Tải bản đầy đủ

Phát triển đội ngũ giáo viên mầm non theo tiếp cận năng lực trong đổi mới giáo dục tt tieng anh

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION

CU THI THUY

COMPETENCY-BASED PRESCHOOL TEACHERS
DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION INNOVATION

Specialty: Education management
Code: 9.14.01.14

SUMMARY OF PhD THESIS IN EDUCATION SCIENCE

Hanoi - 2020


THE PROJECT IS COMPLETED AT
HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION

SCIENTIFIC SUPERVISORS:
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Nguyen Thi Yen Phuong

Assoc.Prof.Dr. Nguyen Thi Thu Hang

Reviewer 1: Assoc.Prof.Dr. Tran Thi Minh Hang
National Institute of Education Management

Reviewer 2: Assoc.Prof.Dr. Nguyen Van Hong
VNU University of Education

Reviewer 3: Assoc.Prof.Dr. Phan Thanh Long
Hanoi National University of Education

The thesis is defended at the PhD Thesis Examination Council
of Hanoi National University of Education
At: ........ Date: ...... /….2020

The thesis can be found at:
- National Library of Vietnam
- Center of Information and Library of Hanoi National University of Education.


1
INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
1.1. Resolution 29-NQ/TW 8 of the 11th Central Committee of the
Communist Party of Vietnam on "the basic and comprehensive innovation of
education and training" showed that "Developing the teachers and education
managers, meeting the requirements of education innovation and training.
Formulating the planning and plans for training and fostering teachers and
education managers in association with the needs of socio-economic
development, security, national defense and international integration.
Standardizing the teachers and education managers according to educational
and training levels…..competency" is a prerequisite to implement educational
process of “changing from knowledge delivery into the competency-based
approach". Preschool education is the first level in charge of care and education
for children before school age (3 months to 6 years of age), establishing a
foundation for the formation and development of children's personality right
from their early years of life. Preschool teachers are those who take care of,
nurture and educate children at 3 months to 6 years of age, play a very
important role in developing children's abilities, shaping the initial
fundamentals of personality. The quality of teachers in the national education


system depends on many factors; firstly, it is the teacher development of
management levels. Strengthening the development of preschool teachers from
the stages of planning, recruitment, employment, etc will improve their
professional quality. On the other hand, the competency-based approach is a
modern method in line with the requirements of education innovation with
educational purpose of changing from knowledge delivery into building skills
and competencies for learners and children.
1.2. In reality, the preschool education systems have recently achieved
rushing development. The number of preschools has rapidly increased in
various forms (public preschools; non-public preschools in international
preschool models, high-quality preschools, bilingual preschools, private
childcare groups, etc). At present, there are about 1.2 million teachers in the
country, including 769,070 teachers (preschool: 294,673, primary teachers:
392,554, secondary school: 309,368, high school: 137,475). The total number
of managers at the general school and preschool levels is 149,100, in which
the number of general school and preschool managers is 133,200; the number
of managers in the units, departments and ministries is 15,900.
Facing new requirements of education in the period of national
industrialization and modernization, the preschool teachers have revealed
certain shortcomings. The percentage of standard and above-standard preschool
teachers is high, however, the professional competency is not commensurate
with the training level. Development of preschool teachers in terms of planning,


2
recruitment and employment, training and fostering, evaluating and building a
working environment for teachers, etc has some limitations. Such reality
requires specific studies to give solutions for the preschool teachers
development in the new period. Therefore, the development of human resources
for preschool levels should be studied according to the competency model in
education innovation.
1.3. In education management, there have been many studies on the
management and development of preschool teachers such as the study on the
development of preschool managers, however, there have been few in-depth
studies on the competency-based preschool teachers development in education
innovation.
On this basis, the topic: "Competency-based preschool teachers
development in education innovation" is selected for the writer’s study with a
desire to propose some innovation solutions for preschool teachers
development in a new view towards improving the professional quality in
education innovation.
2. Purpose of the study
Based on theoretical and practical study on the development of
preschool teachers of representative provinces in the regions across the
country, the thesis proposes measures to develop the preschool teachers in the
competency-based approach to improve the quality of preschool teachers,
thereby, to improve the quality of preschool teachers in today’s education.
3. Object and subject of the study
3.1. Object: Preschool teachers in education innovation
3.2. Subject: Competency-based preschool teachers development in
education innovation.
4. Scientific hypothesis
Some achievements have been made in the development of preschool
teachers to meet job requirements in preschool education institutions. In the
context of innovation requirements for preschool education, the development
of preschool teachers is exposed the shortcomings in planning, recruitment
and employment, etc of preschool teachers. Proposal and implementation of
measures for the competency-based preschool teachers development will
improve the quality of the preschool teachers and contribute to improving the
quality and efficiency of child care, nurturing and education in preschool
education institutions.
5. Tasks of the study
5.1. Establishing a theoretical basis for competency-based preschool
teachers development in education innovation.


3
5.2. Surveying and assessing the real situation of professional
competency of preschool teachers; developing the preschool teachers
according to competency-based approach in education innovation.
5.3. Proposing measures for competency-based preschool teachers
development in education innovation.
5.4. Testing the necessity and feasibility of measures for competencybased preschool teachers development in education innovation.
5.5. Testing to affirm the efficiency of the measure Organizing to raise
awareness for the managers, preschool teachers about professional
competency of preschool teachers in current education innovation.
6. Limitations of the study
6.1. Limitation of contents: Studying and developing the preschool
teachers based on the approach to human resource and capacity management
(focusing on the quality of preschool teachers).
6.2. Limitation of surveyed area: The survey is conducted in 7
representative provinces of all regions in the country (Hanoi, Son La, Nghe An,
Quang Binh, Kon Tum, Can Tho and Binh Duong).
6.3. Limitation of surveyed objects: Group 1: Education managers at all
levels and functional departments of the district committee. Group 2:
Teachers of preschools. Group 3: Lecturers who train preschool teachers at
the colleges of education where the preschool teachers are trained.
6.4. Period of the study: From 2016-2019.
7. Methodology and study methods
7.1. Methodology: Competency-based approach; Competency-based
approach to development of human resources; Standardized approach.
7.2. Study methods: Group of methodologies; Group of practical study
methods: Methods of experiences summary; investigation by questionnaires;
interview; observation; expert; experiment; mathematical statistics, etc to
develop theoretical and practical basis, propose solutions for competency-based
preschool teachers development in education innovation.
8. Defended points
8.1. Professional competency of preschool teachers has its own
characteristics, individualizing their professional activities. Determining the
professional competency framework of preschool teachers in education
innovation will be the foundation for the development of preschool teachers to
improve their professional quality in the context of education innovation.
8.2. Facing the requirements of education innovation, the preschool
teachers and development of preschool teachers reveals shortcomings in terms of
professional competency, contents for development of preschool teachers:
Planning, recruitment and screening; training and fostering ; assessment and


4
creation of motivation for preschool teachers. As a result, the quality of preschool
teachers as well as the child care - education in preschools are limited.
8.3. Developing preschool teachers in competency-based approach,
based on the identified professional competency framework of preschool
teachers, will improve the quality of preschool teachers and teachers, the
quality of child care and education in preschools.
9. New contributions of the thesis
9.1. Establishing a theoretical framework for competency-based
preschool teachers development in education innovation. Determining 7
professional competency groups, including 18 typical professional
competencies of preschool teachers.
9.2. Discovering and properly assessing the real situation of
professional competency of preschool teachers; real situation of the
competency-based preschool teachers development in education innovation
9.3. The thesis develops and affirms the effeciency of measures of
preschool teachers in education renovation. The findings of the thesis can be
used as references in the training of preschool teachers and applied into the
reality of competency-based preschool teachers development in education
innovation at training institutions.
10. Structure of the thesis
In addition to the introduction, conclusions, recommendations,
references and annexes, the thesis includes 3 chapters:
Chapter 1
RATIONALE FOR THE COMPETENCY-BASED PRESCHOOL
TEACHERS DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION INNOVATION
1.1. Overview of the study
1.1.1. Study on human resource development
In human resource management, there have been many studies of
international and domestic scientists on management and development of
human resources associated with the names of scientists: Leonard Nadler,
Adam Smith, Stivastava, John E. Kerrigan and Jeffs.Luke, William J. Rothwell,
Luu Xiaoping, Nguyen Thanh Nghi and Vu Hoang Ngan, Doan Van Khai,
Nguyen Minh Duong and Phan Van Kha, etc. Such studies focus on concepts,
contents and factors that affect human resource management in society.
1.1.2. Study on development of teachers and preschool teachers
Teachers development is an aspect of human resource development in
education and training and has a decisive influence on improvement of the
teaching quality in schools, especially development of preschool teachers for
early childhood education in the national education system, which plays a
decisive role in shaping and developing the child's personality. There have


5
been many study projects of scientists such as Lee Meng Foon, Jacques
Delors, Nguyen Thi My Loc, Ho Lam Hong, Nguyen Thac, Nguyen Anh
Tuyet, etc. Such projects focus on the theoretical and practical aspects in the
development of preschool teachers.
1.1.3. Study on the competency-based preschool teachers development
in education innovation
There have been many studies on human resource development and there
are a few studies on the competency-based preschool teachers development in
education innovation by international and domestic scientists such as: George
T. Milkovich, Sherry, Maxwell, Lim, and Early, 2006; Ray, Bowman, and
Robbins, 2006, Mac Van Trang, Dang Thanh Hung, Nguyen Hai Thap, Nguyen
Thi Bach Mai, etc. Such projects discusses about the development of teachers in
terms of planning, recruitment and employment, etc in association with
competency-based approach in education innovation.
1.1.4. Assessment of previous studies and determination of the thesis's
contents
a) Studies on management and development of educational human
resources, in which preschool education follows the approach of human
resource management (planning, recruitment and screening, use, training and
fostering, assessing and building a working environment for preschool
teachers). The writer's thesis inherits the above approach of previous studies
and concretizes it in the competency-based preschool teachers development in
order to create the unique colors of preschool education human resource and
develop source such human resource.
b) Determination of the thesis's study contents: Determination of the basic
professional competency framework of preschool teachers and establishment of
theoretical and practical basis to propose solutions for the competency-based
preschool teachers development in current education innovation.
1.2. Education innovation and requirements for preschool teachers
and development of preschool teachers
1.2.1. Today's social context and education innovation
1.2.1.1.Today’s social context: The development of science and
technology, the context of information technology, changes of economy, culture
and social changes in the world as well as in Vietnam.
1.2.1.2. Innovation of preschool education: Innovating management;
Following current democratic trend, appropriate empowerment according to
job position; Innovating teaching and educational methods; Innovating the
preschool education program; Innovating the management of preschool
teaches in the current period, specifically, management based on professional
standards/professional competency standards of preschool teaches; Regularly
innovating the fostering, constantly improving the professional competency of


6
preschool teaches; Innovating in the trend of preschool education
internationalization.
1.2.2. Requirements for preschool teachers and development of preschool
teachers
1.2.2.1. Requirements for professional ethics of preschool teachers:
Preschool teachers must have political quality, standard ethics and lifestyle;
Preschool teachers must have Heart and Talent; Preschool teachers must have a
scientific and effective working style; Preschool teachers must have a firm stuff:
Preschool teacher must have awareness, curiosity and love of learning, etc.
1.2.2.2. Requirements for professional competency of preschool
teachers in education innovation: Competency in nurturing and caring
children; educating them for comprehensive development; Competency in
observing and assessing children's development; Competency in developing
the plans of the child care, nurturing and education; Competency in group
management; Competency in building safe, healthy and friendly educational
environment at preschool education institutions.
1.3. Preschool teachers in education innovation
1.3.1. Concept of preschool teacher and preschool teachers
* Preschool teacher: “Teacher in preschool education institution is
responsible for nurturing, caring and educating children in schools,
kindergartens, independent childcare groups”.
* Preschool teachers: refers to a staff of teachers in charge of
nurturing, caring and educating children in preschool education institutions,
including the Principal, Vice Principal and teachers in the groups and classes.
In the thesis, the teachers are limited to those who directly perform the task of
caring and educating children in preschool education institutions.
1.3.2. Functions and tasks of preschool teachers
Preschool teachers must meet the requirements and functions of
teachers according to Article 70 of the 2005 Education Law amended in 2009
and have specific tasks and functions of preschool levels: Performing the task
of nurturing, care and education; Building an educational environment,
organizing activities to nurture, care and educate children; conducting child
assessment and management; taking responsibilities for the quality of
nurturing, caring and educating children; independent childcare groups,
kindergartens, etc.
1.3.3. Characteristics of pedagogical labor of preschool teachers
Pedagogical labor of preschool teachers is a labor activity in the
national education system, with its own characteristics of goals, objects,
working time, conditions, environment and work products.


7
1.3.4. Quality and competency requirements of preschool teachers:
Requirements preschool children; for career; for themselves; for
parents; for colleagues and superiors.
1.3.5. Professional standards of preschool teachers: In 2018, the
Ministry of Education and Training issued the professional standards of
preschool teachers (specified in Circular No.26/2018/TT-BGDDT
promulgating the regulations on the professional standards of preschool
teachers) including basic requirements on political, ethical and qualities and
lifestyle; knowledge; pedagogical skills to be gained by preschool teachers
aimed at meeting the objectives of preschool education. The 2018
professional standards of preschool teachers are approached in the direction of
competency development, meeting the current innovation trend. There are
five professional standards of preschool teachers, including 1 quality standard
and 4 competency standards applied for 13 competencies.
1.3.6. Professional competency and professional competency
framework of preschool teachers in education innovation
Competence is a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes to
ensure that people can effectively perform activities in a certain field.
Professional competency of preschool teachers is a combination of
components of knowledge, skills, attitudes in preschool education activities to
ensure that the preschool teachers can effectively implement the child care and
education in preschools.
The professional competency framework of preschool teachers is a set of
tools describing the necessary professional competencies of preschool teachers in
accordance with the specific requirements of child care and education so that
preschool teachers can effectively complete professional activities.
On the above-mentioned basis: a) Requesting to innovate preschool
education for preschool teachers; b) professional standards of preschool
teachers; c) functions and tasks of preschool teachers; d) the professional
characteristics of preschool teachers and the requirements on professional
competency for preschool teachers in education innovation, in this thesis, the
professional competency framework of preschool teachers is determined to
include 7 professional competency groups: Competency in execution of
professional ethics; professional development competency; Competency in
organizing child care and education activities; Assessing the child; Competency
in building a safe, healthy and friendly environment; Cooperative competency
in child care and education; Integration and competition competency.
1.4. Competency-based preschool teachers development in
education innovation


8
1.4.1. Concepts of development, development of human resources
and development of preschool teachers according to competency-based
approach
Development: is the process of growth in quantity and qualitative change
of existing things and phenomena that has been developed but not yet
completed and should be constantly improved to meet the requirements of new
environment.
Human resource development: is the process of changing the quantity,
quality and structure of human resources to better meet the requirements of
the socio-economy in all aspects: Adequacy in terms of quantity and quality,
reasonable structure with high professional qualifications for tasks
completion.
Developing preschool teachers according to competency-based
approach: is the process of changing the quantity, structure, quality (quality
and professional competency) of preschool teachers through the following
activities.
1.4.2. Management decentralization for development of preschool
teachers in education innovation
The preschool teachers development is under the management of many
management subjects: Ministry of Education and Training, Department of
Education and Training, Office of Education and Training, Preschool. Each
subject has different roles, however, they have the common purpose of quality
improvement of preschool teachers.
1.4.3. Contents of the competency-based preschool teachers
development in education innovation
1.4.3.1. Planning the competency-based preschool teachers
development: Developing a plan for teachers development (ensuring number
of teachers/children) and structuring gender, age, ethnic group, professional
competency and experience; Analyzing and designing the work of preschool
teachers based on competency; Determining resources to implement the
planning for competency-based preschool teachers development ;
Determining solutions to implement the plan of competency-based preschool
teachers development, etc.
1.4.3.2. Competency-based recruitment and screening of the preschool
teachers: Determining criteria for recruitment of preschool teachers towards
the competency framework of teachers (selecting the right people, the right
jobs); Determining the process of preschool teachers recruitment based on
planning; Organizing the selection and examination of preschool teachers
based on competency; Selecting in association with screening teachers;
Supervising the recruitment according to the recruitment process applied for
preschool teachers, etc.


9
1.4.3.3. Competency-based employment of preschool teachers: Planning
assignment and employment of preschool teachers according to desires and
competency; Employing teachers in line with the competency and job position;
Strictly complying with regulations on assignment and assessment according to
functions and tasks of preschool teachers; Examining and supervising teachers
according to their functions and tasks; Preschool teachers are often screened and
eliminated when they do not meet the needs, etc.
1.4.3.4. Organizing the training and fostering for preschool teachers in the
competency-based approach: Identifying and surveying the fostering needs of
preschool teachers; Developing and disclosing the plan of preschool teachers
training and fostering in the direction of professional competency
development; Organizing a good exchange program for good teachers aimed
at fostering teachers; Organizing the professional fostering according to the
special subject for preschool teachers; Creating conditions for teachers to selfstudy and improve themselves, etc.
1.4.3.5. Competency-based assessment of preschool teachers:
Developing competency framework, standards, criteria and evidence systems
to make assessment based on stipulating the competency framework of
teachers. Publicizing the assessment criteria according to the job position,
teacher competency; Developing and implementing a process of competencybased examination and assessment of preschool teachers. Assessing the
preschool teachers according to the process.
1.4.3.1. Building the environment and creating motivation for
preschool teachers in the competency-based approach: In order to build an
environment to create the working motivation for preschool teachers, it is
necessary to: Build a co-operation between preschool teachers and children,
teachers and teachers, teachers and parents; build a good working atmosphere
among departments in preschools.
1.4.3.1. Creating opportunities for competency-based professional
development of preschool teachers: There are policies for encouraging the
preschool teachers to improve their professional and academic qualifications;
Appropriate, timely and fair rewarding policies when teachers succeed in their
work; Teachers are allowed to participate in training courses, seminars related
to the specialty of child care and education, etc.
1.5. Factors affecting the competency-based preschool teachers
development in education innovation
1.5.1. Subjective factors
1.5.1.1. Social and environmental factors affecting the competencybased preschool teachers development in education innovation: The socioeconomic Development, the Party and State. Population size. Social
requirements for improving the quality of nurturing, educating and caring for


10
preschool children. In addition, the social and environmental factors include;
Science and technology development; International integration; People's
intellectual standard, people's concern in education, etc.
1.5.1.2. School factors affecting the competency-based preschool
teachers development in education innovation: The preschool school
environment affecting the development of preschool teachers includes factors;
Facilities in preschools (classrooms, teaching materials, toys, etc); The
psychological atmosphere of preschools for the development of preschool
teachers; The relationship between the functional departments in the school and
the relationship between managers and teachers, teachers and teachers, etc.
1.5.1.3. Factors of preschool teachers affecting the competency-based
preschool teachers development: One factor that greatly affects the
development of preschool teachers is professional competency; The level of
proficiency in professional skills; Knowledge and professional experience;
Adaptation and innovation of preschool teachers in education; Demand for
learning and fostering of preschool teachers; Age, health and gender; Other
factors are the family of preschool teachers; Economic conditions of the
family of preschool teachers; the support of the family for the work of
preschool teachers.
1.5.2. Objective factors
Factors of the State policies and regimes affecting the competencybased preschool teachers development in education innovation: The regimes
and policies of the State on recruitment, employment, working environment
and opportunities for professional development of preschool teachers.
Remuneration policy for preschool teachers, who directly work with children
every day, with a lot of work pressure. Regimes and policies of the State on
salaries and allowances for preschool teachers; Regimes and policies of the
State on professional competency for preschool teachers; Regimes and
policies of the State on commendation and encouragement; Regimes and
policies of the State on professional development for preschool teachers.
Conclusion of chapter 1
By analysis of international and domestic theoretical documents, the thesis
gives an overview of the study in the following directions: Studies on human
resource development; the competency-based preschool teachers development.
Accordingly, some new points and study contents are determined in the thesis. The
theoretical framework of the thesis covers the following issues: the professional
competency proposed in the thesis consists of 7 groups, with 18 specific
occupational competencies of preschool teaches; the competency-based preschool
teachers development includes: planning for development of preschool teachers;
recruitment, employment and screening; training and fostering; building a working
environment, creating the working motivation and professional development


11
opportunities for preschool teachers. Factors affecting the competency-based
preschool teachers development in education innovation are those that belongs to
the State policy mechanism for preschool teachers, preschool education sector;
factors of social environment, preschool and preschool teachers.
Chapter 2
PRACTICAL BASIS FOR COMPETENCY-BASED PRESCHOOL
TEACHERS DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION INNOVATION
2.1. International experience in the competency-based preschool
teachers development
Based on the experience of the competency-based preschool teachers
development in the countries: the United States, Australia, Germany, France
and Asian countries, some lessons on the competency-based preschool teachers
development are given as follows: a) Vietnam should study the application,
specifically we should reconsider the fact that the recruitment and employment
of preschool teachers must first come from the actual needs of preschools.
2.2. Organizing a survey on real situation of competency-based
preschool teachers development in education innovation
2.2.1. Survey purpose: To establish a practical basis to propose
solutions for the competency-based preschool teachers development in
education innovation, in order to improve the quality of preschool teachers.
2.2.2. Survey contents: Surveying the real situation of preschool
teachers in the current education innovation (quantity, structure, professional
competency); Surveying the real situation of preschool teachers development
in education innovation; Surveying the influences of factors of the State,
society, schools and preschool teachers on the preschool teachers
development in current education innovation.
2.2.3. Survey method: a) Questionnaires: Step 1: Discussing with the
survey subjects and experts' opinions to prepare a set of questionnaires (from
March 2017 to June 2017); Step 2: Conducting a narrow-scale trial survey and
revising the set of questionnaires: Implemented in Nghe An province (from June
2017 to August 2017). Revising the questionnaires and official compilation of
questionnaires, completed in September 2017; Step 3: Basing on a scientific
workshop to standardize the survey forms. Step 4: Official surveys in the
provinces identified as a location for study and data processing; b) Retrospective
method of documents; c) Method of interview; d) Method of data processing.
2.2.4. Scoring method and grading scale: Scoring method: Good, very
necessary, profoundly influential (4 points); Fair, necessary, greatly
influential (3 points); Moderate, less necessary, lowly influential (2 points);
Weak, unnecessary, uninfluential (1 point). Grading scale: Level 1: X =3.254.0; Level 2: X = 2.5-3.24; Level 3: X = 1.75-2.49; Level 4: X < 1.75.


12
2.2.5. Sample of real situation survey: Survey of 832 objects is
distributed as follows: 420 preschool teachers; 382 education managers and
functional departments of the committee; Preschool managers; 30 lecturers of
departments of preschool education in pedagogical colleges in 3 regions:
North (Hanoi, Son La), Central region (Nghe An, Quang Binh, Kon Tum),
South (Binh Duong, Can Tho)
2.3. Real situation of preschool teachers development in localities
across the country
2.3.1. Planning, development of the scale and network of schools and
classrooms
The country has 15,394 preschools (an increase of 403 schools
compared to the previous school-year), in which there are 12,652 public
schools, accounting for 82.19% (an increase of 63 schools, an decrease of
1.81% of public preschools out of total number of preschools compared to the
previous school-year); 2,742 non-public schools, accounting for 17.81% (an
increase of 340 schools and an increase of 1.81% compared to the previous
school year). Many provinces have a high proportion of non-public schools
(Da Nang (66.03%), Binh Duong (66.02%), Ho Chi Minh City (62.83%), Ba
Ria Vung Tau (33.33%), Dong Nai (30.98%), Hanoi (30.58%), Hai Phong
(28.74%), Lam Dong (24.45%).
2.3.2. Managers and preschool teachers
The number of managers with standard or above-standard qualification
accounts for 99.31%, in which, the number of managers with above-standard
qualification accounts for 94.68% (an increase of 1.58%); The number of teachers
with standard or above-standard qualification accounts for 98.92% (an increase of
0.23%), in which the number of teachers with above-standard qualification
accounts for 67.72%, (an increase of 3.02% compared to the previous schoolyear). The above data shows that: The percentage of regular managers, teachers
and employees is not high at only 53.03%, in which the majority of them are
managers and preschool teachers; the percentage of managers with standard or
above-standard qualification is high at 94.68%. And the percentage of preschool
teachers with standard or above-standard qualification is also high at 98.92%. The
number of preschool teachers who make learning efforts to obtain the abovestandard qualification accounts for 67.72%.
2.4. Real situation of preschool teachers (salary, structure, quality)
Table: Professional competency of preschool teachers
No

Competency

1 Competency in execution of professional ethics
2 Competency in professional development

Requirement
̅
3.82
3.78

Level
1
2

Real
situation
̅
Level
2.73
2
2.65
5


13
3
4
5
6
7

Competency in organizing child care and
education activities
Competency in child assessment
Competency in building a safe, healthy and
friendly environment
Cooperative competency in child care education
Integration and competition competency
Average

4.00
3.00

3.82
2.73

3.78
2.65

3.76

3.76

3

2.71

3

3.70

5

2.23

6

3.72

4

2.76

1

3.22

7

2.71

3

3.24
3.61

8

2.14
2.56

7

Require-ment
Real situation

3.72

3.70

2.76

2.71
2.23

3.24
3.22
2.71
2.14

2.00
1.00
-

Chart: Requirement and real situation of professional competency of
preschool teachers
Education managers and preschool teachers participated in the survey,
evaluated the professional competencies of preschool teachers at the very
necessary level and the current level is quite good. There is an inequality in the
current levels of professional competencies of preschool teachers. The
competency in building a safe, healthy, friendly environment obtained the highest
level and the integration and competition competency is at the lowest level.
2.5. Real situation of competency-based preschool teachers
development in education innovation
Table 2.15. Summary of real situation of contents of the competency-based
preschool teachers development in education innovation
No

Contents

Planning to develop the
preschool teachers
Recruitment and screening of
2
preschool teachers
1

Good
Amount %

Good
Amount %

Average Weak
Amount % Amount %

̅

Level

30

4.5 453 54.4 119 14.4 230 27.5 2.34

6

52

6.4 360 43.5 197 23.5 225 26.8 2.29

7


14
3
4
5
6

7

Employment of preschool
teachers
Organizing the training and
fostering for preschool
teachers
Assessing preschool teachers
Building an environment to
create motivation for
preschool teachers
Creating professional
development opportunities
for preschool teachers
Average

216 25.8 330 39.8 229 27.3 65

7.8 2.85

4

275 33.1 301 36.3 204 24.4 52

6.3 2.96

1

167 20.0 360 43.1 249 30.0 56

6.9 2.76

5

245 29.4 353 42.5 171 20.6 63

7.5 2.94

2

218 26.3 338 40.6 218 26.3 62

7.5 2.87

3

225 27.0 356 42.9 198 23.8 54

6.7 2.72

The level of contents implementation of the competency-based
preschool teachers development in education innovation is quite good, with X
= 2.72 (Min = 1; Max = 4) and the contents of the competency-based
preschool teachers development are implemented according to the following
orders: 1- Organizing the training and fostering for preschool teachers
(2.96); 2- Building an environment to create motivation for preschool
teachers (2.94); 3- Creating professional development opportunities for
preschool teachers (2.87); 4- Employment of preschool teachers (2.85); 5Assessing preschool teachers (2.76); 6- Planning to develop the preschool
teachers (2,34); 7- Recruitment and screening of preschool teachers (2.29).
2.6. Real situation of the influence of the factors on the competencybased preschool teachers development in education innovation
Table 2.20. Summary of the influence of the factors on the competency-based
preschool teachers development
No

Factors

Factor of the State policy
mechanism
Factor
of
social
2
environment
3 Factors of the school
Factor of preschool
4
teachers
Average
1

Profound Great
Little
No
influence influence influence influence
Amount % Amount % Amount % Amount %
255 30.6 426 51.3 99

̅

Level

11.9

57

6.9

3.07

2

228 27.3 325 39.1 234 28.1

46

5.5

2.88

4

282 33.8 376 45.1 131 15.9

43

5.2

3.07

2

335 40.2 341 41.0 120 14.5

36

4.3

3.17

1

275 33.0 367 44.1 146 17.6

45

5.5

3.05

The influence of the factors on the competency-based preschool
teachers development is very high. Results of the practical survey for 832
managers at all levels and preschool teachers showed that the number of ideas
has an average score X = 3.05 (Min = 1; Max = 4). There are many groups of


15
factors affecting preschool teachers development and the influence of the
factor groups is different and unequal. The level of influence is as follows: 1Factor of preschool teachers (3,17); 2- Factor of the State policy mechanism;
3- Factor of the school (3,07); 4- Factor of social environment (2,88).
2.7. General assessment of the competency-based preschool
teachers development in education innovation
2.7.1. Success: In the development of preschool teachers, there have
been certain successes in teachers training and fostering, teachers assessment
and employment, creating a working environment and working motivation for
teachers. Therefore, preschool teachers have recently met requirements,
quality and competency to work effectively in preschools, basically ensuring
the quality of child care and education. The success is achieved thanks to the
concern of the Party and the State, the sector of preschool education and
localities; the efforts of the managers and preschool teachers.
2.7.2. Limitations: Facing with the requirements of education innovation,
the limitations in the situation survey are showed: planning to develop preschool
teachers has not been implemented in the competency-based approach; the
forecast of the needs of teachers and managers of preschool education institutions
is not good and the data system is insufficient for training and fostering. Teacher
assessment is not based on competency. In addition, there are limitations in
recruitment and screening; building an environment to create working motivation
for teachers is not effective, therefore, the quality of preschool teachers is partly
limited. The above limitations come from the awareness of the managers and
preschool teachers, unstable policy regime for preschool teachers; training and
fostering sometimes far from reality, etc.
Conclusion of chapter 2
Through the survey of 832 education managers at all levels and
preschool teachers of 7 provinces and cities: Hanoi, Son La, Can Tho, Binh
Duong, Kon Tum, Nghe An, etc on preschool teachers and the development
of preschool teachers, some conclusions are given as follows: The
professional competency of preschool teachers surveyed in the thesis consists
of 7 groups, with 18 specific professional competencies. According to the
requirement, the professional competencies are assessed at a very necessary
level as a typical characteristic of preschool teachers, helping preschool
teachers to complete its work in the school. In real situation, the professional
competency is generally at fair level.
The management levels have implemented many contents and measures
to develop the preschool teachers in the approach of human resource
management and the implementation of the contents of preschool teachers
development is assessed at fair level and in the order as follows: 1Organizing the training and fostering for preschool teachers (2.96); 2-


16
Building an environment to create motivation for preschool teachers (2.94);
3- Creating professional development opportunities for preschool teachers
(2.87); 4- Employment of preschool teachers (2.85); 5- Assessing preschool
teachers (2.76); 6- Planning to develop the preschool teachers (2,34); 7Recruitment and screening of preschool teachers (2.29).
There are many groups of factors affecting the preschool teachers
development and the influence of the groups of factors is different and
unequal. The order of influence is as follows: 1- Factor of preschool teachers;
2- Factor of the State policy mechanism; 3- Factor of the school; 4- Factor of
social environment. The results of practical survey are the scientific basis to
propose solutions to develop the preschool teachers according to the
competency-based approach in current education innovation.
Chapter 3
MEASURES FOR COMPETENCY-BASED PRESCHOOL TEACHERS
DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION INNOVATION
3.1. Orientation for the competency-based preschool teachers
development in education innovation: Guiding viewpoints of the Party and
the State on education and training innovation in general and preschool
education in particular; Viewpoints of guiding the competency-based preschool
teachers development.
3.2. Principles for proposing measures to develop preschool
teachers in the competency-based approach: Principles of ensuring
systematicity; Principles of ensuring inheritance and development; Principles
of ensuring uniformity; Principles of ensuring practicality; Principles of
ensuring efficiency; Principles of ensuring equity in education.
3.3. Measures the competency-based preschool teachers
development in education innovation
3.3.1. Raising the awareness for managers, preschool teachers about
professional competency of preschool teachers in current education
innovation
Raising awareness preschool education managers and preschool
teachers on professional competency and professional competency standards
in current education innovation to help such forces gain a deep understanding
of the necessity for the competency-based approach, concepts of professional
competencies and core contents of professional competencies of preschool
teachers; on this basis, they can apply such contents into practice and
depending on job position of each individual, management methods for
preschool teachers development should be innovated; the preschool teachers
get self-awareness and orientation of their own professional competency
development; pedagogical schools and pedagogical teachers innovates the


17
training according to the approach of preschool teachers' professional
competency).
3.3.2. Planning to develop the competency-based preschool teachers
development
Planning to develop the competency-based preschool teachers
development is aimed at supporting pre-school education institutions and the
whole preschool education system to always have preschool teachers who have
the quality in line with their professional competency to immediately meet the
requirements of the reality in medium and long-term plans. In addition, this is
considered as a basis for innovating the training and fostering of preschool
teachers in the direction of professional competency development, helping the
preschool teachers to quickly complete the assigned tasks.
3.3.3. Organizing the training and fostering of professional
competency for preschool teachers in line with the competency framework
The training and fostering starts from the needs, desires to pursue the
profession of a preschool teacher. Training and fostering are implemented in the
orientation of competency-based approach aimed at improving the quality of
preschool teachers' professional competency (the preschool teachers are requested
to have professional ethics, love to children and attachment to their profession;
pedagogical skills to perform the tasks of child care and education).
3.3.4. Directing teachers to self-develop their professional
competencies to regularly meet the requirements of education innovation
Preschool teachers development helps teachers regularly develop their
own professional competencies, which is the highest purpose in training and
fostering activities. The teachers who regularly self-develop professional
competency will facilitate lifelong learning and enhance their lifelong
professional competencies, responding to child care and education
requirements in all conditions and situations of individual and preschool.
3.3.5. Examination and assessment of preschool teachers according
to professional competency standards
The purpose of teacher assessment is to: collect necessary information
about the quality of the teachers, the work efficiency of preschool teachers;
promptly detect limitations in the preschool teachers management;
understanding each individual's thoughts, desires, actual competency; and grasp
the recommendations and proposals of preschool teachers to give directions for
the training, fostering and self-study of preschool teachers. .
3.3.6. Building a legal corridor to honor profession and create
motivation for professional competency development of preschool teachers
Satisfactory remuneration policies and regimes are one of the important
solutions to encourage, motivate the contribution of the preschool teachers
into the basic and comprehensive innovation cause of Vietnamese education.


18
The State has a satisfactory remuneration policy for preschool teachers, not
only to "reproduce the labor force" but also preserve the good qualification,
love for the job and love for children of preschool teachers, contributing to
minimizing negative phenomena in the preschool education.
3.4. Relationship of the measures for competency-based preschool
teachers development in education innovation
The thesis proposes 6 measures for competency-based preschool
teachers development in education innovation. Each measure has its own
position in the system of teacher development measures proposed in the
thesis. Measures for competency-based preschool teachers development in
education innovation in education innovation have its own characteristics and
in close relationship, therefore, it is necessary to synchronously implement the
measure proposed for preschool teachers development and base on the
specific conditions and circumstances of the environment and people to give
priority to one or several measures in specific cases, time and circumstances.
3.5. Testing the necessity and feasibility of measures for
competency-based preschool teachers development in education
innovation
3.5.1. Purposes: To ask for opinions of experts for affirming the
necessity and feasibility of measures for the competency-based preschool
teachers development proposed in the thesis.
3.5.2. Testing method, scoring method and grading scale: Scoring
method: Very necessary, very feasible (3 points) Necessary, feasible (2
points); Unnecessary, infeasible (1 point). Grading scale: Level 1 (X = 2.333.0); Level 2 (X = 1.66-2.32); Level 3 (X <1.66).
3.5.3. Sample of tested objects: 180 objects including: 80 preschool
teachers; 85 education managers and functional departments of the
committee; Preschool managers and 15 lecturers of preschool education
department of pedagogical colleges of educational institutions in the North Central - South.
3.5.4. Results of experts' consultation on measures for the
competency-based preschool teachers development in education innovation
Table 3.5. Relationship of the necessity and feasibility levels of measures for
competency-based preschool teachers development
No

Solutions

Necessary Feasible
D
X Level X Level

Organizing to raise awareness for preschool
managers and teachers about professional
1
2.94
competency of preschool teachers in current
education innovation.

4

2.96

2

2

D2

4


19
2
3

4

5

6

Planning to develop the preschool teachers in
competency-based approach
Organizing the training and fostering of
professional competency for preschool teachers
in line with the competency framework
Directing teachers to regularly self-develop
their professional competencies to meet the
requirements of education innovation
Examination and assessment of preschool
teachers according to professional competency
standards
Building a legal corridor to honor profession
and create motivation for the professional
competency development of preschool teachers
Average

2.96

3

2.93

5

-2

4

2.98

1

2.97

1

0

0

2.92

5

2.91

6

-1

1

2.97

2

2.96

2

0

0

2.91

6

2.94

4

-2

4

2.95

2.94

13

In order to affirm the relationship between the necessity and feasibility of
measures for competency-based preschool teachers development proposed in
the thesis, the hierarchical correlation coefficient Spiecman r = 1 -

is

used for calculation. The result r ~ +0.64 leads to conclusion that the correlation
is positive and close, which means that measures for competency-based
preschool teachers development proposed in the thesis are necessary and
feasible. For example: Organizing the training and fostering of professional
competency for preschool teachers in line with the competency framework. has
the necessity X = 2.98, feasibility X= 2.97 in the rank of 1/6, etc.
2.98
2.96

Necessity

2.98
2.97
2.96

2.97
2.96

2.96

2.94

Feasibility
2.94

2.93

2.94

2.92
2.91

2.92

2.91

2.90
2.88
2.86
Solution
1

Solution
2

Solution
3

Solution
4

Solution
5

Solution
6

Chart 3.1. Relationship between the necessity and feasibility of measures for
competency-based preschool teachers development


20
3.6. Testing measures for competency-based preschool teachers
development in education innovation
3.6.1. Testing purposes
Testing to verify and affirm the efficiency of the measure Organizing
to raise awareness for preschool managers and teachers about professional
competency of preschool teachers in current education innovation in
improving knowledge, professional competency of preschool teachers
3.6.2. Testing hypothesis
If the measure Organizing to raise awareness for preschool managers
and teachers about professional competency of preschool teachers in current
education innovation is applied, the knowledge and understanding of
professional competency will be improved, thereby, the quality of preschool
teachers to meet the requirements of education innovation will be enhanced.
3.6.3. Testing organization
3.6.3.1. Subjects, time and location of testing
- Subjects: 100 managers and 200 preschool teachers in preschool
education institutions in the districts of Hoan Kiem, Hai Ba Trung; Dong Anh,
Thanh Tri, etc.
- Time: from May 2018 to May 2019.
- Unit selected for testingA number of inner and suburban preschools in
Hanoi city.
3.6.4.2. Method of implementation: Testing preparation and organization.
3.6.4.3. Testing standards and grading scale
- The testing results are assessed based on the knowledge acquisition
and development of managers and preschool teachers.
Both managers and preschool teachers have a set of questionaires. A
correct and incomplete answer gets 1 point; A correct and complete answer gets
2 points. Assessment results are classified into 4 levels as follows: Good: 31-40
points; Fair: 21-30 points; Average: 10-20 points; Weak: Below 10 points.
3.6.4. Testing results
Table 3.6. Knowledge acquisition levels of managers before and after
the test
Levels
Good
Fair
Average
Weak

Pre-test
Post-test
Quantity
(%) Quantity (%)
3
3.0
23 23.0
10
10.0
49 49.0
36
36.0
26 26.0
51
51.0
2
2.0

Difference
An increase of 20,0%
An increase of 39,0%
A decrease of 16,0%
A decrease of 49,0%

The table above shows that before and after the test, the managers'
knowledge increased at the good and fair levels and decreased at average and
weak levels. Based on the above results, it can be affirmed that the measure


21
Organizing to raise awareness for managers is effective in the preschool
education managers development.
Table 3.8. Knowledge acquisition levels of preschool teachers
before and after the test
Levels
Good
Fair
Average
Weak

Pre-test
Quantity
(%)
5
2.5
12
6.0
77
38.5
106
53.0

Post-test
Quantity
(%)
46
23.0
98
49.0
45
22.5
11
5.5

Difference
An increase of 21,5%
An increase of 43%
A decrease of 16%
A decrease of 47,5%

The table above shows that before and after the test, the knowledge of
preschool teachers increased at the good and fair levels and decreased at
average and weak levels. Based on the above results, it can be affirmed that the
measure Organizing to raise awareness for preschool teachers is effective in
the preschool education managers development.
Conclusion of chapter 3
Based on chapters 1, 2 and the proposed orientations and principles, the
thesis proposes 6 measures for competency-based preschool teachers
development in education innovation: 1) Organizing to raise the awareness for
managers and preschool teachers about the professional competency of
preschool teachers in current education innovation; 2) Planning to develop
the preschool teachers according to competency-based approach; 3)
Organizing the training and fostering of professional competency for
preschool teachers in line with the competency framework; 4) Organizing to
guide teachers to regularly develop their professional competencies to meet
the requirements of education renovation; 5) Examination and assessment of
preschool teachers according to professional competency standards; 6)
Building a legal corridor to honor profession and create motivation for the
professional competency development of preschool teachers.
The thesis tests the necessity and feasibility of measures for teachers
development in the thesis. The test results affirm the necessity and high
feasibility of the preschool teachers development measures proposed in the
thesis in improvement of the quality of preschool teacherss to meet the
requirements of education innovation.
The thesis tests the measure of organizing to raise the awareness for
managers and preschool teachers about the professional competency of
preschool teachers in current education innovation. Testing results through
the changes of knowledge of the managers and teachers in the test have
affirmed the efficiency of measures for preschool teachers development tested
in the thesis.


22
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Conclusions
1.1. The thesis gives an overview study of the issue in the directions:
Studies on human resource development; competency-based preschool teachers
development. The new points and study contents of the thesis are determined.
The thesis's theoretical framework covers the following issues: professional
competency identified in the thesis consists of 7 groups, with 18 specific
professional competencies of preschool teachers; the competency-based
preschool teachers development in the context of education innovation includes;
Planning for preschool teachers development; recruitment, employment and
screening; training and fostering; building a working environment, creation of
working motivation and professional opportunities for preschool teachers.
Factors affecting the competency-based preschool teachers development in
education innovation are those that belong to the State policy mechanism for
preschool teacher, preschool education sector; factors of social environment,
preschool and preschool teachers.
1.2. Through the survey of 832 education managers at all levels and
preschool teachers in 7 provinces and cities: Hanoi, Son La, Can Tho, Binh
Duong, Kon Tum, Nghe An, etc on preschool teachers and the development of
preschool teachers, some conclusions are given as follows:
The professional competency of preschool teachers surveyed in the thesis
consists of 7 groups, with 18 specific professional competencies. According to
the requirement, the professional competencies are assessed at a very necessary
level as a typical characteristic of preschool teachers, helping preschool teachers
to complete its work in the school. In real situation, the professional
competency is generally at fair level.
The management levels have implemented many contents and measures
to develop the preschool teachers in the approach of human resource
management and the implementation of the contents of preschool teachers
development is assessed at fair level and in the order as follows: 1Organizing the training and fostering for preschool teachers (2.96); 2Building an environment to create motivation for preschool teachers (2.94);
3- Creating professional development opportunities for preschool teachers
(2.87); 4- Employment of preschool teachers (2.85); 5- Assessing preschool
teachers (2.76); 6- Planning to develop the preschool teachers (2,34); 7Recruitment and screening of preschool teachers (2.29).
There are many groups of factors affecting the preschool teachers
development and the influence of the groups of factors is different and
unequal. The order of influence is as follows: 1- Factors of preschool
teachers; 2- Factors of the State policy mechanism; 3- Factors of the school;


23
4- Factors of social environment. The results of practical survey are the
scientific basis to propose solutions to develop the preschool teachers
according to the competency-based approach in current education innovation.
1.3. On the basis of theoretical study for the competency-based
preschool teachers development in preschool education innovation; Survey
data of real situation of preschool teachers development according to the
professional competency approach and current solutions for preschool
teachers development, the thesis presents the orientation of competency-based
preschool teachers development in education innovation and proposed
principles, the thesis proposes 6 measures for competency-based preschool
teachers development in education innovation. 1) Organizing to raise the
awareness for managers and preschool teachers about the professional
competency of preschool teachers in current education innovation; 2)
Planning to develop the preschool teachers according to competency-based
approach; 3) Organizing the training and fostering of professional competency
for preschool teachers in line with the competency framework; 4) Organizing
to guide teachers to regularly develop their professional competencies to meet
the requirements of education renovation; 5) Examination and assessment of
preschool teachers according to professional competency standards; 6)
Building a legal corridor to honor profession and create motivation for the
professional competency development of preschool teachers.
The thesis tests the necessity and feasibility of measures for teachers
development in the thesis. The test results affirm the necessity and high
feasibility of the preschool teachers development measures proposed in the
thesis in improvement of the quality of preschool teacherss to meet the
requirements of education innovation.
The thesis tests the measure of organizing to raise the awareness for
managers and preschool teachers about the professional competency of
preschool teachers in current education innovation. Testing results through
the changes of knowledge of the managers and teachers in the test have
affirmed the efficiency of measures for preschool teachers development tested
in the thesis.
2. Recommendations
2.1. For Ministry of Education and Training
To develop a standard system of competency output; concretize it into
the competency standards of credits/modules or vocational training activities of
students at the college and university training levels; the vocational training
certificate for preschool teachers applied for subjects who do not study the
specialty of preschool education pedagogy. Building a data bank to test and
assess the competency of students at training levels.


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×