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As the practice of anesthesiology extends itself beyond perioperative medicine, the
anesthesiologist’s knowledge and expertise in pain assessment and management is highly
valued. There is growing evidence that pediatric patients of all ages, even the extremely premature
neonates, are capable of experiencing pain as a result of tissue injuries due to various causes.
There are several physiological consequences and behavioral responses of pain in children
and therefore they need to be addressed (Table 3.1).
Table 3.1: Physiological consequences of pain in children
Increased blood pressure
Increased O2 consumption
Increased heart rate
Decreased tidal volume