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Nghiên cứu xuất khẩu hàng công nghệ cao của việt nam tt tiếng anh

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INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
In recent years, along with the vigorous integration into the
world economy and remarkable increase in foreign investment
attraction, Vietnam's export structure has witnessed significant
changes. The proportion of high-tech products in the total export
value of goods rose sharply from less than 10% in the period 20002009 to over 35% in 2017... As a result, the share of Vietnam's hightech exports in the world has grown noticeably. However, Vietnam's
export of high-tech products in the past years still has several
limitations, such as being heavily dependent on FDI enterprises,
focusing on only few items like electricity, electronics, and
telecommunication equipment. exporting to some major markets is
not corresponding to the national potentials and advantages as well as
poor diversification of export markets for high-tech products ...
Therefore, analyzing the current situation of Vietnam's hightech goods export development, based on which appropriate
proposals could be recommended for further enhancement, is truly a
strategic and meaningful task both theoretical and practically.
Stemming from the above reasons, the author chooses the thesis topic
"Research on high technology exports of Vietnam" with the hope of
contributing to promoting the quality as well as the competitiveness
of Vietnam's high-tech products.

2. Research objectives
2.1. General objectives
The thesis presents an analysis of the current situation of
Vietnam’s high-tech exports; accordingly, relevant solutions are
proposed in order to improve the export quality and foster integration
into global value chain to better exploit the national competitiveness.
2.2. Specific objectives
- The thesis contributes to systematize and clarify theories on
the export of high-tech goods; drawing experience lessons in
exporting high-tech products from some countries in the world.
- The thesis assesses the current situation of Vietnam's hightech export in the period of 2000-2017 and identifies the influential
factors affecting the export of Vietnam's high-tech goods.
- The thesis proposes the orientation and solutions for
developing Vietnam's high-tech export.
3. Research object
The objects of the thesis are the theoretical and practical issues
about Vietnam's high-tech export.


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4. Research scope
In terms of space: The thesis focuses on examining the export
of Vietnam’s high-tech goods compared to that of some ASEAN
countries as well as different regions in the world.
In terms of time: The project focuses on researching and
collecting data related to Vietnam's high-tech export in the period
2000-2017.
In terms of content: The thesis focuses on investigating the
rationale, current performance and development status of
Vietnam's high-tech export in manufactured goods which are
products of the second sector of the economy. (first sector: raw
products; third sector: services). This is also a major section for
creating high-tech products.
5. Contribution
Firstly, the thesis contributes to systematize and elucidate the
theoretical and practical basis for the export of high-tech goods
Secondly, with such a sophisticated process of data collection
over an 18-year period (2000-2017), the thesis is one of the scientific
works with profound and comprehensive research on the export of
Vietnam’s high-tech products.


Thirdly, the thesis has clarified a number of factors affecting
Vietnam's exports of high-tech products, including two new
elements, namely intellectual and institutional property rights, which
have not been used in previous studies in Vietnam.
Fourthly, based on the analysis of the current situation of
high-tech exports, the thesis proposes specific solutions to boost the
export of Vietnam’s high-tech products up to the year 2025, with
orientation to 2030.


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Chapter 1
OVERVIEW OF HIGH-TECH EXPORTS
1.1. Overseas studies on high-tech exports
Over the years, there have been many researches related to
exporting high-tech goods done overseas such as those by Lucas
(1998), Schneider (2005), Balay (2005), Srholec (2007), Ferragina
and Pastore (2007), Tebaldi (2011), Kilavuz and Altaytopcu (2012),
Xing (2012), Sandu and Ciocanel (2014). Focus research topics often
include: types of high-tech goods, characteristics of high-tech
exports, the role of high-tech exports towards the economy, process
of promoting high-tech exports of a country or a group of countries,
commercial exchange among countries on high-tech goods, the
relationship between R&D, innovation and FDI in high-tech exports,
factors affecting the export of high-tech goods ....
1.2. Studies on high-tech exports in Vietnam
In Vietnam, there are a number of different studies on the
export of goods in general and that of specific items in particular.
However, there have not been many research works on high-tech
exports in Vietnam so far.
1.3. Research gap
First, there are still few researches which clarifies the
development of high-tech exports both in width and depth. Besides,
there have not been many studies employing the latest and most
updated data on the export of high-tech products.
Second, one of the factors that has not been studied much in
previous studies is the assessment of the competitiveness of hightech goods.
Third, the factors affecting the export of high-tech goods have
not been clearly defined.
Fourth, there have not been many studies on the protection of
intellectual property rights affecting the export of high-tech goods.
Fifth, the institutional element, which is also considered to be
an important factor affecting the export of high-tech goods, has not
been sharply examined in previous studies.
Sixth, it can be said that there have not been many specific


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and comprehensive studies on the development of Vietnam's hi tech exports.
Chapter 2
THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL BASIS ON HIGH-TECH
EXPORTS
2.1. Theories on high-tech exports
2.1.1. Related concepts
a. Export: Export is the business of goods and services out of
the territory of a country and includes organized trading relations
both inside and outside the territory for profit purposes, boosting the
production of goods, economic restructure, stability and gradual
improvement of the people’s living standards.
b. High-tech: High-tech can be understood as: the technology
integrated from advanced scientific and technological achievements;
creation of products with outstanding features, high quality and
added value; being capable of forming new manufacturing and
service industries; strong impact on the development of many
branches, economic, social, defense and security sectors; intensive
requirements for costs and highly qualified human resources for
research and development.
c. High-tech products: are new products, with superior quality
and features, high scientific content and added value, produced by
high technology applications.
2.1.2. Role of exports
a. Towards the economy
Export is an activity aimed at exploiting the national
advantages.
Export imposes a strong impact on the economic structure of
the whole economy, contributing to economic growth as well as
affecting the industry structure making the most effective use of
relative and absolute advantages of the country.
Export plays an important role in promoting related industries.
Another important role of export is to increase foreign
exchange reserves.
Export contributes to addressing employment, improving
people's living standards and reducing poverty reduction.


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Export stimulates the innovation of equipment and production
technology.
Exports help expand and deepen the external relations with
other countries in the world
b. Towards enterprises
Export is the earliest international business activity with the
lowest cost and risk. Exporting is the simplest activity in
international business. Therefore, transactions and risk expenses in
case of unstable political, economic, cultural and social environment
... will be the lowest compared to other activities.
2.1.3. Role of high-tech exports
Firstly, the export of high-tech goods plays an important role
in promoting a country's economic growth and development.
Secondly, high-tech exports promote the process of economic
restructuring
Thirdly, high-tech exports help create jobs and high incomes for
both unskilled and educated workers at manufacturing enterprises.
Fourthly, the export of high-tech products contributes to the
expansion and promotion of external economic relations while
enhancing the country's economic position on the international stage.
Fifth, high-tech exports contribute to improving the national
management mechanism and economic policies in line with
international laws and practices.
2.1.4. Types of high-tech products
The above-mentioned high-tech goods include 18 products,
namely electrical, electronic, telecommunication items, medical
instruments, cameras …
2.1.5. Theories on exports
It can be seen that international trade driven by the exploitation
of absolute, comparative and competitive advantages as well as the
business environment of the countries results in the trading activities
to promote the advantages of each nation.
2.1.6. Characteristics of high-tech
- High-tech exports are often the result of the process of increasing
investment in research and development.
- Export of CNC products is concentrated mainly in some
countries, including both developed and developing nations.


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- Developing countries are catching up with developed ones in
the export of high-tech goods.
- The comparative advantage of high-tech products in
developing countries has increased relatively rapidly in recent years.
- Export of high-tech goods in developing countries are under
great influence of multinational corporations through FDI.
2.1.7. Research content on high-tech exports
2.1.7.1. Size and growth rate of exports
In this part, the thesis examines the trade balance for high-tech
goods to see whether there is a trade surplus or deficit of high-tech goods
in Vietnam.
2.1.7.2. Export market expansion
The goal of expanding the relations for high-tech exports is to
diversify export markets; consolidating and fostering the market
share of Vietnamese goods in traditional markets; create a
breakthrough to expand new potential export markets.
2.1.7.3. Exports restructure
Restructuring the export structure of high-tech goods is also of
great importance which reveals the change in the relevant
manufacturing industry.
2.1.7.4. Competitiveness in high-tech exports
Improving product competitiveness is one of the crucial factors
in order to expand the export market and increase the scale for hightech goods.
2.1.8. Factors affecting high-tech exports
* Size of the exporting country’s economy
* Size of the importing country's economy
* Available resources in the field of science and technology
* Investment in research and development (R&D)
* Inflation
* Infrastructure for export activities
* Export incentive/ management policy
* Distance between two countries
* The openness of the exporting country’s economy
* International and regional economic links


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* Foreign direct investment
2.2. Practical basis of high-tech exports
2.2.1. Experience Lessons of high-tech exports from some
countries in the world
2.2.1.1. Lesson by Japan
2.2.1.2. Lesson by China
2.2.1.3. Lesson by South Korea
2.2.2. Lessons drawn for Vietnam’s high-tech exports
Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLODY
3.1. Research questions
1. What are the main contents of research on high-tech exports?
2. How was Vietnam's high-tech exports in the past time?
Specifically: What were the outstanding features of Vietnam's hightech exports in the 2000-2017 period? What were the major
constraints of Vietnam's high-tech exports?
3. What factors affect the export of Vietnam's high-tech goods?
4. What are the key solutions to promote the development of
Vietnam's high-tech exports?
3.2. Research Method
3.2.1. Research approach and Analytical framework
3.2.1.1. Research approach
a. Systematic approach: This approach is used in assessing
internal and external factors that have an impact on Vietnam's hightech exports.
b. Interdisciplinary approach: Based on the limitations and
weaknesses in the inter-sectoral linkages, appropriate solutions are
proposed.
c. Typical Case study (direct study of specific products)
With the research content focusing on some of Vietnam's
major high-tech products, the corresponding approach of the thesis is
the typical case study (on some high-value export products).
3.2.1.2. Analytical framework


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a. Analytical framework
Size and speed of export
development

Factors affecting
product supply

Export markets

Vietnam’s hightech exports

Factors affecting
product demand

Restructuring of exports

Competitiveness in hightech exports

Favorable and
Unfavorable Factors
affecting export

Solutions for fostering
Vietnam’s export of
high-tech goods

Policies on high-tech
export developments

b. Research model analytical framework
As shown in Figure 3.1, factors affecting international trade
flows are divided into three main categories, namely: factors
affecting supply, factors affecting demand, and attracting/ hindering
factors… Factors affecting supply are those that represent the
production capacity of the exporting country such as GDP and
population.
Push

Border of
exporting
country

Border of
importing
country

Importing
country

Exporting
country

Capacity of
exporting
country

Export
promotion/
management
policy

Factors affecting
supply

Pull

Distance
between 2
countries

Attracting/ Hindering
factors

Export
promotion/
management
policy

Purchasing
power of
importing
country

Factors affecting
demand

Factors affecting international trade flows

Figure 3.1: Gravity model in International trade


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Source: Đào Ngọc Tiến (2009)
Based on the literature review on previous research models
combined with theoretical analysis of the factors affecting high-tech
exports as well as the actual conditions of our country, the thesis
formulates an analytical framework examining factors affecting
Vietnam's high-tech exports. Details are shown in Figure 3.2 below:

Figure 3.2: Analytical framework of factors affecting Vietnam’s
high-tech exports
Source: Author’s synthesis
: Direct impact
: Indirect impact
3.2.2. Data Collection Method
The thesis collects secondary data to obtain assessments on the
status of Vietnam's high-tech exports. Data were collected from
various sources such as General Statistics Office, General
Department of Customs, World Bank (WB), International Monetary
Fund (IMF), United Nations …
3.2.3. Data synthesis method:
3.2.3.1. Tables, statistical graphs
3.2.3.2. Statistical classification
3.2.4. Data analysis method
3.2.4.1. Descriptive statistics


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3.2.4.2. Comparative statistical
3.2.4.3. Augmented gravity model
3.2.4.4. Analysis of constant market share
3.3. Research criteria
Indicators reflecting the market share of exports and imports
Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) index
Regional Orientation Index (ROI)
Trade Intensity Index (TII)

Chapter 4 CURRENT SITUATION OF VIETNAM’S HIGHTECH EXPORTS
4.1. Situation of Vietnam’s exports
4.1.1. International economic integration process of Vietnam
Vietnam's economic relations with other countries and
international organizations have been increasingly expanded and
developed. So far, Vietnam has established diplomatic relations with
185 countries and territories, promoting trade and investment
relations with 224 markets on all continents.
4.1.2. Size and growth of merchandise exports


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250000

5000

200000

0

150000

-5000

100000

-10000

50000

-15000

0

-20000
19901992199419961998200020022004200620082010201220142016

Xuất khẩu (tr US$)
Exports (mi. USD)

Nhập khẩu (tr US$)
Imports (mi. USD)

Cán cân TM (Trục phải)
Trade balance (right axis)

Figure 4.1. Trade in goods of Vietnam during 1990-2017 period
Source: World Bank, General Department of Customs and author’s caculations, 2018

4.1.3. Export markets
120000

80000

East
ĐôngAsia
Á- –
Pacific
TBD
Europe
Châu Âu và&
Middle
TrungAsia
Á

60000

Latin
America
Mỹ La
tinh
&và
Caribe
Caribe

40000

Middle
Trung Asia
Á và &
North Africa
Bắc Phi
North America

20000

South Asia

100000

Bắc Mỹ
Nam Á

0

2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000

Sub-Saharan
Africa
Châu Phi

Hạ Sahara

Figure 4.2. Export value of Vietnam to other regions in the world
during 2000-2017 period
Source: World Bank, 2019


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The process of international economic integration,
multilateralization and promotion of comparative advantages have
gained Vietnam trade relations with 224 countries and territories in
all continents worldwide. Total export value to East Asia and the
Pacific reached over USD 100 billion in 2017, accounting for nearly
47% of Vietnam's total exports. Next come North American countries
with 21% of total exports in 2017.
Table 4.4. Vietnam’s export turnover of goods by foreign trade
standards SITC during 2000-2017 period
Unit: million USD
Goods categorized by SITC
Total export value

2000

2005

2010

2011

2013

2015

2017

14482,7 32447,1 72236,7 96905,7 132032,9 162016,7 214019,1

TTTT
BQ (%)
17,17

1. Raw or semi-processed
8078,8 16100,7 25187,5 33736,7
products

33782,6

30299,3 34967,6

9,00

- Food & live animals

18561,2

20339,5 25036,7

11,76

- Beverages & Cigarettes

3779,5

6345,7 13432,5 17442,9

18,8

150,0

301,3

358,0

538,1

568,4

473,2

20,89

384,0

1229,1

3373,8

4716,1

4742,3

4108,2

5178,0

16,54

- Fuels, lubricants and related
3824,7
materials

8358,0

7979,7 11007,8

9685,2

4995,8

4119,6

0,44

255,8

287,4

160,1

4,83

98172,4 131710,7 179043,2

21,65

- Raw materials not for
eating, except for fuels

- Oil, fats, animal & plant waxes

71,8

17,9

100,2

211,9

2. Processed or refined products 6397,5 16341,0 47012,5 63106,1
- Chemicals and related products

158,5

536,0

- Processed goods classified
by raw materials

911,1

2165,4

4478,3

21,72

13844,2

17057,5 22191,3

20,66

3145,1 11476,1 18834,9

43027,1

60563,8 89465,9

28,40

4051,9 10494,5 25168,9 30520,9

37469,5

49991,1 62907,7

17,51

- Machines, vehicles and
1276,0
other spare parts
- Processed goods
3. Other goods

6,4

5,4

1881,9

2875,7

3831,6

8485,6 10874,6

36,7

62,9

77,9

4098,3

6,7

8,3

1,54

Source: General Statistics Office, 2019
4.1.4. Structure of exporting products
In terms of exporting products, there has been a dramatic
change in the structure of Vietnam's exports in the past two
decades, in which raw or preliminary processed goods have
sharply decreased from the proportion of 55.8% of total export
turnover in 2000 to 16.3% in 2017.


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Table 4.5. 10 product groups with the highest export turnover
of Vietnam in the period from 2016 to 2017
Unit: Billion US$
Index
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Product group

2016

2017

Cell phones of all kinds and components
34,32 45,27
Textiles
23,82 26,04
Computers, electronic products and components 18,96 25,94
Footwear products
13,00 14,65
Machinery, equipment, tools and other spare parts
10,11 12,77
Seafood products
7,05
8,32
Wood and wood products
6,96
7,66
Means of transport and spare parts
6,06
6,99
Cameras, camcorders and components
2,96
3,8
Fibers and yarns of all kinds
2,93
3,59
Total
126,17 155,03

Compare
2017 with
2016 (%)
31,91
9,32
36,81
12,69
26,31
18,01
10,06
15,35
28,38
22,53
22,87

Source: Ministry of Industry and Trade, 2018
In terms of growth, the group of computers, electronic products
and components has the strongest growth with a continuous growth of
36.8% with an export turnover of nearly US $ 26 billion., being
asymptotic with textile and garment groups with 26.04 billion US $. In
addition, the group of cameras, camcorders and components also saw a
strong increase with the continuous growth rate reached about 28.4% in
the period of 2016-2017.
4.2. Current situation of Vietnam's export of high-tech products
4.2.1. The scale and growth rate of export of high-tech products
In general, we can see the strong growth in exports of high-tech
products of Vietnam in the period of 2005-2017. However, Vietnam's
exports of high-tech products also focus on a number of key products. Some
products such as 524, 712 and 718 have very low export value in the 20052017 period, just under US $ 15 million. The remaining products have an
average growth rate of over 100% / year (positive growth) for the whole
research period. Some product codes such as 751, 764, 774, 792, 871 have
very high average annual growth rate (over 50% / year) showing that with
these products, Vietnam has met the needs of the import markets.
4.2.2. Export markets of high-tech products
Vietnam's export markets of high-tech goods are expanding
in the direction of diversification in different continents. In the early
2000s, hi-tech exports were mainly in countries in the East Asia-


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Pacific region, especially in Southeast Asia. Exports to East Asia Pacific accounted for 83% of the total value of high-tech exports in
2000, of which ASEAN accounted for nearly 65%. However, along
with the rise of export turnover of high-tech products, there has
been a significant change in export markets.
Vietnam's export market share of high-tech products in
comparison with the world tends to increase significantly in the
period 2000-2017. Comparing the average growth rate of Vietnam's
export turnover of high-tech products to the world (Vietnam's
growth is 31.13%, while the world growth is 5.79%) showing the
speed of Vietnam's export growth rate of high-tech products is
many times higher than the growth rate of the world.
Statistics of 15 countries and territories, which were Vietnam's
largest import market of high-tech products in 2017, show that these 15
countries all have a value of Vietnam's imports of high-tech products
of over US $ 1.3 billion. Most of Vietnam's top 15 importers of hightech products grew over 35% during this period, with the exception of
Japan and Thailand. In the early 2000s, Japan was the largest importer
of high-tech products from Vietnam (US $ 317 million in 2005, the
highest among the 15 countries in Table 4.12).
4.2.3. Export structure of high-tech products
Table 4.22. Vietnam's exports by technology level in the period of
2000-2017
Proportion (%)
Product Groups
I. Raw products
II. Processed products
1. Natural-resources-based products
- Agriculture
- Mineral
2. Low-tech products
- Fabrics, clothes, footwears
- Other products
3. Medium-tech products
- Automobiles
- Processed products
- Mechanical products
4. High-tech products
- Electronics and electricity
- Other products
Total

2000

2010

2013

2015

2017

51,73 30,12 21,15 15,07 14,02
48,27 69,88 78,85 84,93 85,98
6,72
8,92
8,17
7,57
6,42
3,30
4,81
4,50
4,45
3,71
3,43
4,12
3,67
3,12
2,70
31,15 41,01 32,84 35,11 31,88
26,58 26,96 24,25 26,39 23,45
4,57 14,05
8,58
8,72
8,43
4,60
9,23
9,94
9,65
9,79
0,53
0,95
1,19
1,15
1,06
1,12
2,76
3,11
2,47
2,20
2,95
5,53
5,64
6,02
6,53
5,80 10,71 27,90 32,60 37,90
5,48
9,87 26,45 30,87 34,81
0,31
0,84
1,45
1,73
3,09
100,00 100,00 100,00 100,00 100,00

Average
proportion
2000-2017
(%)
8,74
21,47
17,09
18,23
15,79
17,57
16,55
21,71
22,75
22,32
22,14
23,05
31,13
30,90
34,34
17,41

Source: Author calculates from database of World Bank, 2019


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To assess Vietnam's export structure in some major markets,
Vietnam's export classification by technology level was also
calculated for 6 countries and groups of countries (from Table 4.23
to Table 4.28). The research results show that there is a relative
difference between the importing countries of Vietnam. While most
countries such as the United States, Japan, South Korea, China and
ASEAN all reduced their share of imports of raw products during
2000-2017, Germany kept the same share of imports of raw
products from Vietnam and even more, there was a slight increase.
This is also the country with the average export growth rate of raw
products reaching a high level (14.04%) (Table 4.24). However, for
the high-tech product group, all 6 research markets have shown a
sharp increase in the proportion of total value of imported products
from Vietnam such as the United States increased from 0.58% to
21.14 %; Germany increased sharply from 1.25% to 37.21%; South
Korea increased from 6.2% to 41.98%; especially China increased
dramatically from 0.32% to 46.78% (annual average speed reached
61.45%), while in Japan and ASEAN markets, the growth rate was
not as strong as that of ASEAN's growth rate. The annual average
for high-tech is 16.44%. High-tech products export to the countries
are mainly electrical and electronic products.
4.2.4. The competitiveness of high-tech products
Currently, Vietnam's high-tech products exports have begun to
gain a foothold in the world market. Some high-tech products such as
mobile phones, computers, electronics and components, etc. of
Vietnam have been present in many countries in the region and
around the world. In order to assess the competitiveness of Vietnam's
high products, the author of this thesis uses the calculation results of
the Revealed Comparative Advantages index (RCA) as an
assessment tool. Calculation results show that: in 18 codes of
products of Vietnam's high-tech products group, in 2016, there were
8 codes (codes: 716, 751, 752, 761, 764, 771 776 and 881) have
comparative advantages with RCA index> 1.
To evaluate the comparative advantage of Vietnam's exported
high-tech products, the thesis has calculated the comparative advantage
index of high-tech products of Vietnam and 9 other countries. The
calculation results show that Vietnam and other countries such as
Thailand, China, Mexico and Philippines have relatively similar


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comparative advantage indexes, that is, these countries compete with
each other. For high-tech products in the world market, especially the
product code 752 with 7/10 countries has a comparative advantage.
Thus, it can be seen that, although there is a comparative advantage in
some key products, Vietnam is also facing fierce competition from
regional countries, especially Thailand and China.
In order to assess the competitiveness of each high-tech
product, the thesis uses the "Constant Market Share Model"
(CMS) to evaluate the fluctuation of Vietnam's exports of hightech products. This model assesses the degree of change in the
export value of high-tech products depending on three factors: the
market demand of the products itself (demand effect); growth of
the whole consumer market (structural impact) and
competitiveness of goods exported from Vietnam (Nguyen Bich
Thuy, 2015). On the basis of using data collected in the period of
2002-2017, Table 4.32, Table 4.33 and Table 4.34 present the
results of the analysis of the CMS model on the factors affecting
Vietnam's exports of high-tech products in the 3 periods: 20022009, 2010-2017 and 2002-2017.
Table 4.32. Competitiveness in Vietnam's export of CNC
products in the period of 2002-2009
Code
524
541
712
716
718
751
752
759
761
764
771
774
776
778
792
871
874
881

Increase / decrease in
Demand impact
exports (US $
(million US $)
million)
11,92
0,19
37,65
9,39
0,38
0,00
424,76
60,63
1,63
0,11
1208,88
0,35
78,18
16,47
133,71
282,56
7,55
52,21
995,86
91,37
257,41
39,11
21,06
1,05
207,69
14,88
280,58
51,03
11,83
3,16
1,72
0,09
59,17
11,75
391,06
15,13

Structural impact
(million US $)

Competitiveness
(million US $)

0,10
6,78
0,00
24,17
0,08
0,74
-9,11
-249,89
38,78
-19,69
11,61
0,07
-7,23
-14,26
-2,67
0,41
-3,11
-24,75

11,63
21,47
0,38
339,96
1,45
1207,80
70,82
101,04
-83,44
924,18
206,69
19,94
200,04
243,81
11,35
1,22
50,54
400,67

Source: Author calculates from figures of the World Bank (2019)


17
In the period 2002-2009, the demand impact for all high-tech
products exported to the markets was positive. This means that the
growth of Vietnam's exports of high-tech products was first due to the
growth in demand for high-tech products in the world. Some high-tech
products have a strong increase in demand such as 759 and 761 product
groups. These are products with export growth mainly due to the
increase in world demand. On the other hand, Vietnam's export of hightech products in this period generally had a stronger growth than the
world growth, reflecting the high level of competitiveness of high-tech
products. In addition to the product 761 that has a low level of
competitiveness, other products all show very high level of export
competitiveness such as products 716, 751, 764, 776, 881.
Table 4.33. Competitiveness in Vietnam's export of high-tech
products in the period of 2010-2017
Code
524
541
712
716
718
751
752
759
761
764
771
774
776
778
792
871
874
881

Increase /
Structural
decrease in
Demand impact
Competitiveness
impact
exports (US $
(million US $)
(million US $)
(million US $)
million)
3,2
1,0
-5,0
7,2
106,9
8,4
3,2
95,3
-0,2
0,1
-0,2
-0,1
462,4
111,3
-32,9
383,9
9,3
0,2
-0,4
9,5
1247,1
251,9
-1368,4
2363,5
3390,5
29,2
15,9
3345,3
548,7
53,4
274,3
220,9
2155,0
6,8
-23,9
2172,1
48613,0
414,0
155,5
48043,5
825,1
65,8
20,8
738,5
110,8
0,9
0,0
109,9
8860,0
75,3
240,9
8543,9
1398,4
81,1
171,5
1145,8
374,0
3,2
7,0
363,7
3059,8
2,7
5,9
3051,2
395,6
13,3
19,8
362,5
2095,1
63,8
256,3
1774,9

Source: Author calculates from figures of the World Bank (2019
The period of 2010-2017 shows a strong growth in Vietnam's
exports of high-tech products, focusing on a number of items such as 764,
776, 752, and 871. The strong growth in this period is still mainly
explained by the improvement in product competitiveness, while the
demand for products and the structural impact generally have little impact


18
on the growth of Vietnam's high-tech products exports. In addition,
compared to the period 2002-2009, products 761 and 759 also had a
higher level of product competitiveness, of which product 761 had an
increase in exports almost entirely due to the increase in its
competitiveness ability (Table 4.33). Thus, it can be said that the
competitive level of Vietnam's export of high-tech products tends to
increase in recent years.
Table 4.34. Competitiveness in Vietnam's export of high-tech
products in the period of 2002-2017
Code
524
541
712
716
718
751
752
759
761
764
771
774
776
778
792
871
874
881

Increase/
Structural
Demand impact
Competitiveness
decrease in exports
impact
(million US $)
(million US $)
(US $ million)
(million US $)
9,7
0,3
-0,3
9,7
151,1
17,5
5,8
127,7
0,1
0,0
0,0
0,1
1118,5
113,2
5,1
1000,2
10,5
0,2
0,0
10,4
2881,9
0,7
-0,5
2881,8
3561,9
30,8
-10,7
3541,8
585,4
527,8
-82,3
139,9
2141,7
97,5
-48,1
2092,3
51200,6
170,7
-28,1
51058,0
1209,6
73,1
22,4
1114,1
115,6
2,0
-0,2
113,9
9332,6
27,8
9,3
9295,6
1869,2
95,3
20,3
1753,5
391,3
5,9
-2,9
388,3
3077,1
0,2
0,9
3076,0
468,9
21,9
1,9
445,1
2492,9
28,3
-32,8
2497,4

Source: Author calculates from figures of the World Bank (2019)
Thus, Vietnam's export growth of high-tech products during
2002-2017 has achieved important results. Major high-tech
products with strong export growth in recent years include 764,
776,752, 871, 881 and 751. This shows that the export growth rate
of high-tech products for these products is much higher than the
average export growth rate of similar products in the world.


19
4.3. Factors affecting Vietnam's export of high-tech products
Regression results using OLS, FEM and REM estimation
methods with 648 observations are shown in Table 4.35.
Table 4.36. The REM model of the impact of factors on the export
value of high-tech products of Vietnam
Independent variables
Intercept
Ln(PGDPit*PGDPjt)
Ln(IPRit*IPRjt)
LnERit
LnINFit
LnDISijt
LnEDISijt
LnINSit
FTAijt
BORij
2

Adjusted R square ( R )
F-statistics (F)

Estimated REM
Regression
t-Test
coefficient
-51,915
-10,08***
0,418
1,49
1,973
1,73*
11,115
8,73***
-0,612
-5,04***
-0,977
-3,65***
0,212
2,08**
-0,528
-0,39
0,453
2,96***
0,785
3,45***
0,465
507,6

Note: *, **, ***: Corresponds to significance level less than 10%, 5%, 1%;
Values in parentheses ( ) is the z-test.

Source: Summary of the author from Stata software
From the results of the gravity model, there are 8 factors affecting
Vietnam's exports of high-tech products, namely Vietnam's GDP and
importing countries, intellectual property rights index of Vietnam and
importing countries, exchange rates, inflation, geographical distance
between Vietnam and the importing countries, economic gap between
the two countries, dummy variables for borders and members of FTAs.
The results of the analysis have shown the positive factors, the negative
factors and the results also show that the trend of the factors is quite
consistent with the expectations that the hypotheses have made.
4.4. Evaluation of Vietnam's high-tech products export
4.4.1. Advantages
4.4.2. Disadvantages
- Vietnam's export of products in general and the export of hightech products in particular mainly depend on foreign-invested enterprises
(the proportion accounts for 71.5% of the total export value).


20
- The export of high-tech products in recent years has focused
on a number of main items, including electrical and electronic
products.
- Export of high-tech products to some major markets such as
EU27, the USA, and Japan is still low compared with the potential
and export capacity.
- High-tech exports are relatively dependent on a number of
markets such as China, the United States, and South Korea ... In these
three countries alone, the high-tech exports account for 38.8% of
Vietnam's total high-tech export value in 2017.
- Although the export of high-tech products has increased in
comparative advantage (RCA index) in the period of 2000-2017, among
the studied high-tech products, up to 11/18 products did not have the
comparative advantage.
- Trade diversion may occur in some markets for some
products.
- Although the Products 716, 761, 776, 871, and 881 have
comparative advantages, they currently have not been oriented to
export to EU27 (RO factor <1).
- The influence of demand and structure in the market share
model has been constant on exports of high-tech products in
recent years.
4.4.3. Reasons
- The export structure of high-tech products only focuses on a
number of products that FDI enterprises have invested heavily such
as electrical products, electronics and telecommunications ...
- Although Vietnam's export of high-tech products has
developed well in recent years due to focusing on a few types of
products, it has not met the requirements of some markets.
- Despite participating in the global value chain of goods
production, the level of participation in Vietnam is still low and only
focuses on a few products. The reception of new technology transfer
and advancing to higher levels of the global value chain are still
limited and heavily dependent on FDI enterprises.
- Vietnam's exports of high-tech products also face fierce
competition in regional and international markets, demonstrating that
many high-tech products have not had a comparative advantage,
especially with countries like Thailand, China, Indonesia ...


21
CHAPTER 5
RECOMMENDATION OF DEVELOPING
THE EXPORT OF HIGH-TECH PRODUCTS IN VIETNAM
5.1. Perspective, orientation
5.1.1. Perspective
5.1.2. Orientation
5.2. Some solutions to boost the export of high-tech products
of Vietnam
5.2.1. Group of solutions on policies and mechanisms for the
export of high-tech goods
5.2.1.1. Institutional improvement
5.2.1.2. Solutions to enhance the ability to meet the regulations of
importing countries
5.2.1.3. Recommendations to take advantage of opportunities from
commitments of new generation free trade agreements
5.2.1.4. Solutions to overcome challenges from commitments of newgeneration free trade agreements
5.2.1.5. Intensify the protection of intellectual property
5.2.1.6. Solutions to complete policies to attract investment in hightech products production
5.2.1.7. Promote investment in research and development
5.2.1.8. The exchange rate policy must be continuously improved and
adjusted to adapt to domestic and international environment.
5.2.2. Group of solutions on implementation
5.2.2.1. Strengthen market research
5.2.2.2. Solutions for market development, taking advantage of
preferences gained from free trade agreements
5.2.2.3. Solutions to improve product quality, promote comparative
advantages of high-tech products
5.2.3. Group of solutions on supporting the export of high-tech
products
5.2.3.1. Solution of investment in developing infrastructure serving
high-tech products production
5.2.3.2. Solutions for investment in developing high quality human
resources


22
CONCLUSION
The thesis focuses on the current situation of Vietnam's export
of high-tech products in the period from 2000 to 2017. Based on the
research results of the thesis, the objectives of the thesis have been
resolved, namely the following main contents:
On the basis of an overview of more than 30 domestic and
foreign scientific researches related to the export and export of CNC
products, The thesis is supposed to have the academic significance
especially in practical terms because there is currently no research to
analyze the export of CNC products in Vietnam.
The thesis has systematized and clarified the theoretical basis
for high-tech products, export of high-tech products such as
clarifying 18 products that are considered high-tech products in the
field of manufacturing, clarifying 5 contents of research on exporting
high-tech products, presenting and analyzing the effects of factors on
Vietnam's high-tech products export.
The thesis has applied appropriate approaches, developed
analytical framework and clarified data collection method,
information synthesis method and data analysis method such as using
augmented gravity model and system of in-depth research indicators
such as comparative advantage index, regional orientation index,
trade concentration index, export diversification index, constant
market share model ... to analyze factors affecting the export of hightech products in Vietnam.
Based on the research results of the thesis, it can be seen that
the export of high-tech products has achieved the following main
results: The export of high-tech products increased rapidly and
sustainably with the growth rate of over 31% in the period 20002017.The structure of exports changed in the direction of focusing on


23
the export of electronics and telecommunications equipment
products. The export market of high-tech products has been expanded
and developed in the direction of exporting to developed countries
like EU, the USA, Korea, Japan ...
As a result, the share of high-tech exports has increased
sharply in the recent years, from only 0.06% of the total value of
high-tech exports of the world in 2000, the share of high-tech
exports of Vietnam has accounted for 2, 29% of the world's total
value of high-tech exports in 2017. Thanks to the sharp increase in
exports of high-tech products, Vietnam has become a country with
a trade surplus since 2012.
High-tech products have good competitiveness in the world market,
including products with an increase in competitiveness such as 752
(automatic data processing cluster), 761 (TV), 764 (Telecommunication
equipment) and 881 (Camera and equipment). However, Vietnam is also
facing stiff competition from regional countries such as Thailand and
China. In contrast, countries like India and Pakistan have no competition
with Vietnam in terms of high-tech products.
However, the export of high-tech products also has some
limitations: The export of high-tech products mainly depends on
the enterprises with foreign direct investment; Content of added
value in export value is still low; The export of high-tech products
in recent years has focused on a number of key products, without
any spreading; The export of high-tech products depends
relatively large on a number of markets such as China, the United
States, South Korea ... There are many high-tech products that do
not have the competitiveness in the world market. Trade diversion
may occur in some markets for some products.
From the results of the gravity model, there are 8 factors
affecting Vietnam's exports of CNC products, namely Vietnam's
GDP and importing countries, intellectual property rights index of


24
Vietnam and importing countries, exchange rate, inflation,
geographical distance between Vietnam and the importing
countries, economic gap between the two countries, dummy
variables on borders and members of FTAs. The results of the
analysis have shown the positive factors, the negative factors and the
results also show that the trend of the factors is quite consistent with
the expectations that the hypotheses have made.
On the basis of analyzing views and orientations, the thesis has
proposed three groups of solutions (group of solutions on policies and
mechanisms for the export of high-tech goods; group of solutions on
implementation; group of solutions on supporting the export of high-tech
products) in order to boost Vietnam's high-tech products exports to 2025,
vision to 2030, including solutions such as institutional completion,
improvement of protection of intellectual property, investment in R&D,
solutions on market expansion, improvement of product quality to
increase product competitiveness ...



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