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Lecture Human anatomy and physiology - Chapter 7: The skeleton (part b)

PowerPoint® Lecture Slides
prepared by
Janice Meeking,
Mount Royal College

CHAPTER

7

The Skeleton:
Part B

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


Vertebral Column
• Transmits weight of trunk to lower limbs
• Surrounds and protects spinal cord
• Flexible curved structure containing 26 irregular
bones (vertebrae)
• Cervical vertebrae (7)—vertebrae of the neck

• Thoracic vertebrae (12)—vertebrae of the thoracic
cage
• Lumbar vertebrae (5)—vertebra of the lower back
• Sacrum—bone inferior to the lumbar vertebrae
• Coccyx—terminus of vertebral column
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Vertebral Column: Curvatures
• Increase the resilience and flexibility of the spine
• Two posteriorly concave curvatures
• Cervical and lumbar
• Two posteriorly convex curvatures
• Thoracic and sacral

• Abnormal spine curvatures
• Scoliosis (abnormal lateral curve)
• Kyphosis (hunchback)
• Lordosis (swayback)
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C1

Cervical curvature
(concave)
7 vertebrae, C1–C7

Spinous
process
Transverse
processes
Thoracic
curvature
(convex)
12 vertebrae,
T1–T12
Intervertebral
discs
Intervertebral


foramen

Lumbar curvature
(concave)
5 vertebrae, L1–L5

Sacral curvature
(convex)
5 fused vertebrae
sacrum

Anterior view

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Coccyx
4 fused vertebrae
Right lateral view

Figure 7.16


Ligaments
• Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
• From neck to sacrum

• Ligamentum flavum
• Connects adjacent vertebrae

• Short ligaments
• Connect each vertebra to those above and
below

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Intervertebral Discs


Cushionlike pad composed of two parts
1. Nucleus pulposus


Inner gelatinous nucleus that gives the
disc its elasticity and compressibility

2. Anulus fibrosus


Outer collar composed of collagen and
fibrocartilage

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Supraspinous ligament
Transverse process
Sectioned
spinous process
Ligamentum flavum
Interspinous
ligament

Intervertebral
disc
Anterior
longitudinal
ligament
Intervertebral foramen
Posterior longitudinal
ligament
Anulus fibrosus
Nucleus pulposus

Inferior articular process

Sectioned body
of vertebra
Median section of three vertebrae, illustrating the composition
of the discs and the ligaments

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Figure 7.17a


Vertebral spinous process
(posterior aspect of vertebra)
Spinal cord
Spinal nerve root

Transverse
process
Herniated portion
of disc
Anulus fibrosus
of disc

Nucleus
pulposus
of disc

(c) Superior view of a herniated intervertebral disc

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 7.17c


General Structure of Vertebrae
• Body or centrum
• Anterior weight-bearing region

• Vertebral arch
• Composed of pedicles and laminae that, along with
centrum, enclose vertebral foramen

• Vertebral foramina
• Together make up vertebral canal for spinal cord

• Intervertebral foramina
• Lateral openings between adjacent vertebrae for
spinal nerves
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General Structure of Vertebrae
• Seven processes per vertebra:
• Spinous process—projects posteriorly
• Transverse processes (2)—project laterally
• Superior articular processes (2)—protrude
superiorly inferiorly
• Inferior articular processes (2)—protrude
inferiorly
PLAY

Animation: Rotatable Spine (horizontal)

PLAY

Animation: Rotatable Spine (vertical)

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


Lamina
Transverse
process

Posterior
Spinous
process

Superior
articular
process
and
facet
Pedicle
Anterior
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Vertebral
arch

Vertebral
foramen
Body
(centrum)
Figure 7.18


Cervical Vertebrae
• C1 to C7: smallest, lightest vertebrae
• C3 to C7 share the following features
• Oval body
• Spinous processes are bifid (except C7)
• Large, triangular vertebral foramen
• Transverse foramen in each transverse
process

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Table 7.2


Dens of axis
Transverse ligament
of atlas
C1 (atlas)
C2 (axis)
C3
Inferior articular
process
Bifid spinous
process
Transverse processes
C7 (vertebra
prominens)
(a) Cervical vertebrae
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Figure 7.20a


Cervical Vertebrae
• C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis) have unique features
• Atlas (C1)
• No body or spinous process
• Consists of anterior and posterior arches, and
two lateral masses
• Superior surfaces of lateral masses articulate
with the occipital condyles

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C1

Posterior

Lateral
masses

Posterior
Posterior
tubercle
Posterior arch

Anterior
Anterior arch
tubercle
(a) Superior view of atlas (C1)

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Transverse
foramen
Superior
articular
facet

Posterior arch
Transverse
process

Lateral
masses

Posterior
tubercle
Inferior
articular
facet

Transverse
Anterior
foramen
arch
Facet for dens
Anterior tubercle
(b) Inferior view of atlas (C1)

Figure 7.19a-b


Cervical Vertebrae
• Axis (C2)
• Dens projects superiorly into the anterior arch
of the atlas
• Dens is a pivot for the rotation of the atlas

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C2

Posterior
Spinous process
Lamina

Inferior
articular
process

Pedicle

Transverse
process

Superior
articular
facet

Dens

Body
(c) Superior view of axis (C2)

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Figure 7.19c


Thoracic Vertebrae
• T1 to T12
• All articulate with ribs at facets and
demifacets
• Long spinous process
• Location of articular facets allows rotation of
this area of spine

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Table 7.2


Transverse
process

Superior articular
process
Transverse
costal facet (for
tubercle of rib)
Intervertebral
disc
Body

Spinous
process

Inferior costal
facet (for head
of rib)
Inferior articular
process

(b) Thoracic vertebrae
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Figure 7.20b


Lumbar Vertebrae
• L1 to L5
• Short, thick pedicles and laminae
• Flat hatchet-shaped spinous processes
• Orientation of articular facets locks lumbar
vertebrae together so as to prevent rotation

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Table 7.2


Superior
articular
process
Transverse
process

Spinous
process

Body
Intervertebral
disc
Inferior
articular
process

(c) Lumbar vertebrae
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Figure 7.20c


Sacrum and Coccyx
• Sacrum

• Coccyx

• 5 fused vertebrae (S1–
S 5)

• Tailbone

• Forms posterior wall of
pelvis

• Articulates superiorly
with sacrum

• Articulates with L5
superiorly, and with
auricular surfaces of
the hip bones laterally

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• 3–5 fused vertebrae


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