Demotivation in learning english of the students of ly thai to high school in bac ninh
VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF POST- GRADUATE STUDIES
VŨ THỊ HUYỀN
DEMOTIVATION IN LEARNING ENGLISH OF THE STUDENTS AT LY THAI TO HIGH SCHOOL IN BAC NINH (SỰ MẤT HỨNG THÚ HỌC TIẾNG ANH CỦA HỌC SINH TRƯỜNG THPT LÝ THÁI TỔ, BẮC NINH)
PROGRAM I M.A.MINOR THESIS
Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 60 14 10
VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI
UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF POST- GRADUATE STUDIES
VŨ THỊ HUYỀN
DEMOTIVATION IN LEARNING ENGLISH OF THE STUDENTS AT LY THAI TO HIGH SCHOOL IN BAC NINH (SỰ MẤT HỨNG THÚ HỌC TIẾNG ANH CỦA HỌC SINH TRƯỜNG THPT LÝ THÁI TỔ, BẮC NINH)
Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 60 14 10 Supervisor: Trần Hiền Lan, M.A.
ABSTRACTS This study was aimed at investigating de-motivating factors in learning English of the students at Ly Thai To High School in Bac Ninh, the degree of influence of different de-motives on them and their experiences in overcoming de-motivation in learning English. The sample of study consisted of 100 students at Ly Thai To High School in Bac Ninh and the instrument of the study was a questionnaire on finding their foreign language learning experiences. These findings indicated that their demotivation in learning English was a significant issue for EFL learning, and a framework for discussing the different sources of de-motives was developed. While some categories of de-motives occurred more frequent than others, no category appeared to be more or less difficult to overcome. Rather these, students’ awareness of the role of English language and their determination to succeed were critical factors in overcoming their de-motivation in learning English.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Certification of originality of project report
Table of contents
List of abbreviations
List of tables
Part A: Introduction
2. Aims of the study
3. Research questions
4. Scope of the study
Part B: Development
Chapter 1: Literature review
1.1. Second language acquisition
1.1.1. What is “second language acquisition?”
1.1.2. What are the goals of SLA?
1.2. Theoretical background of motivation
1.2.1. Conceptions of motivation
1.2.2. Motivation in foreign language learning
1.3. Theoretical background of de-motivation
1.3.1. Conceptions of de-motivation
1.3.2. De-motivating factors affecting students’ motivation in learning foreign languages
Factors related to students
Factors related to environment
Factors related to teachers
Teaching and learning conditions
1.4. Study of de-motivation
Chapter 2: Research methodology
2.1. Research questions
2.3 Method for data collection
Chapter 3: Results and discussion
3.1.1. Results of research question 1
3.1.2. Results of research question 2
3.1.3. Results of research question 3
Part C: Conclusion and implications for teaching
2. Implications for teaching
3. Limitations and further study
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS SLA: Second Language Acquisition EFL: English as a Foreign Language FL:
NNS: Non-Native Speaking
LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Dornyei’s (1994) framework of L2 motivation (Adapted from Dornyei, 2001) Table 2: William and Burden’s (1997) framework of L2 motivation Table 3: External de-motivating factors Table 4: Internal de-motivating factors Table 5: Internal reasons for overcoming de-motivation Table 6: External reasons for overcoming de-motivation
PART A: INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale. - Motivation is one of the main factors determining an individual’s success in learning a second or foreign language. - As English has become more and more important as an international language in most countries around the world, large numbers of students are being required to learn it through compulsory programs at schools and universities. - Despite the current extrinsic pressures to learning English as a foreign language in Vietnam, many students do not seem to have interest in learning English, or in other words, they are quite de-motivated.
2. Aims of the study. The study aims at: - Investigating the factors that cause a negative impact on learning English of the students at Ly Thai To High School in Bac Ninh based on the study of 100 students of grade 12. - Giving suggestions and recommendations to teachers at Ly Thai To school.
3. Research questions. Question 1: What are the external factors that cause a negative impact on students’ motivation to learn English? Question 2: What are the internal factors that cause a negative impact on students’ motivation to learn English? Question 3: What solutions can help students to overcome their de-motivation?
4. Scope of the study. In terms of scope of the study, I investigated 100 students in grade 12 about the factors which de-motivated them to learn English and reasons that can help them to overcome their de-motivation (by asking them to answer the questionnaire).
5. Methodology. The method applied in this study is both quantitative and qualitative. The data which this study drew on come from questionnaire (closed-items and open-items) of 100 students who are in grade 12 at Ly Thai To High School in Bac Ninh.
PART B: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1 Second language acquisition: “Language acquisition is one of the most impressive and fascinating aspects of human development” (Lightbrown, P.M & Spada, N. 1999). Up to now, there have been many definitions of language acquisition. This term is most often used interchangeable with language learning. In their study, they show that according to Krashen, S. (1982), acquisition represents “unconscious” learning, which takes place when attention is focused on meaning rather than language form.
1.2 Theoretical background of motivation Burden, (1997:119) assumed that “from a cognitive perspective, motivation is concerned with such issues as why people decide to act in certain ways and what factors influence the choice they make. It also involves decisions as to the amount of effect people are prepared to expand in attempting to achieve their goals. The role of the teacher thus becomes one of helping and enabling learners to make suitable decisions”. Dornyei (2001:613) defined motivation as “a general ways of referring to the antecedents (i.e. the causes and the origins”. He also stated that “motivation explains why people decide to do something, how hard they are going to pursue it and how long they are willing to sustain the activities” (2001:7). The author mentioned two dimensions of human behavior: direction and magnitude (intensity) which motivation concerns.
1.3 Theoretical background of de-motivation: Dornyei (2005:143) defined de-motivation as “specific external forces that reduce or diminish the motivational basis of a behavioral intention or an ongoing action”.
Dornyei pointed out that de-motivation does not mean that all the positive influences that originally made up the motivational basis of a behavior have been got rid of. It only means that a strong negative factor restrains the present motivation with some other positive motives still remain ready to be activated. Qashoa (2006:2) has reported from Domyei (2001) that, “ A de-motivated person is someone who initially had a motivation to fulfill a goal or to engage in an activity and has lost the motivation to do so because of negative external factors which are related to the environment in which learning takes place such as the classroom or school”.
CHAPTER 2: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 2.1 Results 2.1.1 Results of research question 1 Q1: What are the external factors that cause a negative impact on students’ motivation to learn English? Table 3: External de-motivating factors Rank 1. 2. 3. 4.
De-motivating factors Lack of opportunities to use English outside class Examination system (have to concentrate on main subjects for college entrance exams) Teaching method (uncreative, boring) Lack of opportunities to speak English in class because the classroom is too crowded
Frequency Percentage 79
Availability of instruction books
Insufficient teaching and learning facilities
Teachers’ unfair behavior
Replace teachers from the better to the worse
Test outside lessons
10. Teachers’ competence (low credibility)
11. Lack of teachers’ care and enthusiasm
12. Teachers insult students
2.1.2 Results of research question 2 Q2: What are the internal factors that cause a negative impact on students’ motivation to learn English?
Table 4: Internal de-motivating factors Rank
Listening and speaking skill difficulties
Fail to understand lesson (lost background knowledge)
Unconfident (afraid of being laughed/ losing face)
Left behind classmates
Think themselves do not have aptitude
Get low marks despite having studies seriously
Feel disregarded by teachers and classmates
2.1.3 Results of research question 3 Q3. What reasons can help students to overcome their de-motivation? Table 5: Internal reasons for overcoming de-motivation Rank
Awareness of the importance of English
Get progress and like English more
4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Have better learning method, well-arranged time schedule Don’t want to feel inferior because close friend is better at English Like English football teams, English songs, funny stories Like to be able to understand world news on TV, internet Like to translate English idioms, songs into
Vietnamese 9. 10.
Like to communicate in English Like to understand multi-cultural aspects of English speaking countries
Table 6: External reasons for overcoming de-motivation Rank
Teacher behavior is more enthusiastic, devoted and caring
Teaching method is better and more effective
Proper class size so have more opportunities to speak English in class
Frequency Percentage 48
Availability of learning facilities
Encouragement of the teachers, friends and family
PART C: CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING 1. Conclusion: - De-motivation is a salient phenomenon that should concern every classroom practitioner. - It is a complex issue and the present analysis has not done it justice. - There are so many factors that affect students’ motivation. - Motivated teachers can “produce” motivated students.
2. Implications for teaching: 2.1. Implications for English teachers: - Create some school activities which meet the students’ needs and learning goals. - Bear in minds that students have to be taught in a meaning way to master the language skills, be able to communicate fluently and use English in real world situations. - Reduce the students’ de-motivation by allocating few periods before the final exams to review and train students on test taking strategies. 2.2. Implications for educators: - Examination system should be modified to meet the learners’ instrumental motives. - Interests toward the English culture and literature can be raised. - The educational policy makers should make changes by reducing the load of vocabulary - School should be equipped with adequate numbers of technological devices.
3. Limitations and further study: Although the researcher has made effort toward carrying out this study such as the triangulation of data collection methods, namely survey questionnaires for learners, due to the limitation of time, lack of resources and the researcher’s ability, shortcomings are unavoidable. Firstly, the research has been carried out in a very small
scope. The number of students involved in the survey is still limited, so to some extend, the findings may not be generalized to all students at Ly Thai To High School. Secondly, the researcher only used survey questionnaire as the main instrument for data collection. In order to make the obtained results more reliable, different instruments for data collection should be applied. To carry out better and more efficient study with large scope, surely the researcher in the coming time the further research should invite more learners at other levels to participate in the studies
REFERENCES Brophy, J. E. (1998) Teachers’ expectations, motives and goals for working with problem students. In Ames, C. and Ames, D. (Eds), Research on motivation in education: The classroom milieu. Academic Press, Orlando, FL, pp. 175-214. Brutt-Griffler, J. (2002) World English: A study of its Development. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Canagarajah, A. S. (1999) Resisting English Imperialism in English Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chambers, G. (1993) Taking the ‘de’ out of de-motivation. Language Learning Journal 7, 13. Christophel, D. M. and Gorham, J. (1995) A test-retest analysis of student motivation, teacher immediacy, and perceived sources of motivation and de-motivation in college classes. Communication Education 44, 292-306. Clement, R., Dornyei, Z. & Noel. K.A. (1994) Motivation, self-confidence and group cohesion in the foreign language classroom. Language learning, 44(3), 417-448. Crookes. G. & Schmidt, R. (1991) Motivation: Reopening the Sesearch Agenda. Language Learning 41: 469-512 Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997) A thought – provoking: Harper Perennial Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. (1985) Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. Plenum, New York Dornyei, Z. (1990) Conceptualizing motivation in foreign language learning. Language Learning, 40, 45-78. Dornyei, Z. (1994) Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 273-284. Dornyei, Z. (1998) De-motivation in foreign language learning. Paper presented at the TESOL ’98 Congress, Seattle, WA. March. Dornyei, Z. (2001a) New themes and approaches in second language motivation research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 43-59. Dornyei, Z. (2001b) Teaching and Researching Motivation. London: Longman.
Dornyei, Z. (2005) Teaching and researching motivation. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press. Ellis, R. (1997, p4): Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ely, C. M. (1986a) An analysis of discomfort, risk taking, sociability, and motivation in the L2 classroom. Language Learning 36, 1-25. Ely C. M. (1986b) Language learning motivation: A descriptive and causal analysis. The Modern Language Journal 70, 28-35. Gardner, R. C., Lalonde, R. N., Moorcroft, R. and Evers, F. T. (1985) Second Language Attrition: The Role of Motivation and Use. London, Ontario: University of Western Ontario, Department of Psychology. Good, T.L. and Brophy, J.E. (1994) Looking in Classroom (sixth edition). New York: Harper Collins. Gorham, J. and Christophel, D. M. (1992) Students’ perceptions of teacher behaviors as motivating and de-motivating factors in college classes. Communication Quarterly 40 (3), 239-252. Gorham, J. and Millette, D. M. (1997) A comparative analysis of teacher and student perceptions of sources of motivation and de-motivation in college classes. Communication Education 46 (4), 245-261. Harmer, J. (1992) Classroom Dynamics. Oxford: Oxford University Press Ho, Meng-Ching (1998) Cultural studies and motivation in foreign and second language learning in Taiwan. Language, Culture and Curriculum 11 (2), 165-182. Hornberger, N. H. (2005) Heritage/community language education: US and Australian perspectives. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 8 (2&3). Krashen, S. (1982) Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Lightbrown, P.M. & Spana, N. (1999) How languages are learned. Oxford University Press. MacIntyre, P.D. (1999) Language anxiety: a review of the research for language teachers. In D. Young(ed). Affect in Forein Language and Second Language Learning:
A practical Guide to Creating a Low-anxiety Classroom Atmosphere. USA: McGraw – Hill College. Nhung, N.M. (2003) Motivation and factors affecting motivation in learning English writing of the freshmen at the Department of English and Anglo-American Culture, VPU-CFL unpublished MA Thesis. Oxford, R. L. (1998) The unraveling tapestry: Teacher and course characteristics associated with de-motivation in the language classroom. De-motivation in Foreign Language Learning. Paper presented at the TESOL ’98 Congress, Seattle, WA, March. Pintrich, P.R. & Schunk, D.H. (2002) Motivation in Education: Theory, Research and Applications (2nd Ed.) Columbus, OH: Merrill-Prentice Hall Qashoa (2006:2) Motivatinf and De-motivating Factors among learners. International Journal of Academic Research. Vol.2.No.1.January 2010 Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) Teacher expectations for the disadvantaged. Journal of Educational Psychology. Scheidecker and Freeman, J. (1991: 138) Gifted Children Growing Up. London: Cassell, Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann Educational. Skehan, P. (1991) Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 13: 275-298. Ushioda, E. (1998) Effective motivational thinking: A cognitive theoretical approach to the study of language learning motivation. In E. A. Soler and V. C. Espurz (eds.) Current Issues in English Language Methodology. Castello de la Plana: Universitat Jaume I. Warden, C. A. and Lin, H. J. (2000) Existence of integrative motivation in an Asian EFL setting. Foreign Language Annals, 33 (5), 535-547. Website http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second Language Acquisition. Williams, M. & Burden, R. (1997) Psychology of language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wlodkowski, R.J. Strategies to Enhance Adult Motivation to Learn. Available online: http://archon.educ.kent.edu/~nebraska/curric/ttim1/artsum2.html
Thank you for evaluating AnyBizSoft PDF Merger! To remove this page, please register your program! Go to Purchase Now>>
PDF Merger Merge multiple PDF files into one Select page range of PDF to merge
Select specific page(s) to merge Extract page(s) from different PDF files and merge into one