Sử dụng các trò chơi giao tiếp để tăng cường sự tham gia của học sinh trong các giờ học kỹ năng nói tại trường THPT hoành bồ, quảng ninh
THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES
NGUYỄN HỒNG THẮM
USING COMMUNICATIVE GAMES TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ PARTICIPATION IN ORAL ACTIVITIES AT HOANH BO HIGH SCHOOL, QUANG NINH PROVINCE
SỬ DỤNG CÁC TRÒ CHƠI GIAO TIẾP ĐỂ TĂNG CƯỜNG SỰ THAM GIA CỦA HỌC SINH TRONG CÁC GIỜ HỌC KỸ NĂNG NÓI TẠI TRƯỜNG THPT HOÀNH BỒ, QUẢNG NINH
M.A THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201
THAI NGUYEN – 2019
THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES
NGUYỄN HỒNG THẮM
USING COMMUNICATIVE GAMES TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ PARTICIPATION IN ORAL ACTIVITIES AT HOANH BO HIGH SCHOOL, QUANG NINH PROVINCE
Sử dụng các trò chơi giao tiếp để tăng cường sự tham gia của học sinh trong các giờ học kỹ năng nói tại trường THPT Hoành Bồ, QuảngNinh
M.A THESIS Field: English Linguistics Code: 8220201 Supervisor 1: Prof. Dr. Nguyen Thi Mai Huong Supervisor 2: Prof. Dr. Nguyen Thi Que
THAI NGUYEN – 2019
CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY I hereby declare that this submission of the minor thesis entitled “Using Communicative Games to enhance Students’ Participation in Oral Activities at Hoanh Bo High School, QuangNinh Province” is my own work. To the best of my knowledge, it contains no materials previously published or written by another person, or substantial of material which have been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma at SFL or any other educational institutions. The thesis has not been submitted to any other examining body and has not been published. Any contribution made to research by others is explicily acknowledged in the thesis. Thai Nguyen, July 2019
Nguyen Hong Tham Approved by SUPERVISOR
Supervisor 1: Dr. Nguyen Thi Mai Huong
Supervisor 2: Dr. Nguyen Thi Que
Date: July, 2019
DEDICATION To my parents who taught me to be more patient, My siblings, My husband, Nguyen Ngoc Binh My two sons, Nguyen Duy Phuong, Nguyen Hai Nam And my friends For their endless support And being my constant sources of inspiration.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researcher has succeeded in finishing this study, which has been greatly improved by comments, corrections, guidance and ideas of many people. It is hard to even begin to acknowledge personally all those who have had an impact on her life and study during that making of this study. First and foremost, I would like to express my deepest thanks to Dr.Nguyen Thi Mai Huong and Dr. Nguyen Thi Que, advisers, for their invaluable assistance, encouragement as well as her guidance they gave me while I was doing my research and for their constructive comments and suggestions in perfecting this thesis; I am indebted to all the teachers at School of Foreign Languages, Thai Nguyen University for their invaluable lessons, suggestions, moral support and prayers for the completion of this study; I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to Mrs Dang Thi Hien, the Headmaster of Hoanh Bo High School for her permission to conduct the study. Thanks are due to all the teachers of English at Hoanh Bo High School for their suggestions and validation of the test items and questionnaires. Last but not least, I would like to send my sincere thanks to all the students in 10A5 class at Hoanh Bo High School, the respondents of the study, for their willingness in joining the experimental learning period and answering follow-up questionnaires.
ABSTRACT The goal of this study was to evaluate the impacts of communicative games and activities on students’ participation in oral lessons as validated through teachers’ classroom observations and perceived by students participating in the program. The respondents of the study include 30 grade 10A5 students and two teacher observers at Hoanh Bo High School in Quang Ninh province during their second semester of the school year 2018-2019. The study was conducted during 8 weeks in which different communicative games and activities were introduced to teach speaking skill. Students’ participation was evaluated through 8 classroom observation sheets marked by two teacher observers during class visits. In addition, a set of questionnaire was delivered to students upon the accomplishment of the experimental teaching period regarding their perception on level of participation in speaking as well as their evaluation of the whole learning period after being exposed to communicative activities and games. The result of the study has shown that Communicative Games used in the pilot teaching enhanced students’ participation in oral activities and students’ attitudes towards Communicative Games used in the experimental teaching period were positive. Therefore, Communicative Games are recommended in classroom teaching to enhance students’ participation in oral activities.
TABLE OF CONTENTS S T 1 C E 2 D E 3 A C 4 A B 5 T A 6 L I 7 L I 8 L I 9 C H 1 1. 0 1. 1 1. 1 2. 1 1. 2 3. 1 1. 3 4. 1 1. 4 5. 1 1. 5 6. 1 1. 6 7. 1 C 7 H A 1 2. 8 1. 1 2 9 . 2 2 0 . 2 2 1 . 2 2 2 . 2 2 3 . 1 2 2 4 . 2 2 5 .
5 . 5 . 5 . 5 . R E A P A P A P A P A P A P A P P A P
3 3 3 4 3 5 3 5 3 5 I I I I I I I V V I I X X I
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
A B B
C ive C m ative Classro m Res
LIST OF TABLES T P A A 1. 3 Ta 8 2. 4 Ta 1 3. 4 Ta 5 4. 4 Ta 6 5. 4 Ta 8 6. 5 Ta 0 7. 5 Ta 2
LIST OF FIGURES
P A 1. Fi gu re 2. Fi gu
4 2 4 4
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. Introduction and rationale for the study With the trend of globalization, English has been asserting its significant and dominant role as a lingua franca, an international language, and a tool for integration and development among all countries in all fields ranging from politics, diplomacy, economy, education, travel to culture etc. And Vietnam is not an exception. Since Vietnam’s participation in WTO in 2007 and particularly the launch of ASEAN community in 2015, the global and regional integration has necessarily led to the arising requirement of fostering English teaching and learning across the country so as to prepare for future generations of Vietnamese citizens who can possess good English communication skills to be able to work cooperatively and competitively in global markets. Therefore, English has been made a compulsory subject in most of public schools in Vietnam. In addition to that, much attention has also been paid into the improvement of English teaching methods to upgrade the quality of teaching English in the entire educational system. As a result, the teaching and learning of English have also been changing from the traditional grammar-centered approach focusing on students’ ability to use correct grammatical rules into communicative approach emphasizing communicative competences in four main skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Of all the mentioned skills, speaking seems to play the core function in a foreign language and also the main purpose that most of English learners desire to achieve. According to Pattison (1992), a majority of language learners in the world study English with the target of attaining good English-oral competence. In this regard, the mastery of English speaking requires the learners to be good at both linguistic knowledge and communicative competence to deal with each specific situation. Due to these requirements, teaching and learning English in Vietnamese high schools has often encountered with a lot of challenges and difficulties. As an English teacher at Hoanh Bo High School in Quang Ninh province for over ten years, the researcher has identified one of the challenges deterring the
development of communication skills, that is, the students here are reluctant to participate in oral activities, which has led to their poor speaking performance. The result of which may cause students a lack of confidence in learning English at higher education or, even worse, a fear in communicating with foreigners in their future workplace, which is extremely counterproductive in the context of globalization. Hence, it is essential to find out the factors affecting students’ participation in classroom speaking lessons so that appropriate solutions will be offered to tackle the problem. Of all aforementioned observations, together with the researcher’s own interest in helping her students to become competent global citizens in the future, a study on “Using Communicative Games to enhance students’ participation in oral activities at Hoanh Bo High School, Quang Ninh province” was chosen as a topic of her research. 1.2. Aims of the study The main purpose of this research is to improve students’ participation in oral activities through the use of Communicative Games (CGA) in Hoanh Bo High School, Quang Ninh province. More specifically, the study aims to find the answers to the following questions: 1. How does Communicative Games enhance students’ participation in oral activities? 2. What are the students’ attitudes towards Communicative Games? 1.3. Scope of the study The research is concerned with the strategies to enhance students’ participation in oral activities to the students in the author’ own teaching context. Accordingly, the research scope included a total of thirty students in class 10A5 of Hoanh Bo High School, Quang Ninh province. They were selected as the
respondents of the study who were taught with their preferable CLT activities in speaking lessons to see if there are any positive feedbacks. 1.4. Conceptual framework English has become a compulsory subject that must be taught in junior high school. The students were expected to master the all standard competences based on each grade and the curriculum that is applied. In fact, though in high school, student has got English subject, they still have low Standard English competency especially in speaking skill. Speaking skill is the productive skill of English teaching and learning goal but the result of the teaching and learning process was not maximal. Most of the students found difficulties in speaking such as they could not use English based on the target language. The monotonous activities and their failure in mastering the skill causes them had low motivation, so they sometimes get bored or uninterested in the lesson. In the teaching of speaking, both teachers and students are influenced each other in that process. The teacher is a facilitator learning personal and social change by assisting the developing person at those points where help is requested. Teacher should have a set of exercises, tasks or other activities for the students in their classes. It is really beneficial and positive experience to try various classroom activities in CLT approach. By using the communicative games and activities, the teacher will easily motivate students to communicate in English in classrooms. She/he has to be creative to prevent student’s boredom because of decreasing interest and motivation. Any solutions must be acquired to solve problem appeared in the teaching and learning process. Communicative language games are the good way to solve the problems that have been discussed in this case in which teachers can use effective communicative games to teach students while these were having fun. In addition, by using communicative language games, students will have more opportunities to practice their speaking ability. They also will be more creative in improving their
ideas to speak up. Consequently, the speaking class activities will better enhance students participation in class. 1.5. Significance of the study The findings of this study would be beneficial and of great help to the following: In the past time, the students learned English with the main focus on grammatical issues; however, four English skills in general and English speaking skill in particular are concentrated as much as grammar. So most of the teachers at high schools do not realize the importance of oral communication skill in the full development of the four English skills. In the textbook, English speaking skill is designed separately, and each oral skill lesson is taught within 45 minutes every week. However, practicing English activities does not still end after speaking lessons. It is because that both reading lessons and listening ones often contain some post-reading and post-listening activities relating to speaking skill. Therefore, the enhancement of students’ contribution in English oral activities is very important. There is much hope that this would be useful and practical for both the teachers and learners of English. For teachers at Hoanh Bo high school in particular and teachers of English in Vietnam in particular, this study will shed light on common communicative games and activities that are interesting, effective and appropriate to students’ level of English to motivate students to communicate in English and enhance their participation in speaking lessons. For high school students, the research will benefit them directly as the center of learning process as they will be experiencing different games and activities in learning speaking. As a result, it is expected that they will find motivation to improve their speaking ability. For administrators, it is obvious that the results of the study will evoke possible policies from authorities to encourage teachers of English to try various
innovative teaching strategies in their classrooms and to offer favorable conditions for these new learning experiences to take place in their educational institutions. 1.6. Definition of Terms In order to have a clear understanding of the study, the following terms are defined operationally. Communicative games refers to a set of well fun-design activities can be stimulated students’ interaction in the classroom.. Students’ participation refer to students’ involvement in classroom activities, which emphasizes on the interaction between teachers and students, students and students, and students to the materials. Speaking is defined as the productive skill in the oral mode. 1.7. Structure of the thesis This minor thesis is divided into five main parts. Chapter 1: Introduction This part aims to provide an introduction about the dissertation, which includes the rationale of the study, aims of the study, research questions, significance of the research, research scope and definition of terms. Chapter 2 is the Literature review. The purpose of this chapter is to present a theoretical framework for the research. It consists of the related literature to the research problem, including overview of speaking, students’ participation in oral activities, the influencing factors and the CLT method to enhance the students’ involvement in communicative activities. Chapter 3 is Research Methodology. Accordingly, the chapter aims to deal with the suitability of methods, the characteristics of respondents, the sample size, data collection instruments and data analytical methods. Chapter 4 is Analysis and interpretation of data. In this chapter, data collected will be analyzed to draw related findings, along with the discussion on these findings will be also presented to fulfill the research objectives.
Chapter 5 includes summary of findings, conclusion and Recommendations. Based on the above analysis, this part aims to propose the recommendations to enhance the students’ participation in the Hoanh Bo High School. A conclusion is also presented to generalize all the findings in the study.
communication, and which can be considered as a part of a dialogue or any other type of oral communication. Being a primary means of communication among different people in different situations, speaking is influenced by many surrounding factors. That is to say, the act of speaking is affected by the person who speaks to whom, when, where, and for what purpose. Florez (1999) claimed that the form and the meaning of speech is determined by the situation where it takes place, the participants who exchange the speech, and their shared experience, as well as the speakers’ intention or the purpose they aim to attain. Rather, speaking is “interactive and requires the ability to co-operate in the management of turns. It also typically takes place in real time”. This idea was also supported by J. Harmer (2001: 269) who claimed that in order for a learner to speak fluently, he or she has not only to have linguistic knowledge, but also to have the ability to communicate appropriately. The ability to speak in a foreign language is a very difficult and hard task. It is so because, as Pawlak, Kimczak, and Majer (2011) argued, it requires the learner to have a good mastery of language subsystems, and to use them automatically and without much thinking in a natural communication focusing on both producing and understanding others’ speech. Speaking also requires the learner to have a sufficient knowledge about the purpose, the manner, and the time to communicate, and to be skilled in manipulating and controlling interaction (Pawlak et.al, 2011). Therefore, speaking skill should be given much focus in the language classroom. 188.8.131.52. Characteristics of successful oral activities Having explained the term of speaking from the linguistic point of view, another step to present the principles of a good lesson is devoted to interaction between students. Needless to say, the key to a successful speaking lesson is a successful speaking activity. Nonetheless, it might not be easy to design and that is why teachers should be familiar with the basic characteristics of a profitable oral exercise.
According to Ur (1996), the successful oral activities have common the following characteristics. First of all, learners talk a lot as much as possible, in which a majority of time allocation is taken up with learner’s participation. Second, participation is fairly distributed among the learners, meaning that all of them have the chance to practice speaking equally. Third, motivation is high. It means that learners are interested in the speaking lesson and willing to contribute to complete an oral task. Fourth, language is of an acceptable level. The language expressed among the speakers is easily understood to each other, in an acceptable level of accuracy and validity. Another feature of a successful speaking activity, pointed by Brown (2001) is even participation. All students should get a chance to speak; moreover, contributions ought to be fairly evenly distributed. Therefore, teachers’ task is to strive towards engaging the less active learners and make sure that all students are involved in an equal way. Additionally, a task ought not to be dominated by a few students who like to take control over an exercise. Dobson (1989) suggests that in order to make sure that every learner has a possibility to practise the target language; the teacher can appoint a group representative responsible for equal participation among peers. Motivation also plays an important role in a successful lesson devoted to speaking. Without showing a genuine concentration on performing a task, the class faces no efficiency. To meet learners‟ eagerness in a lesson, the teacher ought to choose topics that are of genuine interest among the suitable group of students. Topics which appeal to teenagers, however, may not appeal to adult learners and thus they may not willingly take part in an activity. There are two main kinds of motivation: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. According to Harmer (2001), “extrinsical motivation is caused by any number of outside factors, for example, the need to pass an exam, the hope of financial reward, or the possibility of future travel.” A student feels obliged to acquire a language because outside factors motivate him or her to learning. The second kind of motivation − intrinsic motivation, on the contrary, stands in total contrast to extrinsic one since it comes from within the person (Harmer, 2001). The
last but not least important principle, mentioned by Ur (1996), is the acceptable level of the language used. An educator can achieve it by selecting activities whose language level is similar to students‟ linguistic level. Such oral tasks empower students and give learners the possibility to clearly express their ideas and opinions through fluent speech 184.108.40.206. Students’ participation in oral activities According to Lee (2005), participation usually means students speaking in class which consists of answer and asks questions, make comments, and join in discussions. Students who do not participate in those ways mentioned above are often considered to be passive in the
that, according to
Zolten and Long (2006), paying attention, being on task, responding to questions, participating in group discussions, asking questions, seeking help and making good use of class time also considered as classroom participation. This is also similar with O’Brien (2007) who stated that participation means completing the assigned readings, asking questions about anything in the readings or discussion that needs clarification or expansion, offering ideas and responses, listening to the ideas and responses of others, and paying attention and showing respect in the classroom to the teacher and to other students. Accordingly, students’ participation refers to students’ involvement in classroom activities, which emphasizes on the interaction between teachers and students, students and students, and students to the materials. In case of oral activities, teachers interact with students through instructing, supporting and cooperation, in which students become the self-centered in the class activities. Students also interact with other students in the form of group discussion, cooperation and contribution to the task given. In the interaction between students and materials, good, interesting and clear materials will promote students to participate in the speaking lessons. From these interactions, it can be said that students’ participation in oral activities is influenced by the factors sourced from teachers, students and classroom (Ellis, 1994).
Thus, in general, classroom participation requires students to interact in the classrooms to indicate that they are learning and paying attention. Hence this study defines students’ participation in English language classroom as interacting with teacher or peers in form of answering and asking questions, making comments, and join in discussion by giving opinions and responds. Besides that, it also emphasis students’ attention to the teacher and peers to make sure they understand their questions or opinions so that they can express their thoughts and feeling to make sure their active participation in the classroom and also in the lesson. 2.1.2. Factors impacting on students’ participation in oral activities 220.127.116.11. Students’ factors Students’ learning styles, which can be categorized into four groups: concrete, analytical, communicative and authority-oriented learners. With each learning style, students contribute different degree of participation into oral activities. Among the styles, communicative learners show much more willingness to take part in speaking tasks, while authority-oriented learners tend to work independently and prefer non-communicative activities (Willing, K. (1988); Ellis, 1985; Brown, 1994). Students’ language level. It is common that students get lower English proficiency will express more fear of errors and as a consequence, they become unconfident and reluctant with participating oral activities (Tsui, 1996). Similarly, students’ anxiety also causes negative impacts on the students’ participation in speaking lessons, which results from their self-doubt and unwillingness (Scovel, 1978). Students’ motivation. Ur (1996) stated that the degree of motivation influence directly on the learners’ involvement in speaking activities, meaning that more motivated students feel, more actively they participate in these tasks. 18.104.22.168. Teachers’ factors In the teachers’ interaction, the factors that can influence students’ involvement include teachers’ methods, roles and characteristics. First of all, a
teacher can play the roles as a controller, organizer, assessor, leader, motivator, instructors and observer (Harmer, 1999); or depend on the stages of speaking process: the presentation, the practice and the production (Byrne, 1986). In specific, the most important teachers’ role is a motivator in the practice stage with the purpose to facilitate students’ participation in oral activities. Second, teachers’ method, which refers to the techniques used in teaching English lessons. Obviously, applying appropriate teaching methods helps promote students to be more actively involved with the given tasks. And third, the teachers’ characteristics. It means that in order to motivate students’ participation, the teachers first need to be one that students can trust and respect, which also create a good relationship between teachers and students (Barry, 1993). 22.214.171.124. Classroom’s factors Regarding to oral activities, classroom’s factors can consist of classroom atmosphere and size. Underwood (1987) states that a good learning and teaching environment can encourage learners to be more willing and motivated into the lessons. Besides, Ur (1993) also adds that a classroom with smaller size will decrease their fears or reluctance to participate in the oral activities, hence facilitate their contribution into speaking lessons. 2.1.3. Using Communicative Language Games in teaching speaking 126.96.36.199. The nature of communicative language games Communicative game is a set of well fun-design activities can stimulate students’ interaction in the classroom. These games require them to take part actively in classroom by speaking and writing in order to express their own point of view or give information. More than that, students’ confidence will be automatically formed due to its concept in building habits of interaction. Game means “an activity with rules, a goal and an element of fun” (Hadfield, 1996). In addition, game is “an activity in which the learners play and usually interact with others” (Wright et al., 2006). They added that in order to express their own point of view or give
information, the learners must speak or write as in getting the meaning from others, they have to understand what people are saying or have written (Gate, 2003). Communicative Games can be an alternative way to overcome students’ difficulties in learning how to speak English. In fact, they can improve their speaking skills. However, talking about communicative games cannot be separated from those two terms” communicative” and “game”. The word communicative refers to the communicative approach in which teaching-learning activity avoids the concentration towards grammar and vocabulary but emphasizes on the significance of language function (Harmer, 200). In other words, these activities will involve students in real communication, where the achievement of their communicative task is more important than the accuracy of language they use. Therefore, it can give positive impact towards students’ motivation and classroom atmosphere which in line with Michael J Wallace (1987), language games are used for increasing emphasis on the importance of motivation and the appropriate kind of positive effective atmosphere in the classroom. 188.8.131.52. The benefits of communicative language games There are some advantages that student may get from the use of communicative language games: 1) Motivating students‟ learning with fun, enjoyment and excitement. Games are highly motivating (Wright et.al, 1984). Enjoyment, excitement and passion are naturally generated from playing games. As Haldfield (1990) indicates, games are enjoyable activates with a set of rules or terms against each other. Lavery (2001) adds that learner forget they are studying. They lose themselves in the fun of the game and the activity that motivates them. When pupils are enjoying playing games, at the same time, they are learning language unconsciously. 2) Giving chances to use language in authentic contexts. In game situations, learners are exposing themselves to the target language environment. It is supported by Littlewood (1981) who says that games provide learners with chances and