rules
were (8) ________ , and dictionaries were put together which printers and writers could refer to.
However, spoken English was not fixed and continued to change slowly – just as it still does now.
Letters that were sounded in the Anglo-Saxon period, like the “k” in “knife”, now became (9)
________. Also, the pronunciation of vowels then had little in common with how they sound now,
but the way they are spelt hasn’t changed. No (10) ________, then, that it is often difficult to see
the link between sound and spelling.

Question 1

A. years

B. centuries

C. times

D. ages

Question 2

A. speech

B. chat

C. discussion

D. communication

Question 3

A. longer

B. wider

C. thicker

D. deeper

Question 4

A. perform

B. tell

C. explain

D. express

Question 5

A. plans

B. patterns

C. guides

D. types

Question 6

A. take in

B. invented

C. made up

D. discovered

Question 7

A. conclusions

B. effects

C. meanings

D. actions

Question 8

A. filled in

B. handed out

C. drawn up

D. got across

Question 9

A. silent

B. quiet

C. speechless

D. dumb

Question 10

A. wonder

B. problem

C. mention

D. idea


Sưu tầm: Thầy Linh Cani

1. C

2. A

3. B

4. D

5. B

6. B


7. B

8. C

9. A

10. A

Sưu tầm: Thầy Linh Cani

Desertification is the degradation once-productive land into unproductive or poorly productive
land. Since the first great urban-agricultural centers in Mesopotamia nearly 6000 years ago,
human activity has had a destructive impact on soil quality, leading to gradual desertification in
virtually every area of the world.
It is a common misconception that desertification is caused by droughts. Although drought does
make land more vulnerable, well-managed land can survive droughts and recover, even in arid
regions. Another mistaken belief is that the process occurs only along the edges of deserts. In
fact, it may take place in any arid or semiarid region, especially where poor land management is
practiced. Most vulnerable, however, are the transitional zones between deserts and arable land;
wherever human activity leads to land abuse in these fragile marginal areas, soil destruction is
[1] Agriculture and overgrazing are the two major sources of desertification. [2] Large-scale
farming requires extensive irrigation, which ultimately destroys lands by depleting its nutrients and
leaching minerals into the topsoil. [3] Grazing is especially destructive to land because, in addition
to depleting cover vegetation, herds of grazing mammals also trample the fine organic particles
of the topsoil, leading to soil compaction and erosion. [4] It takes about 500 years for the earth
to build up 3 centimeters of topsoil. However, cattle ranching and agriculture can deplete as much
as 2 to 3 centimeters of topsoil every 25 years – 60 to 80 times faster than it can be replaced by
Salination is a type of land degradation that involves an increase in the salt content of the soil.
This usually occurs as a result of improper irrigation practices. The greatest Mesopotamian
empires – Sumer, Akkad and Babylon – were built on the surplus of the enormously productive
soil of the ancient Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plain. After nearly a thousand years of intensive
cultivation, land quality was evident decline. In response, around 2800 BC the Sumerians began
digging the huge Tigris-Euphrates canal system to irrigate the exhausted soil. A temporary gain
in crop yield was achieved in this way, but over -irrigation was have serious and unforeseen
consequences. From as early as 2400 BC we find Sumerian documents referring to salinization
as a soil problem. It is believed that the fall of the Akkadian Empire around 2150 BC may have
been due to a catastrophic failure in land productivity; the soil was literally turned into salt. Even
today, four thousand years later, vast tracks of salinized land between the Tigris and Euphrates
rivers still resemble rock-hand fields of snow.
Soil erosion is another form of desertification. It is a self-reinforcing process; once the cycle of
degradation begins, conditions are set for continual deterioration. As the vegetative cover begins
to disappear, soil becomes more vulnerable to raindrop impact. Water runs off instead of soaking
in to provide moisture for plants. This further diminishes plan cover by leaching way nutrients
from the soil. As soil quality declines and runoff is increased, floods become more frequent and
more severe. Flooding washes away topsoil, the thin, rich, uppermost layer of the earth’s soil, and
leaves finer underlying particles more vulnerable to wind erosion. Topsoil contains the earth’s
land-based biological activity occurs. Without this fragile coat of nutrient-laden material, plan life
cannot exist. An extreme case of its erosion is found in the Sahel, a transitional zone between the
Sahara Desert and the tropical African rain forests; home to some 56 million people.
Overpopulation and overgrazing have opened the hyperarid land to wind erosion, which is

Sưu tầm: Thầy Linh Cani

stripping away the protective margin of the Sahel, and causing the desert to grow at an alarming
rate. Between 1950 and 1975, the Sahara Desert spread 100 kilometers southward through the

Question 1: Which of the following statements is true about desertification?

It was just as serious in the past as it is today.
Ancient societies managed the problem well.
It is a fairly recent problem.
It has a history as long as that of civilization.

Question 2: The word “arable” in paragraph 2 is closet in meaning to ______.
A. populated
B. settled

C. cultivatable
D. dry

Question 3: According to the passage, many people’s understanding of desertification is incorrect

they do not see it as being caused human activity
they see it as being reversible
they think of it as a very slow process
they do not think of it as a serious problem

Question 4: Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the
underlined sentence in the passage?
A. Most of the vulnerable areas in transition from desert to arable land, a process that
because of human activity and the delicate nature of these areas, always leads to soil
B. It is the areas that exist between the deserts and the land that is usable for agriculture that
are most at risk because they are susceptible to poor land management methods from
human activity which will always result in the loss of soil.
C. Soil loss in the transitional zones is especially severe where human activity is damaging
the environment through agriculture which is causing the loss of soil.
D. Human activity in the transition areas is vulnerable because of the fragile nature of these
areas that are neither desert nor arable land because they have suffered damage to the
Question 5: The word “compaction” in paragraph 3 is closet in meaning to ____.
A. depletion
B. compression

C. disruption
D. fragmentation

Question 6: According to the passage, agriculture furthers desertification through which of the
following activities?
A. Over fertilization
B. The repetitive planting of the same crops
C. The stripping away of native vegetation

Sưu tầm: Thầy Linh Cani

D. Irrigation
Question 7: The word “degradation” in the paragraph 4 is closet in meaning to
A. contribution
B. rejuvenation

C. consumption
D. deterioration

Question 8: Paragraph 4 of the passage serves mainly to do which of the following?

Propose a method for dealing with desertification problem.
Describe the main cause of desertification in one particular area
Describe one process that leads to desertification
Show the progress of desertification down through history

Question 9: The word “leaching” in paragraph 5 is closet in meaning to
A. washing
B. depositing

C. dispersing
D. concentrating

Question 10: Look at numbers [1], [2], [3], [4] in paragraph 3 of the passage. Where would the
following sentence best fit?
Each furthers the process dramatically, but they act in quite different ways
A. [1]

B. [2]

C. [3]


D. [4]

Sưu tầm: Thầy Linh Cani


desertification: sự sa mạc hóa
once-productive: đã từng năng suất
trample: giẫm đạp, làm tổn hại
cattle ranching: nông trại gia súc
salination: sự ướp muối
improper: không chính xác
surplus: sự thừa
misconception: sự hiểu lầm
semiarid: bán khô cằn
deterioration: sự thoái hóa, xuống cấp

1. D

2. C

3. A

4. B

5. B

6. D


7. D

8. C

9. A

10. B

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