The spindle of oocyte observed by polarized light microscope can predict embryo quality
Journal of military pharmaco-medicine no3-2018
THE SPINDLE OF OOCYTE OBSERVED BY POLARIZED LIGHT MICROSCOPE CAN PREDICT EMBRYO QUALITY Nguyen Thanh Tung*; Le Thanh Huyen* SUMMARY Objectives: To evaluate spindle position of mataphase (M) II oocyte and the development of embryos origined from oocytes with spindle and without spindle. Subjects and methods: 250 MII oocytes were analyzed with polarized microscopy in In vitro Fertilization Centre of Vietnam Military Medical University. Results: Spindles were detected in 170 (77.98%) of 218 MII oocytes, 115 spindles (67.65%) of MII oocytes was beneath or adjacent to the first polar body, 55 oocytes 0 0 had the spindle located between 30 and 180 angle away from the first polar body. Fertilization rate and good quality embryos in oocytes with a visible spindle (77.98% and 61.02%) were higher than in oocytes without a visible spindle (22.02% and 36.84%), the difference was significant with p < 0.001 and p < 0.05. Conclusions: Spindle position of MII oocytes did not always beneath or adjacent to the first polar body. Fertilization rate and good quality embryos in oocytes with a visible spindle were higher than in oocytes without a visible spindle. * Keywords: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection; In vitro fertilization; Metaphase II oocyte; Polscope; Spindle; Polarized light microscope.
INTRODUCTION Ovarian stimulation to make multiple of good oocytes and embryos is one of the most important step to increase success rate of in-vitro fertilization. The abnormal genetic oocytes are made by ovarian stimulation with impossibility in passing the physical limitation can cause failure of embryos development inside uterus. Oocyte selection with best quality without genetic abnormalities by non-invasive technique is essential. Embryologists give many morphological criteria to assess and
select good oocyte and put the embryos into uterus. Cytoplasm, zona pellucida, polar body can be observed by conventional microscope but some other parts of cell is invisible. Polarized microscope allows embryologist to observe morphology of the spindle. The appearance of spindle helps us recognize either oocyte maturation or the quality of laboratory. This research was conducted with aim: Evaluation of spindle location of mature oocyte and embryos development by oocyte with spindle and oocyte without visible spindle.
* Vietnam Military Medical University Corresponding author: Nguyen Thanh Tung (email@example.com) Date received: 09/01/2018 Date accepted: 28/02/2018
Journal of military pharmaco-medicine n03-2018
SUBJECTS AND METHODS 1. Subjects. Mature oocytes of IVF patients at IVF Center of Vietnam Military Medical University * Selection criteria: + Patients under 35 years old. + 3 ng/mL < AMH < 10 ng/mL. + The number of secondary follicle: 5 15 in second or third day of menses cycle. * Exclusion criteria: + Polycystic ovary patient, low respond to ovary stimulation. + Low quantity and quality sperm. * Equipment and materials: Incubator Cook (Australia) 37oC, mix gas 6% CO2, 5% O2. POLARIZED LIGHT MICROSCOPE Ti-U Nikon TE2000 with Module polarAIDE Octax laser system, digital camera.... - Consumable: Culture box (Nunc), petri dish 60 mm, needle using in ICSI technology. - Spermrinse, oocyte washing, Embryo Cultures of Vitrolife (Sweden).
Daily oocyte ultrasound until appeared at least 3 follicles bigger than 17 mm. Ovulation was trigger by hCG 5,000 IU injection. Oocyte retrieval after injection hCG 35 - 36 hours. After retrieving, put oocytes in incubator at 37oC, 5% CO2 for 2 hours. Then denuding oocyte by enzyme hyaluronidase. Put fresh oocyte at 37oC for 1 hour. Evaluate of maturation level of oocytes and spindle before ICSI. * ICSI technology (Intra - Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection) (Palermo, 1992) : * Evaluation morphology of egg and fertilization method (Kathy, 2000) : Mature oocyte (MII) showing round first polar body without intact germinal vesicle. Immature oocyte with visible germinal vesicles (GV). Immature oocyte (MI) without intact germinal vesicle and polar body.
2. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis study. * Studied parameters: Average age; FSH average dose; mature oocyte rate; mature oocyte with spindle and mature oocyte without observed spindle; spindle position; fertilization rate of mature oocyte with spindle and mature oocyte without spindle; embryo quality in third day. * Oocyte stimulation protocol: Oocyte stimulation was used from the second or third day of cycle, antagonist was used from the sixth after using FSH day.
Pronuclear stage contains male nucleus, female nucleus and 2 round polar body. 117
Journal of military pharmaco-medicine no3-2018 * Cultures: After ICSI 16 - 18 hours, put zygote into new medium (G1 plus). Evaluate embryos in the second day, and then put them into G2 plus in incubator Cook. Classify embryos in the third day based on criteria of alpha of ESHRE 2011 . * Data analysis: Result were expressed by variables average values and variables were showed in figures and percentage (%). Using student t-test or Chi-square (χ2) to compare the variables. The statistically valid test when p < 0.05. RESULTS Table 1: Age and FSH dose, the average number of oocytes retrieved. Index
29.65 ± 2.87
FSH dose (IU per day)
192 ± 29.69
60 - 120 120 - 180 degrees degrees
The result of table 2 showed that in which 170 visible spindle matured oocytes, there were 115 oocytes (67.65%) with spindle directly beneath and adjacent to the first polar body, 40 spindle oocytes (23.53%) located between 30 and 60 degrees angle away from the first polar body, 10 spindle oocytes (5.88%) located between 60 and 120 degrees angle, 5 spindle oocytes (2.94%) located between 120 and 180 degrees angle.
10 ± 1.61
The average number of age: 29.65 ± 2.87, the youngest was 24, and the oldest was 33. FSH dose per patient was 192 ± 29.69 IU/day. The average number of oocytes retrieved was 10 ± 1.61. * The classification of oocyte maturation: The total of oocytes was 250 oocytes, in which immature oocytes were 32 (10 oocytes in the prophase I (GV) occurred 4%, 22 oocytes are in the MI occurred 8.8%, 218 matured oocytes occurred 87.2%. * The rate of visible spindle in the mature oocytes: In 218 matured oocytes, there were 170 visible spindle oocytes (77.98%) and 48 spindle oocytes (22.02%) were not observed. 118
Directly MII with beneath and 30 - 60 visible adjacent to degrees the first spindle polar body
X ± SD
Table 2: Spindle location.
Imagine 1: MII was observed by polarization microscope, with magnification 200X (the thin arrow: the first polar body. The bold arrow: meiosis spindle, beneath the first polar body, the left imagine showed that the spindle located in 70 degrees angel way from the first polar body).
Journal of military pharmaco-medicine n03-2018 Table 3: The fertilization rate of mature oocytes. MII oocytes with visible spindle The fertilization rate
MII oocytes spindle
The fertilization rate of mature oocytes with visible spindle was 69.41%, whereas that of mature oocytes with invisible spindle was 39.58%. The difference was statistically significant with p < 0.001. Table 4: The classification of third day embryos. Classification
MII oocytes with visible spindle
MII oocytes without visible spindle
Good embryos rate of MII oocytes with visible spindle was higher than of MII oocytes with invisible spindle (61.02% and 36.84%). The difference was statistically significant with p < 0.05. DISCUSSION 1. The presence of spindle on mature oocytes. In this research, oocytes were observed at 39 hours after hCG administration, the time that Cohen et al (2004) had observed the spindle of MII oocytes with the highest rate (81.5%) . In 218 observed MII oocytes, there were 170 visible spindle oocytes (77.98%), similar to the result of Cohen et al (2004), Heindryclx et al (2011) [2, 4] (585/770 oocytes (76%); 891/1089 oocytes (81.9%), respectively). In this research, in spite of 48 oocytes with the first polar body, the rate of invisible spindle oocytes was 22.02%. To explain the absence of spindle in MII oocytes, Montag et al (2006) used time-lapse to observe the oocyte maturation in the
in-vitro and showed that when MI oocytes extruded the first polar body, a spindle had established the bridge between the polar body and the oolemma for 75 - 90 minutes. These images was recorded at telophase 1 by polarized microscope. After extruding the first polar body, it took 115 - 150 minutes to establish the spindle beneath the first polar body. Therefore, the spindle was absent in the oocyte meosis . In ICSI, the spindle location of mature oocyte is involved in the first polar body. The ICSI micropipette has to avoid the spindle in the injection. However, several researches reported that the first polar body did not exactly predict the spindle location . Thus, the spindle could be injured when located far from the first polar body. Using polarized microscope 119
Journal of military pharmaco-medicine no3-2018 could reduce spindle injured in ICSI. In this research, there were 8 oocytes (8.7%) with spindle located between 600 and 1,200 angle away the first polar body, this location was for injecting by the ICSI micropipette though out the 3-hour position in the oocyte. To explain the change of spindle location away from the first polar body, in the oocyte denudation by physical processing, the first polar body was moved. Another reason was that the fluid surrounding the spindle forces its movement .
2. The fertilization and embryo quality. Oocyte assessment by using polarizied microscope improved the prediction of oocyte quality. In the Woodward’s research (2008), the fertilization rate and embryo quality in day 3 and day 5 of the oocyte MII with visible spindle was higher and better than of the oocyte MII without spindle . In our research, fertilization rates between two groups were significantly statistically different (p < 0.05). This result was similar to the result of Cohen et al (2004), Heindryckx (2011) [2, 4].
Table 6: The fertilization rate of MII oocyte with or without visible spindle. The fertilization rate (%)
MII oocyte with visible spindle
MII oocyte without visible spindle
There are many reasons for the IVF failure, in which the major reason is from chromosome abnormalities and 80% of aneuploidy embryos are from the oocyte meiosis 1 . Chromosome dividing errors often happen in meiosis 1. The main mechanism is the error in homologous chromosome pairing in prophase 1, recombination and early dividing of chromosome. Spindle controlled the chromosome movement though many periods in meiosis and has a crucial role in meiosis . In this research, the good embryos rate of MII oocytes with visible spindle was higher than of MII oocytes with invisible spindle. Moon et al (2003) implemented in 626 MII oocytes, the good embryo rate of MII oocytes with visible spindle 64.2% was higher than of MII oocytes without spindle 35.9% (p < 0.01), and the rate of multi-pronuclear in MII oocytes with visible spindle (3PN, 4PN) was reduced, compared with MII oocytes without spindle (5.9% and 10.7%) . CONCLUSION
- The spindle location may be away far from the first polar body.
1. Alpha Scientists in Reproductive Medicine and ESHRE Special Interest Group of Embryo. The istabul consensus workshop on embryo assessment proceedings of an expert meeting. Human Reproduction. 2011, 26 (6), pp.1270-1283.
- The fertilization and good embryo rates of MII oocytes with visible spindle are higher than that of MII oocytes without observed spindle. 120
Journal of military pharmaco-medicine n03-2018 2. Cohen Y, Malcov M, Schwartz, Raz Mey N, Carmon A, Cohen T, Amit A and Azem F. Spindle imaging: a new marker for optimal timing of ICSI?. Human Reproduction. 2004 , Vol 19, No 3, pp.649-654. 3. Hassold T, Hunt P. To err (meiotically; is human the genesis of human aneuploidy. Not Rev Genet. 2001, 2, pp.280-291. 4. Heindryckx B, Gheselle D.S, Lierman S, Gerris J and Sutter D.P. Efficiency of palarized microscopy as a predictive tool for human oocyte quality. Human Reproduction. 0 2011, Vol 26, N 3, pp.535-544. 5. Kathy L, Sharpe T, Randall L, Zimmer. Oocyte and pre-embryo classification. Hand book of the assisted reproduction laboratory. 2000, pp.179-196. 6. Moon J.H, Hyun Ch.S, Lee S.W, Son W.Y, Yoon S.H, Lim J.H. Visualization of the metaphase II meiotic spindle in living human oocytes using the polscope enables the prediction of embryonic developmental competence
after ICSI. Human Reproduction. 2003, Vol 18, 0 N 4, pp.817-820. 7. Montag M, S.chimming T, Van der Ven H. Spindle imaging in human oocyte the impact of the meiotic cell cycle. Repro Biomed Online. 2006, 12, pp.442-446. 8. Palermo G, Joris H, Devroey P, Van Steirteghem A.C. Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoon into an oocyte. Lancet. 1992, 340 (8810), pp.17-18. 9. Silva C.S, Kapura K, Oldenboug R and Keefe D.L. The first polar body doesn’t not predict accurately the location of the metaphase II meiotic spindle in mammalian oocytes. Fertil. Reprod. 1999, 13, pp.719-721. 10. Woodward B, Montgomery S, Hartshome G, Campbell K, Kennedy R. Spindle position assessment prior to ICSI does not benefit fertilization or early embryo quality. Repro Biomed Online. 2008, 16, pp.232-238.