Nghiên cứu xuất khẩu hàng công nghệ cao của việt nam tt tiếng anh
1 INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale In recent years, along with the vigorous integration into the world economy and remarkable increase in foreign investment attraction, Vietnam's export structure has witnessed significant changes. The proportion of high-tech products in the total export value of goods rose sharply from less than 10% in the period 20002009 to over 35% in 2017... As a result, the share of Vietnam's hightech exports in the world has grown noticeably. However, Vietnam's export of high-tech products in the past years still has several limitations, such as being heavily dependent on FDI enterprises, focusing on only few items like electricity, electronics, and telecommunication equipment. exporting to some major markets is not corresponding to the national potentials and advantages as well as poor diversification of export markets for high-tech products ... Therefore, analyzing the current situation of Vietnam's hightech goods export development, based on which appropriate proposals could be recommended for further enhancement, is truly a strategic and meaningful task both theoretical and practically. Stemming from the above reasons, the author chooses the thesis topic "Research on high technology exports of Vietnam" with the hope of contributing to promoting the quality as well as the competitiveness of Vietnam's high-tech products.
2. Research objectives 2.1. General objectives The thesis presents an analysis of the current situation of Vietnam’s high-tech exports; accordingly, relevant solutions are proposed in order to improve the export quality and foster integration into global value chain to better exploit the national competitiveness. 2.2. Specific objectives - The thesis contributes to systematize and clarify theories on the export of high-tech goods; drawing experience lessons in exporting high-tech products from some countries in the world. - The thesis assesses the current situation of Vietnam's hightech export in the period of 2000-2017 and identifies the influential factors affecting the export of Vietnam's high-tech goods. - The thesis proposes the orientation and solutions for developing Vietnam's high-tech export. 3. Research object The objects of the thesis are the theoretical and practical issues about Vietnam's high-tech export.
2 4. Research scope In terms of space: The thesis focuses on examining the export of Vietnam’s high-tech goods compared to that of some ASEAN countries as well as different regions in the world. In terms of time: The project focuses on researching and collecting data related to Vietnam's high-tech export in the period 2000-2017. In terms of content: The thesis focuses on investigating the rationale, current performance and development status of Vietnam's high-tech export in manufactured goods which are products of the second sector of the economy. (first sector: raw products; third sector: services). This is also a major section for creating high-tech products. 5. Contribution Firstly, the thesis contributes to systematize and elucidate the theoretical and practical basis for the export of high-tech goods Secondly, with such a sophisticated process of data collection over an 18-year period (2000-2017), the thesis is one of the scientific works with profound and comprehensive research on the export of Vietnam’s high-tech products.
Thirdly, the thesis has clarified a number of factors affecting Vietnam's exports of high-tech products, including two new elements, namely intellectual and institutional property rights, which have not been used in previous studies in Vietnam. Fourthly, based on the analysis of the current situation of high-tech exports, the thesis proposes specific solutions to boost the export of Vietnam’s high-tech products up to the year 2025, with orientation to 2030.
3 Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF HIGH-TECH EXPORTS 1.1. Overseas studies on high-tech exports Over the years, there have been many researches related to exporting high-tech goods done overseas such as those by Lucas (1998), Schneider (2005), Balay (2005), Srholec (2007), Ferragina and Pastore (2007), Tebaldi (2011), Kilavuz and Altaytopcu (2012), Xing (2012), Sandu and Ciocanel (2014). Focus research topics often include: types of high-tech goods, characteristics of high-tech exports, the role of high-tech exports towards the economy, process of promoting high-tech exports of a country or a group of countries, commercial exchange among countries on high-tech goods, the relationship between R&D, innovation and FDI in high-tech exports, factors affecting the export of high-tech goods .... 1.2. Studies on high-tech exports in Vietnam In Vietnam, there are a number of different studies on the export of goods in general and that of specific items in particular. However, there have not been many research works on high-tech exports in Vietnam so far. 1.3. Research gap First, there are still few researches which clarifies the development of high-tech exports both in width and depth. Besides, there have not been many studies employing the latest and most updated data on the export of high-tech products. Second, one of the factors that has not been studied much in previous studies is the assessment of the competitiveness of hightech goods. Third, the factors affecting the export of high-tech goods have not been clearly defined. Fourth, there have not been many studies on the protection of intellectual property rights affecting the export of high-tech goods. Fifth, the institutional element, which is also considered to be an important factor affecting the export of high-tech goods, has not been sharply examined in previous studies. Sixth, it can be said that there have not been many specific
4 and comprehensive studies on the development of Vietnam's hi tech exports. Chapter 2 THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL BASIS ON HIGH-TECH EXPORTS 2.1. Theories on high-tech exports 2.1.1. Related concepts a. Export: Export is the business of goods and services out of the territory of a country and includes organized trading relations both inside and outside the territory for profit purposes, boosting the production of goods, economic restructure, stability and gradual improvement of the people’s living standards. b. High-tech: High-tech can be understood as: the technology integrated from advanced scientific and technological achievements; creation of products with outstanding features, high quality and added value; being capable of forming new manufacturing and service industries; strong impact on the development of many branches, economic, social, defense and security sectors; intensive requirements for costs and highly qualified human resources for research and development. c. High-tech products: are new products, with superior quality and features, high scientific content and added value, produced by high technology applications. 2.1.2. Role of exports a. Towards the economy Export is an activity aimed at exploiting the national advantages. Export imposes a strong impact on the economic structure of the whole economy, contributing to economic growth as well as affecting the industry structure making the most effective use of relative and absolute advantages of the country. Export plays an important role in promoting related industries. Another important role of export is to increase foreign exchange reserves. Export contributes to addressing employment, improving people's living standards and reducing poverty reduction.
5 Export stimulates the innovation of equipment and production technology. Exports help expand and deepen the external relations with other countries in the world b. Towards enterprises Export is the earliest international business activity with the lowest cost and risk. Exporting is the simplest activity in international business. Therefore, transactions and risk expenses in case of unstable political, economic, cultural and social environment ... will be the lowest compared to other activities. 2.1.3. Role of high-tech exports Firstly, the export of high-tech goods plays an important role in promoting a country's economic growth and development. Secondly, high-tech exports promote the process of economic restructuring Thirdly, high-tech exports help create jobs and high incomes for both unskilled and educated workers at manufacturing enterprises. Fourthly, the export of high-tech products contributes to the expansion and promotion of external economic relations while enhancing the country's economic position on the international stage. Fifth, high-tech exports contribute to improving the national management mechanism and economic policies in line with international laws and practices. 2.1.4. Types of high-tech products The above-mentioned high-tech goods include 18 products, namely electrical, electronic, telecommunication items, medical instruments, cameras … 2.1.5. Theories on exports It can be seen that international trade driven by the exploitation of absolute, comparative and competitive advantages as well as the business environment of the countries results in the trading activities to promote the advantages of each nation. 2.1.6. Characteristics of high-tech - High-tech exports are often the result of the process of increasing investment in research and development. - Export of CNC products is concentrated mainly in some countries, including both developed and developing nations.
6 - Developing countries are catching up with developed ones in the export of high-tech goods. - The comparative advantage of high-tech products in developing countries has increased relatively rapidly in recent years. - Export of high-tech goods in developing countries are under great influence of multinational corporations through FDI. 2.1.7. Research content on high-tech exports 18.104.22.168. Size and growth rate of exports In this part, the thesis examines the trade balance for high-tech goods to see whether there is a trade surplus or deficit of high-tech goods in Vietnam. 22.214.171.124. Export market expansion The goal of expanding the relations for high-tech exports is to diversify export markets; consolidating and fostering the market share of Vietnamese goods in traditional markets; create a breakthrough to expand new potential export markets. 126.96.36.199. Exports restructure Restructuring the export structure of high-tech goods is also of great importance which reveals the change in the relevant manufacturing industry. 188.8.131.52. Competitiveness in high-tech exports Improving product competitiveness is one of the crucial factors in order to expand the export market and increase the scale for hightech goods. 2.1.8. Factors affecting high-tech exports * Size of the exporting country’s economy * Size of the importing country's economy * Available resources in the field of science and technology * Investment in research and development (R&D) * Inflation * Infrastructure for export activities * Export incentive/ management policy * Distance between two countries * The openness of the exporting country’s economy * International and regional economic links
7 * Foreign direct investment 2.2. Practical basis of high-tech exports 2.2.1. Experience Lessons of high-tech exports from some countries in the world 184.108.40.206. Lesson by Japan 220.127.116.11. Lesson by China 18.104.22.168. Lesson by South Korea 2.2.2. Lessons drawn for Vietnam’s high-tech exports Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLODY 3.1. Research questions 1. What are the main contents of research on high-tech exports? 2. How was Vietnam's high-tech exports in the past time? Specifically: What were the outstanding features of Vietnam's hightech exports in the 2000-2017 period? What were the major constraints of Vietnam's high-tech exports? 3. What factors affect the export of Vietnam's high-tech goods? 4. What are the key solutions to promote the development of Vietnam's high-tech exports? 3.2. Research Method 3.2.1. Research approach and Analytical framework 22.214.171.124. Research approach a. Systematic approach: This approach is used in assessing internal and external factors that have an impact on Vietnam's hightech exports. b. Interdisciplinary approach: Based on the limitations and weaknesses in the inter-sectoral linkages, appropriate solutions are proposed. c. Typical Case study (direct study of specific products) With the research content focusing on some of Vietnam's major high-tech products, the corresponding approach of the thesis is the typical case study (on some high-value export products). 126.96.36.199. Analytical framework
8 a. Analytical framework Size and speed of export development
Factors affecting product supply
Vietnam’s hightech exports
Factors affecting product demand
Restructuring of exports
Competitiveness in hightech exports
Favorable and Unfavorable Factors affecting export
Solutions for fostering Vietnam’s export of high-tech goods
Policies on high-tech export developments
b. Research model analytical framework As shown in Figure 3.1, factors affecting international trade flows are divided into three main categories, namely: factors affecting supply, factors affecting demand, and attracting/ hindering factors… Factors affecting supply are those that represent the production capacity of the exporting country such as GDP and population. Push
Border of exporting country
Border of importing country
Capacity of exporting country
Export promotion/ management policy
Factors affecting supply
Distance between 2 countries
Attracting/ Hindering factors
Export promotion/ management policy
Purchasing power of importing country
Factors affecting demand
Factors affecting international trade flows
Figure 3.1: Gravity model in International trade
9 Source: Đào Ngọc Tiến (2009) Based on the literature review on previous research models combined with theoretical analysis of the factors affecting high-tech exports as well as the actual conditions of our country, the thesis formulates an analytical framework examining factors affecting Vietnam's high-tech exports. Details are shown in Figure 3.2 below:
Figure 3.2: Analytical framework of factors affecting Vietnam’s high-tech exports Source: Author’s synthesis : Direct impact : Indirect impact 3.2.2. Data Collection Method The thesis collects secondary data to obtain assessments on the status of Vietnam's high-tech exports. Data were collected from various sources such as General Statistics Office, General Department of Customs, World Bank (WB), International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations … 3.2.3. Data synthesis method: 188.8.131.52. Tables, statistical graphs 184.108.40.206. Statistical classification 3.2.4. Data analysis method 220.127.116.11. Descriptive statistics
10 18.104.22.168. Comparative statistical 22.214.171.124. Augmented gravity model 126.96.36.199. Analysis of constant market share 3.3. Research criteria Indicators reflecting the market share of exports and imports Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) index Regional Orientation Index (ROI) Trade Intensity Index (TII)
Chapter 4 CURRENT SITUATION OF VIETNAM’S HIGHTECH EXPORTS 4.1. Situation of Vietnam’s exports 4.1.1. International economic integration process of Vietnam Vietnam's economic relations with other countries and international organizations have been increasingly expanded and developed. So far, Vietnam has established diplomatic relations with 185 countries and territories, promoting trade and investment relations with 224 markets on all continents. 4.1.2. Size and growth of merchandise exports
Figure 4.2. Export value of Vietnam to other regions in the world during 2000-2017 period Source: World Bank, 2019
12 The process of international economic integration, multilateralization and promotion of comparative advantages have gained Vietnam trade relations with 224 countries and territories in all continents worldwide. Total export value to East Asia and the Pacific reached over USD 100 billion in 2017, accounting for nearly 47% of Vietnam's total exports. Next come North American countries with 21% of total exports in 2017. Table 4.4. Vietnam’s export turnover of goods by foreign trade standards SITC during 2000-2017 period Unit: million USD Goods categorized by SITC Total export value
1. Raw or semi-processed 8078,8 16100,7 25187,5 33736,7 products
- Food & live animals
- Beverages & Cigarettes
6345,7 13432,5 17442,9
- Fuels, lubricants and related 3824,7 materials
98172,4 131710,7 179043,2
- Raw materials not for eating, except for fuels
- Oil, fats, animal & plant waxes
2. Processed or refined products 6397,5 16341,0 47012,5 63106,1 - Chemicals and related products
- Processed goods classified by raw materials
3145,1 11476,1 18834,9
4051,9 10494,5 25168,9 30520,9
- Machines, vehicles and 1276,0 other spare parts - Processed goods 3. Other goods
Source: General Statistics Office, 2019 4.1.4. Structure of exporting products In terms of exporting products, there has been a dramatic change in the structure of Vietnam's exports in the past two decades, in which raw or preliminary processed goods have sharply decreased from the proportion of 55.8% of total export turnover in 2000 to 16.3% in 2017.
13 Table 4.5. 10 product groups with the highest export turnover of Vietnam in the period from 2016 to 2017 Unit: Billion US$ Index 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Cell phones of all kinds and components 34,32 45,27 Textiles 23,82 26,04 Computers, electronic products and components 18,96 25,94 Footwear products 13,00 14,65 Machinery, equipment, tools and other spare parts 10,11 12,77 Seafood products 7,05 8,32 Wood and wood products 6,96 7,66 Means of transport and spare parts 6,06 6,99 Cameras, camcorders and components 2,96 3,8 Fibers and yarns of all kinds 2,93 3,59 Total 126,17 155,03
Source: Ministry of Industry and Trade, 2018 In terms of growth, the group of computers, electronic products and components has the strongest growth with a continuous growth of 36.8% with an export turnover of nearly US $ 26 billion., being asymptotic with textile and garment groups with 26.04 billion US $. In addition, the group of cameras, camcorders and components also saw a strong increase with the continuous growth rate reached about 28.4% in the period of 2016-2017. 4.2. Current situation of Vietnam's export of high-tech products 4.2.1. The scale and growth rate of export of high-tech products In general, we can see the strong growth in exports of high-tech products of Vietnam in the period of 2005-2017. However, Vietnam's exports of high-tech products also focus on a number of key products. Some products such as 524, 712 and 718 have very low export value in the 20052017 period, just under US $ 15 million. The remaining products have an average growth rate of over 100% / year (positive growth) for the whole research period. Some product codes such as 751, 764, 774, 792, 871 have very high average annual growth rate (over 50% / year) showing that with these products, Vietnam has met the needs of the import markets. 4.2.2. Export markets of high-tech products Vietnam's export markets of high-tech goods are expanding in the direction of diversification in different continents. In the early 2000s, hi-tech exports were mainly in countries in the East Asia-
14 Pacific region, especially in Southeast Asia. Exports to East Asia Pacific accounted for 83% of the total value of high-tech exports in 2000, of which ASEAN accounted for nearly 65%. However, along with the rise of export turnover of high-tech products, there has been a significant change in export markets. Vietnam's export market share of high-tech products in comparison with the world tends to increase significantly in the period 2000-2017. Comparing the average growth rate of Vietnam's export turnover of high-tech products to the world (Vietnam's growth is 31.13%, while the world growth is 5.79%) showing the speed of Vietnam's export growth rate of high-tech products is many times higher than the growth rate of the world. Statistics of 15 countries and territories, which were Vietnam's largest import market of high-tech products in 2017, show that these 15 countries all have a value of Vietnam's imports of high-tech products of over US $ 1.3 billion. Most of Vietnam's top 15 importers of hightech products grew over 35% during this period, with the exception of Japan and Thailand. In the early 2000s, Japan was the largest importer of high-tech products from Vietnam (US $ 317 million in 2005, the highest among the 15 countries in Table 4.12). 4.2.3. Export structure of high-tech products Table 4.22. Vietnam's exports by technology level in the period of 2000-2017 Proportion (%) Product Groups I. Raw products II. Processed products 1. Natural-resources-based products - Agriculture - Mineral 2. Low-tech products - Fabrics, clothes, footwears - Other products 3. Medium-tech products - Automobiles - Processed products - Mechanical products 4. High-tech products - Electronics and electricity - Other products Total
Source: Author calculates from database of World Bank, 2019
15 To assess Vietnam's export structure in some major markets, Vietnam's export classification by technology level was also calculated for 6 countries and groups of countries (from Table 4.23 to Table 4.28). The research results show that there is a relative difference between the importing countries of Vietnam. While most countries such as the United States, Japan, South Korea, China and ASEAN all reduced their share of imports of raw products during 2000-2017, Germany kept the same share of imports of raw products from Vietnam and even more, there was a slight increase. This is also the country with the average export growth rate of raw products reaching a high level (14.04%) (Table 4.24). However, for the high-tech product group, all 6 research markets have shown a sharp increase in the proportion of total value of imported products from Vietnam such as the United States increased from 0.58% to 21.14 %; Germany increased sharply from 1.25% to 37.21%; South Korea increased from 6.2% to 41.98%; especially China increased dramatically from 0.32% to 46.78% (annual average speed reached 61.45%), while in Japan and ASEAN markets, the growth rate was not as strong as that of ASEAN's growth rate. The annual average for high-tech is 16.44%. High-tech products export to the countries are mainly electrical and electronic products. 4.2.4. The competitiveness of high-tech products Currently, Vietnam's high-tech products exports have begun to gain a foothold in the world market. Some high-tech products such as mobile phones, computers, electronics and components, etc. of Vietnam have been present in many countries in the region and around the world. In order to assess the competitiveness of Vietnam's high products, the author of this thesis uses the calculation results of the Revealed Comparative Advantages index (RCA) as an assessment tool. Calculation results show that: in 18 codes of products of Vietnam's high-tech products group, in 2016, there were 8 codes (codes: 716, 751, 752, 761, 764, 771 776 and 881) have comparative advantages with RCA index> 1. To evaluate the comparative advantage of Vietnam's exported high-tech products, the thesis has calculated the comparative advantage index of high-tech products of Vietnam and 9 other countries. The calculation results show that Vietnam and other countries such as Thailand, China, Mexico and Philippines have relatively similar
16 comparative advantage indexes, that is, these countries compete with each other. For high-tech products in the world market, especially the product code 752 with 7/10 countries has a comparative advantage. Thus, it can be seen that, although there is a comparative advantage in some key products, Vietnam is also facing fierce competition from regional countries, especially Thailand and China. In order to assess the competitiveness of each high-tech product, the thesis uses the "Constant Market Share Model" (CMS) to evaluate the fluctuation of Vietnam's exports of hightech products. This model assesses the degree of change in the export value of high-tech products depending on three factors: the market demand of the products itself (demand effect); growth of the whole consumer market (structural impact) and competitiveness of goods exported from Vietnam (Nguyen Bich Thuy, 2015). On the basis of using data collected in the period of 2002-2017, Table 4.32, Table 4.33 and Table 4.34 present the results of the analysis of the CMS model on the factors affecting Vietnam's exports of high-tech products in the 3 periods: 20022009, 2010-2017 and 2002-2017. Table 4.32. Competitiveness in Vietnam's export of CNC products in the period of 2002-2009 Code 524 541 712 716 718 751 752 759 761 764 771 774 776 778 792 871 874 881
Source: Author calculates from figures of the World Bank (2019)
17 In the period 2002-2009, the demand impact for all high-tech products exported to the markets was positive. This means that the growth of Vietnam's exports of high-tech products was first due to the growth in demand for high-tech products in the world. Some high-tech products have a strong increase in demand such as 759 and 761 product groups. These are products with export growth mainly due to the increase in world demand. On the other hand, Vietnam's export of hightech products in this period generally had a stronger growth than the world growth, reflecting the high level of competitiveness of high-tech products. In addition to the product 761 that has a low level of competitiveness, other products all show very high level of export competitiveness such as products 716, 751, 764, 776, 881. Table 4.33. Competitiveness in Vietnam's export of high-tech products in the period of 2010-2017 Code 524 541 712 716 718 751 752 759 761 764 771 774 776 778 792 871 874 881
Source: Author calculates from figures of the World Bank (2019 The period of 2010-2017 shows a strong growth in Vietnam's exports of high-tech products, focusing on a number of items such as 764, 776, 752, and 871. The strong growth in this period is still mainly explained by the improvement in product competitiveness, while the demand for products and the structural impact generally have little impact
18 on the growth of Vietnam's high-tech products exports. In addition, compared to the period 2002-2009, products 761 and 759 also had a higher level of product competitiveness, of which product 761 had an increase in exports almost entirely due to the increase in its competitiveness ability (Table 4.33). Thus, it can be said that the competitive level of Vietnam's export of high-tech products tends to increase in recent years. Table 4.34. Competitiveness in Vietnam's export of high-tech products in the period of 2002-2017 Code 524 541 712 716 718 751 752 759 761 764 771 774 776 778 792 871 874 881
Source: Author calculates from figures of the World Bank (2019) Thus, Vietnam's export growth of high-tech products during 2002-2017 has achieved important results. Major high-tech products with strong export growth in recent years include 764, 776,752, 871, 881 and 751. This shows that the export growth rate of high-tech products for these products is much higher than the average export growth rate of similar products in the world.
19 4.3. Factors affecting Vietnam's export of high-tech products Regression results using OLS, FEM and REM estimation methods with 648 observations are shown in Table 4.35. Table 4.36. The REM model of the impact of factors on the export value of high-tech products of Vietnam Independent variables Intercept Ln(PGDPit*PGDPjt) Ln(IPRit*IPRjt) LnERit LnINFit LnDISijt LnEDISijt LnINSit FTAijt BORij 2
Note: *, **, ***: Corresponds to significance level less than 10%, 5%, 1%; Values in parentheses ( ) is the z-test.
Source: Summary of the author from Stata software From the results of the gravity model, there are 8 factors affecting Vietnam's exports of high-tech products, namely Vietnam's GDP and importing countries, intellectual property rights index of Vietnam and importing countries, exchange rates, inflation, geographical distance between Vietnam and the importing countries, economic gap between the two countries, dummy variables for borders and members of FTAs. The results of the analysis have shown the positive factors, the negative factors and the results also show that the trend of the factors is quite consistent with the expectations that the hypotheses have made. 4.4. Evaluation of Vietnam's high-tech products export 4.4.1. Advantages 4.4.2. Disadvantages - Vietnam's export of products in general and the export of hightech products in particular mainly depend on foreign-invested enterprises (the proportion accounts for 71.5% of the total export value).
20 - The export of high-tech products in recent years has focused on a number of main items, including electrical and electronic products. - Export of high-tech products to some major markets such as EU27, the USA, and Japan is still low compared with the potential and export capacity. - High-tech exports are relatively dependent on a number of markets such as China, the United States, and South Korea ... In these three countries alone, the high-tech exports account for 38.8% of Vietnam's total high-tech export value in 2017. - Although the export of high-tech products has increased in comparative advantage (RCA index) in the period of 2000-2017, among the studied high-tech products, up to 11/18 products did not have the comparative advantage. - Trade diversion may occur in some markets for some products. - Although the Products 716, 761, 776, 871, and 881 have comparative advantages, they currently have not been oriented to export to EU27 (RO factor <1). - The influence of demand and structure in the market share model has been constant on exports of high-tech products in recent years. 4.4.3. Reasons - The export structure of high-tech products only focuses on a number of products that FDI enterprises have invested heavily such as electrical products, electronics and telecommunications ... - Although Vietnam's export of high-tech products has developed well in recent years due to focusing on a few types of products, it has not met the requirements of some markets. - Despite participating in the global value chain of goods production, the level of participation in Vietnam is still low and only focuses on a few products. The reception of new technology transfer and advancing to higher levels of the global value chain are still limited and heavily dependent on FDI enterprises. - Vietnam's exports of high-tech products also face fierce competition in regional and international markets, demonstrating that many high-tech products have not had a comparative advantage, especially with countries like Thailand, China, Indonesia ...
21 CHAPTER 5 RECOMMENDATION OF DEVELOPING THE EXPORT OF HIGH-TECH PRODUCTS IN VIETNAM 5.1. Perspective, orientation 5.1.1. Perspective 5.1.2. Orientation 5.2. Some solutions to boost the export of high-tech products of Vietnam 5.2.1. Group of solutions on policies and mechanisms for the export of high-tech goods 188.8.131.52. Institutional improvement 184.108.40.206. Solutions to enhance the ability to meet the regulations of importing countries 220.127.116.11. Recommendations to take advantage of opportunities from commitments of new generation free trade agreements 18.104.22.168. Solutions to overcome challenges from commitments of newgeneration free trade agreements 22.214.171.124. Intensify the protection of intellectual property 126.96.36.199. Solutions to complete policies to attract investment in hightech products production 188.8.131.52. Promote investment in research and development 184.108.40.206. The exchange rate policy must be continuously improved and adjusted to adapt to domestic and international environment. 5.2.2. Group of solutions on implementation 220.127.116.11. Strengthen market research 18.104.22.168. Solutions for market development, taking advantage of preferences gained from free trade agreements 22.214.171.124. Solutions to improve product quality, promote comparative advantages of high-tech products 5.2.3. Group of solutions on supporting the export of high-tech products 126.96.36.199. Solution of investment in developing infrastructure serving high-tech products production 188.8.131.52. Solutions for investment in developing high quality human resources
22 CONCLUSION The thesis focuses on the current situation of Vietnam's export of high-tech products in the period from 2000 to 2017. Based on the research results of the thesis, the objectives of the thesis have been resolved, namely the following main contents: On the basis of an overview of more than 30 domestic and foreign scientific researches related to the export and export of CNC products, The thesis is supposed to have the academic significance especially in practical terms because there is currently no research to analyze the export of CNC products in Vietnam. The thesis has systematized and clarified the theoretical basis for high-tech products, export of high-tech products such as clarifying 18 products that are considered high-tech products in the field of manufacturing, clarifying 5 contents of research on exporting high-tech products, presenting and analyzing the effects of factors on Vietnam's high-tech products export. The thesis has applied appropriate approaches, developed analytical framework and clarified data collection method, information synthesis method and data analysis method such as using augmented gravity model and system of in-depth research indicators such as comparative advantage index, regional orientation index, trade concentration index, export diversification index, constant market share model ... to analyze factors affecting the export of hightech products in Vietnam. Based on the research results of the thesis, it can be seen that the export of high-tech products has achieved the following main results: The export of high-tech products increased rapidly and sustainably with the growth rate of over 31% in the period 20002017.The structure of exports changed in the direction of focusing on
23 the export of electronics and telecommunications equipment products. The export market of high-tech products has been expanded and developed in the direction of exporting to developed countries like EU, the USA, Korea, Japan ... As a result, the share of high-tech exports has increased sharply in the recent years, from only 0.06% of the total value of high-tech exports of the world in 2000, the share of high-tech exports of Vietnam has accounted for 2, 29% of the world's total value of high-tech exports in 2017. Thanks to the sharp increase in exports of high-tech products, Vietnam has become a country with a trade surplus since 2012. High-tech products have good competitiveness in the world market, including products with an increase in competitiveness such as 752 (automatic data processing cluster), 761 (TV), 764 (Telecommunication equipment) and 881 (Camera and equipment). However, Vietnam is also facing stiff competition from regional countries such as Thailand and China. In contrast, countries like India and Pakistan have no competition with Vietnam in terms of high-tech products. However, the export of high-tech products also has some limitations: The export of high-tech products mainly depends on the enterprises with foreign direct investment; Content of added value in export value is still low; The export of high-tech products in recent years has focused on a number of key products, without any spreading; The export of high-tech products depends relatively large on a number of markets such as China, the United States, South Korea ... There are many high-tech products that do not have the competitiveness in the world market. Trade diversion may occur in some markets for some products. From the results of the gravity model, there are 8 factors affecting Vietnam's exports of CNC products, namely Vietnam's GDP and importing countries, intellectual property rights index of
24 Vietnam and importing countries, exchange rate, inflation, geographical distance between Vietnam and the importing countries, economic gap between the two countries, dummy variables on borders and members of FTAs. The results of the analysis have shown the positive factors, the negative factors and the results also show that the trend of the factors is quite consistent with the expectations that the hypotheses have made. On the basis of analyzing views and orientations, the thesis has proposed three groups of solutions (group of solutions on policies and mechanisms for the export of high-tech goods; group of solutions on implementation; group of solutions on supporting the export of high-tech products) in order to boost Vietnam's high-tech products exports to 2025, vision to 2030, including solutions such as institutional completion, improvement of protection of intellectual property, investment in R&D, solutions on market expansion, improvement of product quality to increase product competitiveness ...