Tải bản đầy đủ

Reported speech toan tap

REPORTED SPEECH
Main Clauses connected with and / but
If two complete main clauses are connected with ‚and‘ or ‚but‘, put ‚that‘ after the
conjunction.
Example:
He said,“I saw her but she didn’t see me.“ – He said that he had seen her but that
she hadn’t seen him.“
If the subject is left out in the second main clause (the conjunction is followed by a verb),
do not use ‚that‘.
Example:
She said,“I am a nurse and work in a hospital.“ – He said that she was a nurse and
worked in a hospital.“

Tense of the Introductory Clause
The introductory clause usually is in Past Tense.
Example:
He said that …
Present Tense is often used to report a conversation that is still going on, e. g. during a
phone call or while reading a letter.
Example:
“I am fine.“ – Tom says / writes that he is fine.

The introductory clause can also be in another tense. In the following table you can see,
for which tense of the introductory clause you have to use backshift in reported speech.
No Backshift
if introductory clause is in …




Simple Present (He says …)
Present Perfect (He has said …)
Future I will (He will say …)








Future I going to (He is going to
say …)



Backshift
if introductory clause is in …
Simple Past (He said …)
Past Perfect (He had said …)
Future II ( He will have said …)
Conditional I (He would say …)
Conditional II (He would have
said …)


Backshift in Reported Speech
The basic rules for backshift when transforming direct speech into reported speech are:
Direct Speech
Simple Present
Present Progressive
Simple Past


Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Past Progressive
Present Perfect Progressive
Past Perfect Progressive
Future I (going to)
Future I (will)
Conditional I
Future II
Conditional II

Reported Speech
Simple Past
Past Progressive
Past Perfect Simple

Past Perfect Progressive
was / were going to
Conditional I
Conditional II

Exceptions
Backshift of Simple Present is optional if the situation is still unchanged or if you agree
with the original speaker.
Beispiel:
“Canberra is the capital of Australia.“
She said that Canberra is / was the capital of Australia.
Backshift of Simple Past and Past Progressive is optional if they cannot be mistakenly
taken for backshift of Present Tense. So backshift is not necessary if there is a time
expression indicating past.
Example:
“She left Boston on Monday.“
He said that she left / had left Boston on Monday.
Simple Past and Past Progressive do not normally change in sentences with when / if.
Example:
“When I was having breakfast, the telephone suddenly rang.“
She said that when she was having breakfast, the telephone suddenly rang.
Example:
“If I had more time, I would learn French.“
He said that if he had more time, he would learn French.


Requests
The basic rule for requests is: introductory clause + ‚to‘ + infinite verb.
Example:
“Say hello to your mum.“
She asked me to say hello to my mum.
Advise expressions with must, should and ought are usually reported using advise /
urge.
Example:
“You must read that book.“
He advised / urged me to read that book.
The expression let’s is usually reported using suggest. In this case, there are various
possibilities for reported speech: gerund or statement with should.
Example:
“Let’s go to the cinema.“
He suggested going to the cinema.
He suggested that we should go.to the cinema.

Exercise 1 – Requests (positive)
Complete the sentences in reported speech. Note the change of pronouns in some
sentences.
1. "Stop talking, Joe," the teacher said.
→ The teacher told Joe
2. "Be patient," she said to him.
→ She told him
3. "Go to your room," her father said to her.
→ Her father told her
4. "Hurry up," she said to us.
→ She told us
5. "Give me the key," he told her.
→ He asked her
6. "Play it again, Sam," she said.
→ She asked Sam


7. "Sit down, Caron" he said.
→ He asked Caron
8. "Fill in the form, Sir," the receptionist said.
→ The receptionist asked the guest
9. "Take off your shoes," she told us.
→ She told us
10. "Mind your own business," she told him.
→ She told him
KEY
 "Stop talking, Joe," the teacher said.
→ The teacher told Joe to stop talking.
 "Be patient," she said to him.
→ She told him to be patient.
 "Go to your room," her father said to her.
→ Her father told her to go to her room.
 "Hurry up," she said to us.
→ She told us to hurry up.
 "Give me the key," he told her.
→ He asked her to give him the key.
 "Play it again, Sam," she said.
→ She asked Sam to play it again.
 "Sit down, Caron" he said.
→ He asked Caron to sit down.
 "Fill in the form, Sir," the receptionist said.
→ The receptionist asked the guest to fill in the form.
 "Take off your shoes," she told us.
→ She told us to take off our shoes.
 "Mind your own business," she told him.
→ She told him to mind his own business.

Exercise 2 – Requests (negative)
Complete the sentences in reported speech. Note the change of pronouns in some
sentences.
1. "Don't touch it," she said to him.
→ She told him
2. "Don't do that again," he said to me.
→ He told me


3. "Don't talk to me like that," he said.
→ He told her
4. "Don't repair the computer yourself," she warned him.
→ She warned him
5. "Don't let him in," she said.
→ She told me
6. "Don't go out without me," he begged her.
→ He begged her
7. "Don't forget your bag," she told me.
→ She told me
8. "Don't eat in the lab," the chemistry teacher said.
→ The chemistry teacher told his students
9. "Don't give yourself up," he advised her.
→ He advised her
10. "Don't hurt yourselves, boys," she said.
→ She told the boys

Exercise 2 – Requests (negative)
Complete the sentences in reported speech. Note the change of pronouns in some
sentences.
1. "Don't touch it," she said to him.
→ She told him not to touch it.
2. "Don't do that again," he said to me.
→ He told me not to do that again.
3. "Don't talk to me like that," he said.
→ He told her not to talk to him like that.
4. "Don't repair the computer yourself," she warned him.
→ She warned him not to repair the computer himself.
5. "Don't let him in," she said.
→ She told me not to let him in.
6. "Don't go out without me," he begged her.
→ He begged her not to go out without him.
7. "Don't forget your bag," she told me.
→ She told me not to forget my bag.
8. "Don't eat in the lab," the chemistry teacher said.
→ The chemistry teacher told his students not to eat in the lab.
9. "Don't give yourself up," he advised her.
→ He advised her not to give herself up.
10. "Don't hurt yourselves, boys," she said.
→ She told the boys not to hurt themselves.


Exercise 3 – Requests (mixed)
Complete the sentences in reported speech. Note the change of pronouns in some
sentences.
1. She said, "Go upstairs."
→ She told me
2. "Close the door behind you," he told me.
→ He told me
3. "Don't be late," he advised us.
→ He advised us
4. "Stop staring at me," she said.
→ She told him
5. "Don't be angry with me," he said.
→ He asked her
6. "Leave me alone," she said.
→ She told me
7. "Don't drink and drive," she warned us.
→ She warned us
8. "John, stop smoking," she said.
→ She told John
9. "Don't worry about us," they said.
→ They told her
10. "Meet me at the cinema." he said.
→ He asked me
 She said, "Go upstairs."
→ She told me to go upstairs.
 "Close the door behind you," he told me.
→ He told me to close the door behind me.
 "Don't be late," he advised us.
→ He advised us not to be late.
 "Stop staring at me," she said.
→ She told him to stop staring at her.
 "Don't be angry with me," he said.
→ He asked her not to be angry with him.
 "Leave me alone," she said.
→ She told me to leave her alone.
 "Don't drink and drive," she warned us.
→ She warned us not to drink and drive.


 "John, stop smoking," she said.
→ She told John to stop smoking.
 "Don't worry about us," they said.
→ They told her not to worry about them.
 "Meet me at the cinema." he said.
→ He asked me to meet him at the cinema

Mixed Exercise 1
Complete the sentences in reported speech. Note whether the sentence is a request, a
statement or a question.
1. He said, "I like this song."
→ He said
2. "Where is your sister?" she asked me.
→ She asked me
3. "I don't speak Italian," she said.
→ She said
4. "Say hello to Jim," they said.
→ They asked me
5. "The film began at seven o'clock," he said.
→ He said
6. "Don't play on the grass, boys," she said.
→ She told the boys
7. "Where have you spent your money?" she asked him.
→ She asked him
8. "I never make mistakes," he said.
→ He said
9. "Does she know Robert?" he wanted to know.
→ He wanted to know
10. "Don't try this at home," the stuntman told the audience.
→ The stuntman advised the audience
 He said, "I like this song."
→ He said that he liked that song.statement, backshift: Simple Present becomes Simple
Past; note that the pronouns have to be changed
depending on whether the same song is played at the moment or now, you will use this
song or that song


 "Where is your sister?" she asked me.
→ She asked me where my sister was.question, backshift: Simple Present becomes
Simple Past; note that the pronouns have to be changed
 "I don't speak Italian," she said.
→ She said that she didn't speak Italian.statement, backshift: Simple Present becomes
Simple Past; note that the pronouns have to be changed
 "Say hello to Jim," they said.
→ They asked me to say hello to Jim.request, positive: to + rest of the sentence
 "The film began at seven o'clock," he said.
→ He said that the film had begun at seven o'clock.statement, backshift: Simple Past
becomes Past Perfect
 "Don't play on the grass, boys," she said.
→ She told the boys not to play on the grass.request, negative: not to + rest of the
sentence (don't and addressee are dropped)
 "Where have you spent your money?" she asked him.
→ She asked him where he had spent his money.question, backshift: Present Perfect
becomes Past Perfect; note that the pronouns have to be changed
 "I never make mistakes," he said.
→ He said that he never made mistakes.statement, backshift: Simple Present becomes
Simple Past; note that the pronouns have to be changed
 "Does she know Robert?" he wanted to know.
→ He wanted to know if she knew Robert.question, backshift: Simple Present becomes
Simple Past; note that the pronouns have to be changed
 "Don't try this at home," the stuntman told the audience.
→ The stuntman advised the audience not to try that at home.request, negative: not to +
rest of the sentence (don't is dropped)
you would normally use that here, however, if you are watchin the same stunt at the
moment of reporting (e.g. on video), you could say this.

Mixed Exercise 2
Complete the sentences in reported speech. Note whether the sentence is a request, a
statement or a question and whether you have to change the tenses or not.
1. "I was very tired," she said.
→ She said
2. "Be careful, Ben," she said.
→ She told Ben
3. "I will get myself a drink," she says.
→ She says
4. "Why haven't you phoned me?" he asked me.
→ He wondered


5. "I cannot drive them home," he said.
→ He said
6. "Peter, do you prefer tea or coffee?" she says.
→ She asks Peter
7. "Where did you spend your holidays last year?" she asked me.
→ She asked me
8. He said, "Don't go too far."
→ He advised her
9. "Have you been shopping?" he asked us.
→ He wanted to know
10. "Don't make so much noise," he says.
→ He asks us
 "I was very tired," she said.
→ She said that she had been very tired.statement, introductory clause is in Simple Past
(she said): backshift (Simple Past becomes Past Perfect); note that the pronouns have to
be changed
 "Be careful, Ben," she said.
→ She told Ben to be careful.request, positive: to + rest of the sentence (name is
dropped)
 "I will get myself a drink," she says.
→ She says that she will get herself a drink.Ich hole mir was zu trinken. - Sie sagt, dass
sie sich was zu trinken holt.
statement, introductory clause is in Simple Present (she says): no backshift in reported
speech; note that the pronouns have to be changed
 "Why haven't you phoned me?" he asked me.
→ He wondered why I hadn't phoned him.question, introductory clause is in Simple Past
(he asked): backshift (Present Perfect becomes Past Perfect); note that the pronouns have
to be changed
 "I cannot drive them home," he said.
→ He said that he could not drive them home.statement, introductory clause is in Simple
Past (he said): backshift (can becomes could); note that the pronouns have to be changed
 "Peter, do you prefer tea or coffee?" she says.
→ She asks Peter if he prefers tea or coffee.question, introductory clause is in Simple
Present (she says): no backshift in reported speech; note that the pronouns have to be
changed
 "Where did you spend your holidays last year?" she asked me.
→ She asked me where I had spent my holidays the year before.statement, introductory
clause is in Simple Past: backshift (Simple Past becomes Past Perfect); note that the
pronouns have to be changed
depending on whether it is still the same year when reporting or even later, you use last
year or the year before


for advanced learners: due to the time expression indicating past, backshift is not
necessary here
 He said, "Don't go too far."
→ He advised her not to go too far.request, negative: not to + rest of the sentence (don't is
dropped)
 "Have you been shopping?" he asked us.
→ He wanted to know if we had been shopping.question, introductory clause is in Simple
Past (he asked): backshift (Present Perfect becomes Past Perfect); note that the pronouns
have to be changed
 "Don't make so much noise," he says.
→ He asks us not to make so much noise.request, negative: not to + rest of the sentence
(don't is dropped)

Source: http://www.ego4u.com



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×