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Computer Architecture
Computer Science & Engineering

Chapter 1
OVERVIEW:
Abstracts and Technology
BK
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The Computer Revolution


Progress in computer technology





Makes novel applications feasible






BK



Based on the Moore’s Law
Computers in automobiles
Cell phones
Human genome project
World Wide Web
Search Engines

Computers used now everywhere

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07-Sep-13

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2


History of Computer Development


First generation 1945 - 1955





Second generation 1955 - 1965




ICs and multiprogramming

Fourth generation 1980 – present




BK

transistors, batch systems

Third generation 1965 – 1980




vacuum tubes, plug boards

personal computers (Desk, Lap)
SuperComp.,
DataCenter, Clusters, etc.

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3


Classes of Computers






Desktop computers
 General purpose, variety of software
 Subject to cost/performance tradeoff
Server computers
 Network based
 High capacity, performance, reliability
 Range from small servers to building sized
Embedded computers
 Hidden as components of systems
 Stringent power/performance/cost constraints

BK
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4


The Processor Market

BK
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5


What You Will Learn









How programs are translated into the
machine language
 And how the hardware executes them
The hardware/software interface
What determines program performance
 And how it can be improved
How hardware designers improve
performance
What is parallel processing

BK
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6


Understanding Performance


Algorithm




Programming language, compiler,
architecture




Determine number of machine instructions
executed per operation

Processor and memory system




Determines number of operations executed

Determine how fast instructions are executed

I/O system (including OS)


Determines how fast I/O operations are executed

BK
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7


Below Your Program


Application software




Written in high-level language

System software




Compiler: translates HLL code to
machine code
Operating System: service code






Handling input/output
Managing memory and storage
Scheduling tasks & sharing resources

Hardware


Processor, memory, I/O controllers

BK
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07-Sep-13

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8


Levels of Program Code


High-level language






Assembly language




Level of abstraction closer
to problem domain
Provides for productivity
and portability
Textual representation of
instructions

Hardware representation



Binary digits (bits)
Encoded instructions and
data

BK
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9


Components of a Computer


Same components for
all kinds of computer




Desktop, server,
embedded

Input/output includes


User-interface devices




Storage devices




Hard disk, CD/DVD, flash

Network adapters


BK

Display, keyboard, mouse

For communicating with
other computers

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10


Anatomy of a Computer
Output
device

Network
cable

Input
device

Input
device

BK
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11


Anatomy of a Mouse


Optical mouse






LED illuminates
desktop
Small low-res camera
Basic image processor






Looks for x, y
movement

Buttons & wheel

Supersedes roller-ball
mechanical mouse

BK
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12


Through the Looking Glass


LCD screen: picture elements (pixels)


Mirrors content of frame buffer memory

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13


Opening the Box

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14


Inside the Processor (CPU)





Datapath: performs operations on data
Control: sequences datapath, memory,
...
Cache memory


Small fast SRAM memory for immediate
access to data

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15


Inside the Processor


AMD Barcelona: 4 processor cores

BK
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16


Abstractions


Abstraction helps us deal with
complexity




Instruction set architecture (ISA)




The ISA plus system software interface

Implementation


BK

The hardware/software interface

Application binary interface




Hide lower-level detail

The details underlying and interface

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17


A Safe Place for Data


Volatile main memory




Loses instructions and data when power off

Non-volatile secondary memory




Magnetic disk
Flash memory
Optical disk (CDROM, DVD)

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18


Networks



Communication and resource sharing
Local area network (LAN): Ethernet






Within a building

Wide area network (WAN: the Internet
Wireless network: WiFi, Bluetooth

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19


Technology Trends


Electronics
technology
continues to evolve




Increased capacity
and performance
Reduced cost

DRAM capacity

BK
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20


Defining Performance


Which airplane has the best performance?

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21


Response Time & Throughput


Response time




How long it takes to do a task

Throughput


Total work done per unit time




How are response time and throughput
affected by





e.g., tasks/transactions/… per hour

Replacing the processor with a faster version?
Adding more processors?

We’ll focus on response time for now…

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22


Relative Performance


Define Performance = 1/Execution Time
“X is n time faster than Y”



Example: time taken to run a program








10s on A, 15s on B
Execution TimeB / Execution TimeA
= 15s / 10s = 1.5
So A is 1.5 times faster than B

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23


Measuring Execution Time


Elapsed time


Total response time, including all aspects






Determines system performance

CPU time


Time spent processing a given job





BK

Processing, I/O, OS overhead, idle time

Discounts I/O time, other jobs’ shares

Comprises user CPU time and system CPU
time
Different programs are affected differently
by CPU and system performance

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24


CPU Clocking




Operation of digital hardware governed by a
constant-rate clock

Clock period: duration of a clock cycle



BK

e.g., 250ps = 0.25ns = 250×10–12s

Clock frequency (rate): cycles per second


e.g., 4.0GHz = 4000MHz = 4.0×109Hz

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25


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