Name Analytical Engine Z1 COLOSSUS Mark I ENIAC I EDSAC Whirlwind I IAS PDP-1 1401 7094 B5000 360 6600 PDP-8 PDP-11 8080 CRAY-1 VAX IBM PC MIPS SPARC RS6000
Made by Babbage Zuse British gov’t Aiken Eckert/Mauchley Wilkes M.I.T. Von Neumann DEC IBM IBM Burroughs IBM CDC DEC DEC Intel Cray DEC IBM MIPS Sun IBM
Comments First attempt to build a digital computer First working relay calculating machine First electronic computer First American general-purpose computer Modern computer history starts here First stored-program computer First real-time computer Most current machines use this design First minicomputer (50 sold) Enormously popular small business machine Dominated scientific computing in the early 1960s First machine designed for a high-level language First product line designed as a family First scientific supercomputer First mass-market minicomputer (50,000 sold) Dominated minicomputers in the 1970s First general-purpose 8-bit computer on a chip First vector supercomputer First 32-bit superminicomputer Started the modern personal computer era First commercial RISC machine First SPARC-based RISC workstation First superscalar machine
Figure 1-4. Some milestones in the development of the modern digital computer.
Arithmetic logic unit
Figure 1-5. The original von Neumann machine.
Paper tape I/O
Figure 1-6. The PDP-8 omnibus.
Property Relative performance Cycle time (nsec) Maximum memory (KB) Bytes fetched per cycle Maximum number of data channels
Model 30 1 1000 64 1 3
Model 40 3.5 625 256 2 3
Model 50 10 500 256 4 4
Figure 1-7. The initial offering of the IBM 360 product line.
Model 65 21 250 512 16 6
64K 16K 1K
100 10 1 1965
Figure 1-8. Moore’s law predicts a 60 percent annual increase in the number of transistors that can be put on a chip. The data points given in this figure are memory sizes, in bits.
Type Disposable computer Embedded computer Game computer Personal computer Server Collection of Workstations Mainframe Supercomputer
Price ($) 1 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M
Example application Greeting cards Watches, cars, appliances Home video games Desktop or portable computer Network server Departmental minisupercomputer Batch data processing in a bank Long range weather prediction
Figure 1-9. The current spectrum of computers available. The prices should be taken with a grain (or better yet, a metric ton) of salt.
Chip 4004 8008 8080 8086 8088 80286 80386 80486 Pentium Pentium Pro Pentium II
Date MHz Transistors Memory Notes 4/1971 0.108 2,300 640 First microprocessor on a chip 4/1972 0.108 3,500 16 KB First 8-bit microprocessor 4/1974 2 6,000 64 KB First general-purpose CPU on a chip 6/1978 5-10 29,000 1 MB First 16-bit CPU on a chip 6/1979 5-8 29,000 1 MB Used in IBM PC 2/1982 8-12 134,000 16 MB Memory protection present 10/1985 16-33 275,000 4 GB First 32-bit CPU 4/1989 25-100 1.2M 4 GB Built-in 8K cache memory 3/1993 60-233 3.1M 4 GB Two pipelines; later models had MMX 3/1995 150-200 5.5M 4 GB Two levels of cache built in 5/1997 233-400 7.5M 4 GB Pentium Pro plus MMX
Figure 1-10. The Intel CPU family. Clock speeds are measured in MHz (megahertz) where 1 MHz is 1 million cycles/sec.