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giaonhan vận tải biển trường đại học hàng hải Việt Nam

MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

VIETNAM MARINE UNIVERSITY
ECONOMICS OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE


ASSIGNMENT

INTERNATIONAL FORWARDING AND
TRANSPORTATION
INSTRUCTOR

: TRAN HAI VIET

NAME OF STUDENT : PHAM THI THAM
STUDENT CODE

: 69589


CLASS GROUP

: N03

1


HẢI PHÒNG – 2019

CONTENT
INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................2
CHAPTER 1: LAW AND THEORY.........................................................................3
1.1.Law...................................................................................................................3
1.1.1. National law...............................................................................................3
1.1.2. International law........................................................................................4
1.2.Theory...............................................................................................................6
1.2.1. Definition..................................................................................................7
1.2.2. Other definition.........................................................................................9
Chapter 2: Cargo and transport route......................................................................14
2.1 Cargo..............................................................................................................14
2.1.1 Characteristics of cargo............................................................................14
2.1.2 Packing.....................................................................................................15
2.1.3 Packing cargo in container.......................................................................18
2.2 Transport route...............................................................................................19
2.2.1 Departure point and destination point......................................................19
2.2.2 Route design.............................................................................................21
Chapter 3: IMPLEMENT FORWARDING PROCESS..........................................22
3.1 Diagram..........................................................................................................22
3.2 Describe each step of the process...................................................................24
3.3 Set up forwarding contract.............................................................................32
CHAPTER 4: PROBLEM AND SOLUTION........................................................37
4.1 Problems.........................................................................................................37
4.2 Solutions.........................................................................................................37
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CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................38

INTRODUCTION


Along with the economic development, international trade and globalization, the
exchange and purchase of goods between countries is becoming more and more
active. Once the buyer and the seller have signed the contract, the process of
exchanging the goods takes place, ie the movement of goods from the seller to the
buyer. The forwarder will be responsible for ensuring that the shipment proceeds
smoothly and that the goods are delivered to the purchaser safely, on time and on
site. From just doing some simple tasks such as loading and unloading,
warehousing, paperwork, domestic transportation, payment for goods according to
the development of time, due to the demand of real With the increasing role of
forwarders, they have provided full package services for the transport and
distribution of goods, becoming major carriers. Moreover, today forwarders tend to
become logistics service providers, a higher development of forwarding services.
In Vietnam, although the new forwarding service has only really grown over the
last 10 years, progress has been made. The opening up of the economy has led to
the development of commercial activities, and trade with the countries is a
precondition for the development of our forwarding industry. Vietnam's forwarders
have changed dramatically in terms of both quantity and quality, the scope of
supply of products and services has also increased, and forwarding business has
become a important dominant sector in our economy.

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CHAPTER 1: LAW AND THEORY
1.1.Law
1.1.1. National law.
a. Commercial law 2005 about logistics service:
Article 233: Logistics service.
Article 234: Conditions about logistics service business.
Article 235: Rights and obligations of traders providing logistics services.
Article 236: Rights and obligations of customers.
Article 237: Exemption from liability for traders providing logistics services
Article 238: Limitation of liability.
Article 239: Ownership and disposition.
Article 240: Rights and obligations of traders providing logistics services when
owned goods.
b. Maritime law 2005:
From Article 74 to Article 97 has been stipulated about rights and obligations of
carrier, responsibility of carrier and all contents related to documents in the process
of ocean transport, time to complaint,…
c. Other related law.
Customs law of 2014 about customs brokerage, Road traffic Law 2015, Business
Law 2005,…

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d. Principles.
-

Principle 140/2007/NĐ-CP 5/9/2007: Specify in detail the Commercial law

on conditions of business logistics service and limitation of responsibility of
traders. This principle stipulated clearly about range and object of regulation,
conditions of business; limitation of responsibility; State management of logistics
service business.
-

Principle 87/2009/NĐ-CP 29/10/2009 about multimodal transport.

-

Principle 154/2005/NĐ-CP 15/12/2005 stipulated clearly about some article

of Custom law No. 29/2001/QH10 29/6/2001, Law amending and supplementing a
number of articles of Custom law No. 42/2005/QH11 14/6/2005 about custom
procedures, customs inspection and supervision.
-

Principle 187/2013/NĐ-CP of National Assembly: specify in detail about

enforcing commercial law on international merchandise trade and agent activities
of buying, selling, processing and transiting goods abroad.
-

Principle 194/2010/TT-BTC 6/12/2010 Guide on customs procedures:

import tax, export tax, tax administration of import/export goods.
-

Principle 115/2007/NĐ-CP 05/07/2007 of National Assembly: Conditions of

ocean transport business.
-

Principle 172/2010/TT-BTC issued by Ministry of Finance stipulated the

rates, the regime of remittance, management and use of charges and fees in the
customs domain.
1.1.2. International law.
a. FIATA’s standard business conditions.

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The association of member states of FIATA, based on the standard business
conditions, drafts the standard business conditions for its own association. In
general, the standard business conditions of the countries have some main contents
as follows:
-

The forwarder must carry out the assignment with due diligence and

diligence as directed by the customer in order to protect the interests of the
customer and consider it to be the interests of the forwarder itself.
-

The forwarder is released from liability if the forwarder encounters

difficulties arising not the fault or negligence of the forwarder and the forwarder
can not be avoided after having taken the necessary measures to prevent and limit
losses. In any case, the forwarder is entitled to receive remuneration as agreed
upon in the contract and the customer must pay all costs incurred in this situation.
-

The forwarder performs the contract in accordance with the instructions of

the customer. If the instruction is inaccurate, incomplete or not in accordance with
the contract, the forwarder will act in the manner that is most appropriate to the
cost and risk the customer incurs.
-

Unless otherwise agreed, the forwarder may not have to inform the customer

of the arrangement for the carriage of goods above or below the deck and the
selection or replacement of the means of transport, the route and the procedures in
loading, unloading, storage and transportation of goods.
-

In the course of performance of the contract, if the forwarder encounters

difficulties arising not the fault or negligence of the forwarder and the forwarder
can not be avoided after having taken the necessary measures to prevent and limit
losses, The forwarder may waive the contract of carriage and, if possible, deliver
the goods to the customer at the safest and most convenient location without being
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liable for his breach. In any case, the forwarder is entitled to receive remuneration
as agreed upon in the contract and the customer must pay all costs incurred in the
situation.
b. International maritime conventions.
-

The 1924 Hague Rule and the Protocols 1968 and 1979.

-

Hamburg Rules 1978.

-

Rotterdam 2010.

-

International Convention on Multimodal Transport.

-

Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road

(CMR – 1956)
-

The International Convention for the unification of certain rules relating to

Bills of Lading (Hague - Visby)
-

United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea (Hamburg

Rules 1978).
-

The 'United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage

of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea' (Rotterdam Rules)
-

UNCTAD/ICC 91: UNCTAD/ICC Rules about Multimodal transport

(Forwarders and MTO voluntarily apply)
-

Framework Agreement of the ASEAN countries signed in Laos in 2005.

(Vietnam has ratified the agreement on November 17, 2005)
-

Government Decree 87.89 of the multimodal transport.

1.2.Theory.
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1.2.1. Definition.
a.

Forwarding.

FIATA defines: "Freight Forwarding and Logistic Services" means services of any
kind relating to the carriage (performed by single mode or multimodal transport
means), consolidation, storage, handling, packing or distribution of the Goods as
well as ancillary and advisory services in connection therewith, including but not
limited to customs and fiscal matters, declaring the Goods for official purposes,
procuring insurance of the Goods and collecting or procuring payment or
documents relating to the Goods. Freight Forwarding Services also include
logistical services with modern information and communication technology in
connection with the carriage, handling or storage of the Goods, and de facto total
supply chain management. These services can be tailored to meet the flexible
application of the services provided.
So that we can understand forwarding has the following characteristics:


Forwarding is an economic activity related to transport activities aimed at

bringing goods to the destination safely.


Forwarding is a service related to transportation but isn’t a transport party.



Forwarding is a collection of operations related to the transport process, for

the purpose of transporting goods from the place of dispatch to the place of receipt.
b.

Forwarder: a person or company that arranges shipping and customs

documents for several shipments from different companies, putting them together
to form one large shipment.

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c.

Shipper: Consignor, exporter, or seller (who may be the same or different

parties) named in the shipping documents as the party responsible for initiating a
shipment, and who may also bear the freight cost.
d.

Carrier: Company that transports goods and/or people by air, land, or sea, in

its own or chartered vessels or equipment, and is named as the carrier in the
contract of carriage.
e.

A shipping line is a business that operates ships that it may or may not own.

That mean arrange the all movements from port to port , organizes all traffics
navigation in sea ports.
f.

Forwarding process demonstrates the coordination between the parties

involved, specially the role of forwarder at this process, to deliver the goods safely
from the consignor to the consignee.
g.

FCL stands for "Full Container Load", which is used in the international

shipping industry for the export and import of ocean freight. The term is often used
to describe an international maritime service designed for ocean freight shipments
of goods that an exporter or importer uses exclusively of a shipping container
(usually a 20ft or 40ft container). Freight containers by sea are usually loaded and
stamped at the base and then transported by a combination of sea, rail and/or road
to the final destination.
h.

CY – Container Yard is a place within a port or terminal where containers

are stored before it is loaded on the ship in the case of exports or offloaded from
the ship in the case of imports.
i.

LCL stands for "Less than Container Load," which means less than one

container. This term describes how the goods are transported when the owner of
the goods does not have enough goods to cover the entire container, but needs to be
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paired with several lots of other owners. At that time, the service company will
combine multiple lots of goods (LCL) shipments, sorted, classified and packed into
containers, and then arranged for shipment from the port of destination to the
destination port. Such combinations are called consolidation or consolidation.
j.

CFS – Container Freight Station: After arriving at the destination port, LCL

cargo is taken to a container freight station (CFS) to be deconsolidated; after that,
it’s loaded into a truck and transported to the final destination. The CFS charges a
fee for this deconsolidation service, based on the volume of the cargo.
k.

A container is any receptacle or enclosure for holding a product used in

storage, packaging, and shipping. Things kept inside of a container are protected
by being inside of its structure. The term is most frequently applied to devices
made from materials that are durable and are usually at least partly rigid. In
transportation, container means a large cargo-carrying standard-sized container that
can be loaded from one mode of transport to another.
1.2.2. Other definition.
1.2.2.1. Some main positions in Import-Export industry.
a.

International Sales.



Forwarder offers freight and all in services (domestic trucking, fumigation,

quarantine, phytosanitary, sanitation, clearance...) for the exporting company
(export shipper) and importer (import consignee) and send the price, in order to
reach the target of company.


Work with Lines/NVOCCs to check the frequency, freight rates, charges and

surcharges to inform customers, under pressure to cover all slots/sales targets with
shipping lines in order to give good price from shipping line.
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Make transactions, negotiate with customers with the goal is selling goods.

Can go out, meet directly with guests at workshops, warehouses, offices, factories
or overseas, fair ... take care to old customers, expand new customers market.


When has orders, coordinate the parts to handle the flow smoothly, handle

the trouble if any, update information about the carrying goods to the
shippers/consignee.
b.

Documents position.



Make import-export documents for shipments from the sales department.



Handle import-export documents to help customers if the client hired

forwarder do: Invoice, Packing list, C/O, Other certificates, permits, quality control
or specialized ...


Do export-import customs declaration for shipments, then handed over to the

operator to clear the customs at the department


Make bill of the shipments, Debit Note from the system to send the Sales,

then sales will send to the customer


Receive pre-alerts from Agent/Lines, do Manifest, do "Notice of Arrivals"

(NOA) sent to customers
c.

Customer support.



Contact your local line/agent for the best rate, Dem/Det, get a booking from

the line to send the sales or send to the direct shipper.


Coordinated arrangements with operators to plan the trucking, trucking.

Check the progress of packing, unloading. Update status of export/import
shipments on the system to inform customers.
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Support sales/documents department handle documents for the export-

import shipments, check ETA ...


Support other departments, or follow the requirements.

d.

Operator.



Receive export documents from the sales/documents department and go to

pay taxes, customs clearance of goods or goods (imported goods) at the
department, ICD, port, airport.


Receive records and requests from the sales/documents department to make

documents such as C/O, Fumi, Phyto, license, certification ... or to inspect.


Customs clearance or support documents apartment to do this when

required.
1.2.2.2. Relevant documents.
Sale Contract is the agreement of the buyer and the seller in two different
countries, which stipulates that the seller must provide the goods and deliver the
documents related to the goods and the ownership of the goods to the buyer and the
buyer must pay for the goods.
A Bill of lading is a contract of carriage between the shipper and the steamship
company (carrier). It is issued by the carrier to the shipper.
Packing List is one of the indispensable documents of export documents. On the
packing list, the seller indicates what the seller sells to the buyer, so that the buyer
can check whether it is the same as the order placed.
Booking is an important procedure in the shipping process for exports. Booking is
the booking of goods with the international shipping company (import and export
12


cargo). Customers usually take this booking from the forwarder (carrier) that the
client cooperates with or get directly from the carrier, the airline, but this case is
not common. Shippers contact the shipping agent, shipping agent or captain and
make Booking note for reservation on the ship. Reservation is only available on
liner shipment, which regularly operating on a fixed shipping route and on a
predetermined route schedule.
Commercial Invoice is the seller's request that the buyer pay the amount stated on
the invoice.
Arrival notice is a detailed notice of the shipping company, shipping agent or
logistics company informing you of the schedule (Port of departure, port of
destination), the time (the date the shipment originated, the date of arrival of the
consignment), the quantity, type of goods (FCL or LCL), the weight of goods, the
name of the ship, the voyage ... of the consignment that your company imports
from abroad.
The delivery order is the receipt of the goods that the importing enterprise shall
receive the goods to the warehouse inspection agency (the port of arrival) before it
can take the goods out of the container, warehouses or yards.
Certificate of Origin: a document issued by a manufacturer or a competent
authority (Industrial and Commercial Office or VCCI) to confirm the place of
production or commodity extraction.
Certificate of Quality: A certificate of authenticity and proof of quality and quantity
of goods in accordance with the terms of the contract. The quality certificate may
be issued by the supplier or may be issued by an import-export agency, depending
on the agreement between the buyer and the seller.

13


A debit note or debit memorandum (memo) is a commercial document issued by a
buyer to a seller as a means of formally requesting a credit note. A seller might also
issue a debit note instead of an invoice in order to adjust upwards the amount of an
invoice already issued (as if the invoice is recorded in wrong value). Debit notes
are generally used in business-to-business transactions. Such transactions often
involve an extension of credit, meaning that a vendor would send a shipment of
goods to a company before the goods have been paid for. Although real goods are
changing hands, until an actual invoice is issued, real money is not. Rather, debits
and credits are being logged in an accounting system to keep track of inventories
shipped and payments owed.

CHAPTER 2: CARGO AND TRANSPORT ROUTE
2.1 Cargo
2.1.1 Characteristics of cargo
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Name of goods: Pipe F34,L1800
HS Code: 73181990
Commodity description: steel is produced in the shape of a square tube, with a
thickness of 0.6 mm and a size of 34x1800mm. Outstanding features such as: low
price, good bearing, durable over time, easy to install. Square steel pipes are
widely used to make materials such as:
 House frame, truck frame
 Making scaffolding, foundation structure for construction works
 Interior components for cars, motorcycles
The steel is composed of iron (CU), carbon (Ca), sulfur (S), phosphorus (P). The
steel is coated with zinc to slow oxidation.
Non-common types

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STT

SIZE

WEIGHT
(kg/m)

2.1.2 Packing

1

30x30x1800

1.76

2

40x40x1800

2.39

3

50x50x1800

3.01

Iron pipe F34

is a bulk cargo

stored directly into the container of a container truck without elaborate packaging.
But to keep goods in the container, the packaging process still needs to follow
certain rules.

Some notes when packing goods:
When loading and unloading, they must be in equilibrium to avoid unbalance of
gravity
16


Use steel straps to fasten goods: Steel straps are wires made from specialized steel
that are tough, good strength, low carbon intensity, cold rolled so less elastic and
produced with pepper. Strict standards meet the belt tension requirements. Steel
straps are specialized materials for strapping goods, especially for heavy goods
such as rolled steel pipes, to protect the safety of goods and users.

17


Use wooden boards to cover the floor of the trunk, filling the remaining gaps in the
container.

Due to the characteristics of 1800mm square iron pipes and square pipes, before
being loaded onto container trucks, the iron pipes will be tied with steel straps with
the number of 25 pipes / 1 bundle of 72 bundles, the size of 1 bundle :
350x350x1800 (mm).
The iron pipes will be arranged in parallel and stacked together to form large
squares, not arranged in bundles that are too high and need to be lined up to
distribute gravity evenly to avoid a gravity imbalance.
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2.1.3 Packing cargo in container
Checking cotainer: make sure the inside of the container is dry and clean so that
when the cargo does not deviate from the channel, push aside, the iron pipe will
not rust
Container type: 20 ’: 6.06x2.59x2.43 (m)
72 bundles, 1800 square iron pipes neatly packed into containers: 2100x2100x1800
(mm)
Size 1 bundle: 350x350x1800 (mm) (25 tubes 1 bundle)
Volum: 15,88 m3

19


2.2 Transport route
2.2.1 Departure point and destination point
 Export’s warehouse at Dong Anh Town District, Hanoi, Vietnam
 Distance to next transportation point: 131 km
 Means of transport: container truck
 Transit time: 1 hour 47 minutes

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 Loading port






CY Dinh Vu Port, Hai Phong City, Viet Nam.
Distance to next transportation point: 2277 nautical miles – 4217 km
Means of transport: Vessel.
Transit time: 7 days.
Transshipment:No

21


2.2.2 Route design

22


CHAPTER 3: IMPLEMENT FORWARDING PROCESS
3.1 Diagram

Receive shipment information requests
from customers

buy insurance for the shipment

obtain an export license

make a reservation and get an empty
release order

pack the goods, sign the shipping code

prepare and check the export goods

Thread 2

do customs clearance

Submit the dossier to the
customs office for the
number of ships exported

Thread 1

for shipments

produce empty release
order

and pay cont

Thread 3

Take containers to the port or yard to

ship to carrier, pay and

discharge goods on board

receive MBL

receive MBL

send documents to customers to check

release HBL and Debit Note

and proceed with payment
23

Clearance of customs yards

ship to carrier, pay and


24


3.2 Describe each step of the process
Step 1: Receive shipment information requests from customers
When customers contact to hire forwarder to export their shipments, the sales
staff will be the one who will check the shipment information and advise
customers.
Distance, time of shipment: based on the delivery time specified in the contract
of the exporter and importer will calculate the estimated use of means of
transport on the route and reservations. Which shipping company can deliver
goods to customers on time.
Types of goods, characteristics and purpose of use: Company employees need to
ask customers about this information for the same product, but different uses
will lead to different packaging or storage methods. together. On the other hand,
understanding the cargo information will help forwarding staff advise customers
of the type of container to store goods. For bulky goods that will fit in 40 feet
cont, the large but compact weight will fit in 20 feet containers.
Port of loading, unloading port: is the basis for staff to contact the shipping
company to book, calculate the charges such as warehousing, freight or whether
the ship needs to be transferred through the third port or not.
Depending on the needs of customers, the shipment will be exported as agreed
between the two parties. The forwarder is an experienced importer of many
shipments should be responsible for consulting customers, especially new
customers. If the advisory stage is done well, it will create confidence in the
next shipments.

Step 2: obtain an export license
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