Nguyen Dinh Chieu (1822-1888), called Do Chieu (when teaching), Mach Trach, Trai Trong, Bai Trai
(after blindness); was the greatest poet of South Vietnam in the second half of the 19th century
Nguyen Dinh Chieu was born on May 13, 1822, in Tan Thoi village, Tan Binh district, Gia Dinh
province (in Cau Kho Ward, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City). Chi Minh today.
He came from the family house. His father was Nguyen Dinh Huy, a native of Bo Dien village, Phong
An commune, Phong Dien district, Thua Thien province; It is located in Phong Dien District, Thua
Thien Hue Province. Summer, May of Canh Thin (1820) Le Van Duyet was sent by the Hue court as
Gia Dinh Thanh. At the beginning of autumn, Nguyen Dinh Huy followed the army, to continue to
write letters in the company's office. In Gia Dinh, Huy added his wife, Mrs. Truong Thi Thiet, from
Tan Thoi village, gave birth to seven children and Nguyen Dinh Chieu was the first child.
*) Go to school
Childhood, Nguyen Dinh Chieu was raised by his mother. At age 6, 7 years old, he studied with a
teacher in the village.
In 1832, Le Van Duyet died. In the following year (1833), the adopted son of the army was Le Van
Khoi, because of dissatisfaction caused the uprising occupied Phien An in Gia Dinh, then occupy the
whole South. During the mutiny, Nguyen Dinh Chieu's father fled to Hue, should be out of office. But
because of love, his father secretly back to South, brought him out to a friend who is doing Tai vice in
Hue to continue learning. Nguyen Dinh Chieu lived in Hue from 11 years (1833) to 18 years (1840),
then returned to Gia Dinh.
In the Year of the Rabbit (1843), he passed the Baccalaureate at the Gia Dinh examination at the age of
21. At that time, there was a house they promised to marry her daughter
In 1847, he went to Hue to study for the examination of Ky Dau (1849). This time, he travel with his
brother Nguyen Dinh Tuu (10 years).
* Mother died, was blind
On the 15th day of November Mau Than (December 31, 1848), Nguyen Dinh Chieu's mother died in
Gia Dinh. Believed, he dropped the exam, led him by road back to South mourning mother.
On the way back, because of his mother's mournful, because of strenuous and erratic weather, so
Quang Nam Nguyen Dinh Chieu was seriously ill. During his stay at a physician's home in Ngự y,
though the disease did not go away, he also learned medicine. Blind scene, fake marriage, the door of
the house fell ... Nguyen Dinh Chieu closed mourning mother until 1851, the school of teaching and
medicine in Binh Vi (Gia Dinh)
In 1854, Nguyen Dinh Chieu married Le Thi Dien from Thanh Ba village, Can Giuoc district, before
Gia Dinh; now in Long An Province) as wife. Ms. Dien is the fifth sister of Le Tang Gunh, his pupil,
for his admiration and admiration, has asked the family to cooperate.
* Teaching, making medicine and writing poetry
In 1858, French troops opened fire in Da Nang. Facing the fierce resistance of the troops and the
Vietnamese, they entered Gia Dinh in the South in early 1859. After the fall of this citadel (February
17, 1859), Nguyen Dinh Chieu brought his family to live in. Thanh Ba (Can Giuoc), his wife home.
Extremely distressed by the tragedy that the French army had caused to his compatriots, and very
disappointed by the weakness and helplessness of the court, he made the poem "Run the enemy"
On the fifteenth day of November in Tan Dau (December 16, 1861), the former feudalists, who were
peasants, were so infuriated by the foreign invaders that the French attacked Can Giuoc and destroyed
some of them. enemy troops and the district of Vietnamese people are working for France.
Approximately fifteen performers left themselves. These examples have caused great emotion among
the people. At the request of the Gia Dinh Week, Do Quang, Nguyen Dinh Chieu made the "Can Giuoc
Literature", to read at the memorial service of the sacrifices sacrificed in this battle.
After the Treaty of Nham Tuat 1862, three provinces of Southeastern lost to the French, Nguyen Dinh
Chieu and his family left Thanh Ba (Can Giuoc) on Ba Tri (Ben Tre), because they can not live with
them. Farewell to familiar friends, he made the poem "Farewell to mankind".
About Ba Tri, he continued teaching, medicine and brought his patriotic pen to serve the heroic
struggle of Cochinchines throughout more than 20 years, though blind.
In 1877, Nguyen Dinh Chieu moved to An Binh Dong village (later An Duc) about two kilometers
from Ba Tri market.
In 1886, his wife died at the age of 51. Sad because of his wife died, because of the water loss of tan
has been long, because of illness is getting worse, two years later, (in 1888), Nguyen Dinh Chieu died
in Ba Tri, at the age of 66 years. On the occasion of Nguyen Thi Chieu's visit to the eternal realm, the
An Duc field was covered with the cloth of his admirers.
He was buried next to his wife's grave, now in hamlet 3, An Duc commune, Ba Tri district, Ben Tre
*) Main article
Luc Van Tien (Nôm poetry, started writing about 1851), including 2082 verses green bowl. This is a
"fine folk song of virtue, worthy virtues in life" that made the name Nguyen Dinh Chieu, and is a great
work of Vietnamese literature, especially by the people. Southern people love . Lu Van Van Tien
(real name Tran Quang Quang in Cho Lon) was first engraved in China before 1864, and was written
by Aubaret, Abel de Michels, Bajot ... translated into foreign languages
Dương Từ - Hà Mậu (Nôm poetry, started writing about 1854). Based on the Vietnamese edition of
Tan Viet (Sai Gon, 1964), edited by Phan Van Hog and revised, the poem collection consists of 3,456
verses, most of which are poetry, with the poetry of Tang (33 verses) and others. The author borrows
this story to express his attitude towards the Catholic and Roman Catholicism that he disagrees with.
In addition, he left about 37 poems and poems, among them many well-known songs, such as:
Running the enemy (1859)
Try's farewell (1859)
Can Democratic National Civil War (literary Can Giuoc, 1861)
Twelve poems and articles of General Truong Dinh (1864)
*) Literary career
Nguyen Dinh Chieu is an exquisite grapevine, living in a religious way, although it is dark-haired, and
encounters a turbulence that retains its high quality. He was not only a filial son, an exemplary teacher,
but also a patriotic poet who left many valuable works.
He is a poet with a consistent literary conception. He advocated the use of moral expression and
fighting for the cause of justice. In other words, he wrote poetry to "lead, correct and teach people."
Thus, each of his verses imply praise for justice, decisiveness, and the expression of his patriotism,
patriotism. His literary career can be divided into two periods:
- The first phase (50s of the 19th century): During this period, he wrote "Luc Van Tien" and "Dương
Từ-Hà Mau". This can be seen as the period of affirmation of humanism, patriotic love of his people.
The next period began in the French occupation of Gia Dinh (1859) until his death (1888). His pen at
this stage was closely linked to the lives of dehydrated people. In many works such as "Run the
Terror", "Literature Can Giuoc," "Luc Nguyen province," etc., he strongly condemned the French
invasion, critique imperial court. , and at the same time praising the spirits and brave fighters of the
people. This is the period of high development and brilliant of literary career Nguyen Dinh Chieu
And at what stage, in his works stand out three characteristics of content and form:
-He often used the script, and in the language of idiotic, rich sensuality, making his work has a strong
appeal to readers, especially to the people of the South.
- He is the first poet to successfully build the image of the farmers in Vietnamese literature, eternally
imprint the hero of Nam Bo pioneers in the fight against French colonialism.
- The idea of Confucius, seems conservative. But what is remarkable is that these ideas carry the
content of the people, closely tied to the sense of responsibility for the destiny of the country, so there
is a great social significance, starting a new era. New epic novels later .
In short, compared with the writers of the same period, Nguyen Dinh Chieu has a more positive
attitude, because of the people for more water. Although not in the ranks of armed men, but he is very
sympathetic to them, sharing with them the loss of water, the hate of the enemy and the cooperation ...
The entire temple complex and the Nguyen Dinh Chieu tomb in Ba Tri district (Ben Tre) were
recognized by the Ministry of Culture and Information of Cultural History on 16 March 1993.
During the Vietnam War, the Southern Liberation Arts Association established the 1965 Nguyen Dinh
Chieu Prize for outstanding authors and works in the field of literature and art in the South.
Many street names in the cities (Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hue, Da Nang, Dalat etc.) and the name of
the school (especially schools for children with disabilities) in Vietnam are named after him.