A working guide, in the successive
steps of electricity, described in
WITH MANY ORIGINAL
The Study of Electricity. First Historical
Accounts. Bottling Electricity. Discovery of
Galvanic Electricity. Electro-motive Force.
Measuring Instruments. Rapidity of Modern
Progress. How to Acquire the Vast Knowledge.
What to Build. What to Learn. Uses of the
Electro-Magnets. Magnetism. Materials for
Magnets. Non-magnetic Material. Action of a
Second Magnet. What North and South Pole
Mean. Repulsion and Attraction. Positives and
a Magnet. Why the Compass Points North and
South. Peculiarity of a Magnet. Action of the
Electro-Magnet. Exterior Magnetic Influence
Around a Wires Carrying a Current. Parallel
Three Electrical Sources. Frictional Electricity.
L e y d e nJar. Voltaic or Galvanic Electricity.
Voltaic Pile; How Made. Plus and Minus Signs.
The Common Primary Cell. Battery Resistance.
Electrolyte and Current. Electro-magnetic
Electricity. Magnetic Radiation. Different Kinds
of Dynamos. Direct Current Dynamos. Simple
Fields. The Armature. Armature Windings.
Mounting the Armature. The Commutator.
Commutator Brushes. Dynamo Windings. The
Field. Series-wound Field. Shunt-wound.
Measuring Instruments. The Detector. Direction
of Current. Simple Current Detector. How to
Place the Detector. Different Ways to Measure a
Current. The Sulphuric Acid Voltameter. The
Copper Voltameter. The Galvanoscope Electromagnetic Method. The Calorimeter. The Light
Method. The Preferred Method. How to Make a
Sulphuric Acid Voltameter. How to Make a
Copper Voltameter. Objections to the
Understanding Terms. Intensity and Quantity.
Voltage. Amperage Meaning of Watts and
Kilowatt. A Standard of Measurement. The
Ampere Standard. The Voltage Standard. The
Simple Switches. A Two-Pole Switch. DoublePole Switch. Sliding Switch. Reversing Switch.
Push Buttons.Electric Bells. How Made. How
Operated. Annunciators. Burglar Alarm. Wire
Push Buttons. The Push Buttons, Annunciators
Storing Up Electricity. The Accumulator.
Accumulator Plates. The Grid. The Negative
Pole. Connecting Up the Plates. Charging the
Mechanism in Telegraph Circuit. The Sending
Key. The Sounder. Connecting Up the Key and
Sounder. Two Stations in Circuit. The Double
Click. Illustrating the Dot and the Dash. The
Induction. Low and High Tension. Elastic
Property of Electricity. The Condenser.
Telegraphing Without Wires. Surging Character
of High-tension Currents. The Coherer. How
Made. The Decoherer. The Sending Apparatus.
The Receiving Apparatus. How the Circuits are
Vibrations. The Acoustic Telephone. Sound
Waves.Hearing Electricity. The Diaphragm in a
Magnetic Field. A Simple Telephone Circuit.
How to Make a Telephone. Telephone
Connections. Complete Installation. The
a Microphone. Microphone, the Father of the
Transmitter. Automatic Cut-outs for Telephones.
Decomposing Liquids. Making Hydrogen and
Oxygen. Purifying Water. Rust. Oxygen as a
a Good Purifier. Pure Oxygen a Water Purifier.
The Use of Hydrogen in Purification.Aluminum
Electrodes. Electric Hand Purifier. Purification
and Separation of Metals. Electroplating. Plating
Generating Heat in a Wire. Resistance of
Substances. Signs of Connectors. Comparison of
Metals. A Simple Electric Heater. How to
Arrange for Quantity of Current Used. An
Electric Iron. Thermo-Electricity Converting
Heat Directly into Electricity Metals. Electric,
Direct Current. Alternating Current. The
Magnetic Field. Action of a Magnetized Wire.
The Movement of a Current in a Charged Wire.
Current Reversing Itself. Self-Induction. Brushes
and Negative Poles. How anAlternating Current
Dynamo is Made. The Windings. The Armature
Voltage is Determined.Voltage andAmperage in
Electric arc. Mechanism to maintain the arc.
Resistance coil. Parallel carbons for making arc.
Series current. Incandescent system. Multiple
circuit. Subdivision of electric light. The
filament. The glass bulb. Metallic filaments.
Vapor lamps. Directions for improvements. Heat
in electric lighting. Curious superstitions
concerning electricity. Magnetism. Amber.
Discovery of the properties of a magnet.
Electricity in mountain regions. Early beliefs as
to magnetism and electricity. The lightning rod.
Protests against using it. Pliny's explanation of
Early beliefs concerning the dynamo.
Experiments with magnets. Physical action of
dynamo and motor. Electrical influence in
windings. Comparing motor and dynamo. How
Loss in power transmission. The four ways in
which power is dissipated. Disadvantages of
electric power. Its advantages. Transmission of
energy. High voltages. The transformer. Stepdowntransformers.Electricfurnaces.Weldingby
electricity. Merging the particles of the joined
The camera and the eye. Actinic rays. Hertzian
waves. High-tension apparatus. Vacuum tubes.
Character of the ultra-violet rays. How
distinguished. The infra-red rays. Their uses. Xrays not capable of reflection. Not subject to
refraction. Transmission through opaque
Pitchblende. A new form of energy. Electrical
to a theoretical knowledge, and the other which pertains to the practical
apart fromthe workitself;butonceputthemintocontactwiththemechanism
to the juncture. But put into his hands the metals, and set him to perform the
heating them, and, with a galvanometer, watching for results, it will at once
make him see something in the experiment which never occurred when the
He will inquire first what metals should be used to get the best results, and
finally, he will speculate as to the reasons for the phenomena. When he learns
that all metals are positive-negative or negative-positive to each other, he has
grasped a new idea in the realm of knowledge, which he unconsciously traces
back still further, only to learn that he has entered a field which relates to the
constitution of matter itself. As he follows the subject through its various
channels he will learn that there is a common source of all things; a
Animpulsemustbegiventoaboy'straining.Thetimeispastfortherule-androte method. The rule can be learned better by a manual application than by
In the preparation of this book, therefore, I have made practice and work the
A boy does not develop into a philosopher or a scientist through being told he
place before him the tools by which he may build even the simple machinery
as to the novice. It is simple in its manifestations, but most complex in its
organization and in its ramifications. It has been shown that light, heat,
magnetism and electricity are the same, but that they differ merely in their
amber, which, when rubbed, attracted and repelled light bodies. The ancients
also described what was probably tourmaline, a mineral which has the same
From that period down to about the year 1600 no accounts of any historical
Sir Isaac Newton also took up the subject at about the same period. Inp.61705
Hawksbee made numerous experiments; also Gray, in 1720, and a Welshman,
Dufay, at about the same time. The Germans, from 1740 to 1780, made many
The first attempt to "bottle" electricity was attempted by Muschenbrœck, at
some water in a jar, and communication having been established between the
water and the prime conductor, his assistant, who was holding the bottle, on
of experiments to determine the velocity of the electric fluid, as it was then
DISCOVERING GALVANIC ELECTRICITY.—The great discovery of Galvani, in 1790,
(named after the experimenter, Volta), and now known to be identical with
frictional electricity. In 1805 Poisson was the first to analyze electricity; and
when Œrsted of Copenhagen, in 1820, discovered the magnetic action of
electricity, it offered a great stimulus to the science, and paved the way for
motororadynamocouldbemade operative by means ofthe electro-magnetic
and resistance eventuated into Ohm's law. Thomson greatly simplified the
galvanometer, and Wheatstone invented the rheostat, a means of measuring
Grove, Bunsen and Thomson, and electrolysis by Faraday. Then came the
instruments of precision—the electrometer, the resistance bridge, the ammeter,
inventors took up the subject, and by their energy developed and put into
practical operation a most wonderful array of mechanism, which has become
probable the end of electrical research had been reached. The most wonderful
developments have been made since that time; and now, as in the past, one
HOW TO ACQUIRE THE VAST KNOWLEDGE.—As the boy, with his limited vision,
surveys this vast accumulation of tools, instruments and machinery, and sees
should enter the field with timidity. In his mind the great question is, how to
The answer to this is, that the student of to-day has the advantage of the
means that we shall employ to instil this knowledge, so that it may become a
The most significant thing in the history of electrical development is the
knowledge that of all the great scientists not one of them ever added any
knowledge to the science on purely speculative reasoning. All of them were
experimenters. They practically applied and developed their theories in the
in a practical way, one example of which will make a more lasting impression
Throughout these pages, therefore, I shall, as briefly as possible, point out the
they were groping for the facts and discovering the great manifestations in
PREPARING THE WORKSHOP.—Before commencing actual experiments we should
we shall have to be dependent upon our own efforts for the production of the
power, the heat and the electricity. Then, finding we are successful in these
USES OF OUR WORKSHOPS.—They may want us to test batteries, and it then
their houses, as well as burglar alarms. To meet the requirements, we put in a
telegraph line, having learned, as well as we are able, how they are made and
operated. But we find the telegraph too slow and altogether unsuited for our
build a telephone, a transmitter, a receiver and a switch-board for our system.
From the telephone we soon see the desirability of getting into touch with the
Butaswelearn moreand moreofthewonderfulthingselectricitywilldo,we
are brought into contact with problems which directly interest the home.
describe pertaining to this subject. We go a step further, and find that we can
course ofourexperiments, findthatacheapmetalcanbecoatedwithacostly
USES OF THEELECTRICALDEVICES.—Whileallthisisprogressingandourfactory
you may accumulate. Then you will need a small vise, say, with a 2-inch jaw,
and you will also require a hand reel for winding magnets. This will be fully
You can also, probably, get a small, cheap anvil, which will be of the greatest
service in your work. It should be mounted close up to the work bench. Two
small hammers, one with an A-shaped peon, and the other with a round peon,
stock, or a ratchet drill, if you can afford it, with a variety of small drills; two