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Packaging technology for extending shelf life of jasmine (Jasminum sambac CV. Gundumalli) flowers

Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) 8(9): 1724-1732

International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 8 Number 09 (2019)
Journal homepage: http://www.ijcmas.com

Original Research Article

https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2019.809.199

Packaging Technology for Extending Shelf Life of Jasmine
(Jasminum sambac CV. Gundumalli) Flowers
Sushree Choudhury*, Jatindra Nath Das, Chitta Ranjan Mohanty,
Arun Kumar.Das and Bijaya Kumar Mishra
Department of floriculture and landscaping, College of Agriculture, India
Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003, Odisha, India
*Corresponding author

ABSTRACT

Keywords

Jasmine, Sucrose,
Boric acid,
NAA,Packaging
method,Polythene
bags.Micron
thickness

Article Info
Accepted:
18 August 2019
Available Online:
10 September 2019

A research on standardization of method of packaging to extend shelf life of
Jasminum sambac CV. Gundumalli was conducted in College of Agriculture,
Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar during 201516.The experiment was laid out in FCRD with two factors in three replications,
with 16treatment combinations..Observations were recorded on the visual
quality in terms of freshness index, flowers opening index, colour retention
index, and shelf life of flowers and the physiological parameters associated
with the postharvest quality of flowers, namely, moisture content, relative
water content, physiological loss in weight. The flowers treated with 4% boric
acid, packed in 60 micron polyethylene bags without ventilation and stored
under70C significantly extend the shelf life to 168.33 hours with highest
freshness index (87.74%), maximum colour retention index of (93.75 %), and
lowest flower opening index (11.25%), highest moisture content of (76.20%)
andlowest physiological weight loss percent (0.48%)48 hours after packing

Introduction
Jasmine (Jasminum sambac Ait.) is one of the
important and oldest fragrant flowers
cultivated by man from very ancient days in
India. It is highly esteemed for its attractive,
white colour and a fragrant flower and has a
pride of place in the heart of every Indian
woman. In Fragrance industry, jasmine has
unique importance and popularity due to its

unique sweet fragrance like that of rose,
vetiver and represents a type that cannot be
exactly imitated at present by a mixture of any


known synthetic aroma chemicals or natural
isolates. The extracts of jasmine are used for
flavouring or preparation of ‘Jasmine scented
Tea' in China and ‘Jasmine rice' in Bangkok,
Thailand. The antioxidant properties has the
potential to induce weight loss and to reduce
serum and hepatic lipid levels through the

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Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) 8(9): 1724-1732

increase of leptin level which address the
burning problems of fattiness and obesity (Li
Zhen et al., 2011) In addition to use as fresh
flowers for making garlands and bouquets, for
religious offerings, etc., now a days jasmine is
emerging as animportant industrial flower
crop and also used for production of essential
oils in the form of ‘concrete’ and ‘absolute’
used in cosmetic and perfumery industries and
as a source of aroma chemicals and food
flavouring industriesThese flowers have good
demand for export due to its attractive
fragrance. But one of the major problem faced
by farmers are lack of suitable packaging
material, less shelf of flowers and browning of
petals on the second day of harvest with
abrupt loss in fragrance. In India, if we avoid
wastage of horticultural produce up to 2%
from field to market, there will be saving of
100 to 200 crores per year (Ramana et al.,
1988)Keeping this in mind, a study was
undertaken to enhance the shelf life of
Gundumalli flower along with developing a
packaging material for export.
Materials and Methods
The present experiment was conducted in the
laboratory of Department of floriculture and
landscaping, College of Agriculture, Odisha
University of Agriculture and Technology,
Bhubaneswar. Fully developed fresh flower
buds of uniform size, shape and milky white
colour, were used for the study. Fifty numbers
of fresh flower buds of uniform size were
treated with the chemicals and surface dried.
Then the treated flowers packed in polythene
bags of 40, 60 micron thickness and
20cm*12cm dimension without vents and heat
sealed. These bags were stored under room
temperature or cold storage conditions. The
temperature and relative humidity of the cold
room were 7 °C and 80-85 % respectively.
This experiment was laid out in FCRD with 16
treatment combinations and 3 replications and
the treatments comprised of two factors

Chemical treatments
C1: Sucrose 4%
C2: Boric acid 4%
C3: NAA 100ppm
C4: Water
Packaging method
P1:Packed in 40micron polythene bags and
Stored under70C
P2:Packed in 60micron polythene bags and
Stored under70C
P3:Packed in 40micron polythene bags and
Stored under room temperature
P4: Packed in 60micron polythene bagsand
Stored under room temperature
The quality parameters namely, freshness
index, flower opening index, colour retention
index, fragrance index (Least and undesirable1, Mild-2, Strong-3, Very strong-4) and shelf
life were recorded based on hedonic scale
scoring as per Madhu1999.Physiological
parameters namely moisture content (MC),
relative water content (RWC), physiological
loss in weight (PLW). All the observations
were recorded on the 24th,48thhours after
packing. Standard procedure of Sukhatme and
Amble 1985 was adopted for statistical
scrutiny of data.
Results and Discussion
Visual flower quality parameters
Freshness index
The data presented in table 1 revealed that
among the different treatments imposed,
treating flowers with Boric acid 4%,packed in
60micron polythene and stored under70C
(C2P2) recorded the highest freshness index
(98.75, 87.74%) on the, 24th,48th hours after
treatment respectively. The lowest freshness
index 88.14, 55.82% respectively) was

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Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) 8(9): 1724-1732

observed in(C4P3)i.e. flowers treated with
water and packed in 40micron polythene and
Stored under room temperature.
Colour retention index
The data presented in table2 revealed that the
maximum colour retention index of flowers
was observed when the flowers subjected to
Boric acid 4% and packed in 60 micron
polythene and stored under70C (C2P2) with
the values being (100, 93.75 %).on the
24th,48th hours after treatment respectively.
The lowest colour retention index of
77.77,50.28 % respectively was observed
in(C4P3) i.e. flowers treated with water and
packed in 40micron polythene and stored
under room temperature.
Flower opening index
The lowest flower opening index (3.16,
11.25% respectively) was observed in the
treatment C2P2 i.e. Boric acid 4% and packed
in 60 micron polythene and Stored under70C.
Maximum flower opening index (10.92, 34.93
% respectively) was observed in (C4P3) i.e.
flowers treated with water and packed in 40
micron polythene and stored under room
temperature.

freshness index and colour retention index
with a longest shelf life (168.33 hours)while
flowers treated with water and packed in
40micron polythene and stored under room
temperature lost their colour, fragrance and
with a shortest shelf life (60.75hrs.).
Boric acid has been used as a mineral salt that
could increase the osmotic concentration and
pressure potential of the petal cells, thus
improving their water balance and longevity in
cut flowers as reported by Vanmeeteren,
(1989).. This might be due to treatment of
boric acid is an antisense agent. Burzo et al.,
(1998) reported that the brown colouration and
loss of fragrance might be due to the
accumulation of flavins and other phenolic
substances in flower cell vacuoles. The phenol
accumulation was also found to be minimum
with normal colour retention and fragrance in
the packed flowers than the control In
agreement with the present finding, the
potential of boric acid in prolonging the
postharvest life of flowers has been reported
earlier in jasmine by (Mukhopadhyay et
al.,1980,Binisundar, 2011, Jawaharlalet al.,
2012,Manimaranet.al, 2018) in crossandraby
Bhattacharjee, 2002,in carnationby Serrano et
al., 2006.
Flower physiological parameters

Shelf life
Moisture content
The data presented in table 4 and figure 4
revealed that the longest shelf life of flowers
(168.33 hours) was recorded in the treatment
C2P2 i.e. Boric acid 4% and packed in 60
micron polythene and Stored under70C. The
shortest shelf life (60.75 hours) was observed
in(C4P3) i.e.in flowers treated with water and
packed in 40micron polythene and Stored
under room temperature.
The results revealed jasmine flowers treated
with Boric acid 4 %, Packed in 60micron
polythene and Stored under70C had highest

The data presented in table 5and figure2
revealed that the highest moisture content of
flowers was observed when the flowers
subjected to Boric acid 4% and packed in 60
micron polythene and stored under70C (C2P2)
with the values being (82.36, 76.20%). on the
24th,48th hours after treatment respectively.
The lowest moisture content (54.88, 35.09 %
respectively was observed in (C4P3) i.e.
flowers treated with water and packed in
40micron polythene and stored under room
temperature

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Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) 8(9): 1724-1732

Table.1 Effect of chemical treatment and packaging on freshness index of Jasminum sambac
Freshness index (%)
24 hours after packing
P1
P2
P3
93.82
95.74
90.71
C1
97.99
98.75
93.42
C2
96.02
97.23
92.17
C3
95.20
92.13
88.14
C4
95.76
95.96
91.11
MEAN
SEm(±) CD(0.05)
2.90
Packing(p) 1.01
2.90
Chemical© 1.01
2.01
NS
PXC

P4
91.24
94.36
93.16
89.42
92.05

Mean
92.88
96.13
94.65
91.22
93.72

48 hours after packing
P1
P2
P3
83.57
85.99
70.09
86.25
87.74
77.02
84.28
85.00
73.14
75.14
77.77
55.82
82.31
84.13
69.02
SEm(±) CD(0.05)
0.90
2.62
0.90
2.62
1.82
5.25

P4
72.80
79.28
75.08
56.56
70.93

Mean
78.11
82.57
79.38
66.32
76.60

Table.2 Effect of chemical treatment and packaging on colour retention index of Jasminum
sambac
Colour retention index (%)
24 hours after packing
P1
P2
P3
100.00
100.00
100.00
C1
100.00
100.00
100.00
C2
100.00
100.00
100.00
C3
100.00
100.00
88.89
C4
100.00
100.00
97.22
MEAN
SEm(±) CD(0.05)
0.35
Packing(p) 0.12
0.35
Chemical© 0.12
0.24
0.71
PXC

P4
100.00
100.00
100.00
77.77
94.44

Mean
100.00
100.00
100.00
91.67
97.92

48 hours after packing
P1
P2
82.71
83.89
92.41
93.75
90.51
92.70
80.35
81.66
86.50
88.00
SEm(±) CD(0.05)
0.89
2.59
0.89
2.59
1.79
5.18

P3
74.72
80.29
76.91
50.28
70.55

P4
75.93
84.88
78.22
51.71
72.69

Mean
79.31
87.83
84.59
66.00
79.43

Table.3 Effect of chemical treatment and packaging on flower opening index of Jasminum
sambac
Flower opening index(%)
24 hours after packing
P1
P2
P3
P4
6.19
5.83
10.25
9.31
C1
4.16
3.16
9.42
8.12
C2
5.82
5.00
9.12
9.05
C3
9.15
8.75
10.92
10.15
C4
6.33
5.68
9.92
9.15
Mean
SEm(±)
CD(0.05)
Packing(p)
0.48
Chemical© 0.17
0.17
0.48
PXC

Mean
7.89
6.21
7.24
9.74
7.77

1727

48 hours after packing
P1
P2
P3
18.75
16.25
27.12
13.75
11.25
21.23
15.00
12.50
25.25
22.50
19.24
34.93
17.50
14.81
27.13
SEm(±) CD(0.05)
0.35
1.01
0.35
1.01

P4
26.10
20.75
23.75
30.94
25.38

Mean
22.05
16.74
19.12
26.90
21.20


Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) 8(9): 1724-1732

Table.4 Effect of chemical treatment and packaging on shelf life of Jasminum sambac

C1
C2
C3
C4
Mean
Packing(p)
Chemical©
PXC

P1
140..5
158.08
144.16
120.75
140.87
SEm(±)
1.10
1.10
2.21

Shelf life (hours after packing)
P2
P3
P4
148.66
68.5
73
168.33
74.16
78.75
150.33
72.75
75.5
127.83
60.75
65.66
148.78
69.04
73.22
CD(0.05)
3.20
3.20
6.40

Mean
107.67
119.83
110.69
93.75
107.98

Table.5 Effect of chemical treatment and packaging on moisture content of Jasminum sambac

24hours after packing
P1
P2
75.75
78.68
C1
80.15
82.36
C2
78.02
80.14
C3
74.02
75.05
C4
76.99
79.06
Mean
SEm(±) CD0.05
0.90
Packing(p) 0.31
0.90
Chemical© 0.31
0.62
1.80
PXC

P3
58.17
63.07
62.15
54.88
59.57

Moisture content(%)
48hours after packing
P4
Mean P1
P2
P3
60.62
68.31
72.85
74.34
54.79
67.56
73.29
75.18
76.20
58.52
63.47
70.95
74.38
75.49
55.17
55.96
64.98
57.06
58.75
35.09
61.90
69.38
69.86
71.19
50.89
SEm(±) CD0.05
0.30
0.87
0.30
0.87
0.60
1.74

P4
55.87
59.68
56.15
36.65
52.08

Mean
64.46
67.39
65.29
46.88
61.01

Table.6 Effect of chemical treatment and packaging on Relative water contentJasminum sambac
Relative water content(%)
24 hours after packing
48 hours after packing
P1
P2
P3
P4
Mean
P1
P2
P3
89.03
90.86
83.19 85.08 87.04
85.08
86.37
61.17
C1
91.82
93.40
89.52 90.73 91.37
87.27
89.35
77.74
C2
90.81
91.26
87.74 88.26 89.52
86.23
88.47
64.44
C3
85.06
87.27
81.15 84.64 84.53
78.94
80.05
49.82
C4
89.18
90.70
85.40 87.18 88.11
84.38
86.06
63.29
Mean
SEm(±) CD(0.05)
SEm(±) CD(0.05)
2.4
0.70
2.03
Packing(p) 0.83
2.4
0.70
2.03
Chemical© 0.83
1.66
NS
1.41
4.06
PXC
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P4
62.31
79.65
65.32
51.69
64.74

Mean
73.73
83.50
76.12
65.13
74.62


Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) 8(9): 1724-1732

Table.7 Effect of chemical treatment and packaging on physiological weight loss percent of
Jasminum sambac
PLW (%)

C1
C2
C3
C4
MEAN
packing(p)
chemical©
PXC

P1
1.22
0.18
0.23
1.29
0.73
SEm(±)
0.03
0.03
0.061

24 HOURS
P2
P3
0.21
2.47
0.12
0.85
0.14
2.41
0.27
2.78
0.19
2.09
CD0.05
0.08
0.08
0.17

P4
2.23
0.65
1.71
2.62
1.84

MEAN
1.53
0.45
1.12
1.74
1.21

P1
1.65
1.24
1.43
2.09
1.60
SEm(±)
0.04
0.04
0.08

P2
0.77
0.48
0.52
0.88
0.66
CD0.05
0.12
0.12
0.246

48 HOURS
P3
6.01
3.33
3.75
7.08
5.04

Fig.1 Effect of chemical treatment and packaging on shelf life ofJasminumsambac

N.B C1: Sucrose 4%,C2: Boric acid 4% C3: NAA 100ppm C4: Water
P1:Packed in 40micron polythene bags and Stored under70C
P2:Packed in 60micron polythene bags and Stored under70C
P3:Packed in 40micron polythene bags and Stored under room temperature
P4: Packed in 60 micron polythene bags and Stored under room temperature

1729

P4
5.00
2.26
2.70
6.00
3.99

MEAN
3.36
1.83
2.10
4.01
2.82


Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) 8(9): 1724-1732

Fig.2 Effect of chemical treatment and packaging on moisture content (%)
of Jasminum sambac

N.B C1: Sucrose 4%,C2: Boric acid 4% C3: NAA 100ppm C4: Water
P1:Packed in 40micron polythene bags and Stored under70C
P2:Packed in 60micron polythene bags and Stored under70C
P3:Packed in 40micron polythene bags and Stored under room temperature
P4:Packed in 60 micron polythene bags and Stored under room temperature
respectively.

Relative water content
From table 6it is clear that the Relative water
content was highest when the flowers
subjected to Boric acid 4% and packed in 60
micron polythene and stored under70C (C2P2)
with the values being (93.40%, 89.35%). on
the 24th,48th hours after treatment respectively.
The lowest relative water content(81.15, 49.82
% respectively was observed in (C4P3) i.e.
flowers treated with water and packed in
40micron polythene and stored under room
temperature
Physiological loss in weight
The lowest physiological weight loss percent
(0.12 %, 0.48 % respectively) was observed in
the treatment C2P2 i.e. Boric acid 4% and
packed in 60 micron polythene and Stored
under70C.on the 24th,48th hours after treatment

The highest physiological weight loss percent
(2.78 %, 7.08% respectively) was observed in
(C4P3) i.e. flowers treated with water and
packed in 40 micron polythene and stored
under room temperature.
Physiological loss in weight (PLW), moisture
content, relative water content (RWC) of
flowers are traits inter-related to each other.
Increased PLW leads to decline in fresh
weight of flowers, which expresses visually as
symptoms of wilting of flowers, as reported in
carnation (Nichols, 1966) and Rosa
damascena (Sharma, 1981). Relative water
content of flowers manifests water status of
petals. It is obvious that when moisture
content is higher and weight loss is lower,
relative water content stays high. Similar

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Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2019) 8(9): 1724-1732

evidence has been reported in gladiolus,
wherein a decrease in RWC of petals caused
the dehydration of tissues and in turn wilting,
as reported by ZahedHossain et al., 2006. This
might be due to maintenance of optimum
humidity temperature and proper balance of
CO2 and O2 concentration under refrigerated
condition which in turns slows down the
process of respiration and evapo transpiration
and ultimately reduced the PLW.The results
are in close agreement with the findings of
Nirmala
and
Venkatesh
Reddy
(1993)andYathindra et.al(2018).
From the present investigation, it may be
concluded that for long term storage of J.
sambac flowers, a packaging technology of
treatment with 4% boric acid + packing 60
micron polythene bags with no ventilation
0

andstored under 7 c proved effective with a
high freshness index, colour retention index,
high moisture content and low physiological
loss in weighFlowers in this package can be
kept fresh for a longer period with a shelf life
of 168.33hours.
Acknowledgement
The authors wish to thanks Research guide
and Head, Department of floriculture and
landscaping, College of Agriculture, Odisha
University of Agriculture and Technology,
Bhubaneswar for providing necessary facility
in conducing the experiment.
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How to cite this article:
Sushree Choudhury, Jatindra Nath Das, Chitta Ranjan Mohanty, Arun Kumar.Das and Bijaya
Kumar Mishra 2019. Packaging Technology for Extending Shelf Life of Jasmine (Jasminum
sambac CV. Gundumalli) Flowers. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 8(09): 1724-1732.
doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2019.809.199

1732



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