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Water prices, and determination of customer satisfaction: A comparison of private and rest sectors of managing in the rural water supply schemes

WATER PRICES, AND DETERMINATION
OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: A COMPARISON OF PRIVATE
AND REST SECTORS OF MANAGING IN THE RURAL WATER
SUPPLY SCHEMES
Ass-Pro. Dr. Doan The Loi
Theloi2001@yahoo.com
Institute for Water Resources Economics and Management
Dr. Nguyen Huu Dung
dungfuv@yahoo.com
Department of Natural Resource Economics, National Economic University
PhD student. Nguyen Tuan Anh
anhnt.iwem@gmail.com
Institute for Water Resources Economics and Management
Abstract
The paper compares water prices and affecting factors customer satisfaction on
clean-water supply of private sector with the rest of management (State-owned companies,
Province Center for rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation and People‟s
committee). Using an explanatory regression model with the survey data from 67 water
supply schemes and 900 households of different management organizations in two regions
of northern and southern Vietnam. The paper shows that private sector has a higher water
price compared to the rest sector of the managed area of 962 VND/m3. Customers of

private sector have a higher satisfaction level than the rest of the managed area of 4%
compared to the average satisfaction level. The factors affecting customer satisfaction are:
(1) waiting time for water deliveries, (2) pressure of water, (3) color of water, (4) smell of
water, (5) location of household users and (6) project duration.
Keywords: water supply, private sector, water prices, customer satisfaction
1. Introduction
The concentrated water supply system is the essential infrastructure to provide
clean water in order to improve the health of people in rural areas and socio-economic
development in the recent past. In the period from 2000 to present, the Government has
implemented 3 national target programs on rural clean water and environmental sanitation.
According to the statistics of the Ministry of Finance, by March 2017, there were 15,878
constructions totaling about 33,980 billion VND (1.498 billion USD, 0.50 billion USD per
year). Of these, 14,991 works have a national database of assets managed and stored by
units with a total value of 19,654 billion VND: (i) Commune People's Committee manages
12,614 submit (accounting for 84.60%); (ii) Public non-business units managed 1,860
(accounting for 12.47%); (iii) enterprises managed 437 works (accounted for 2.93%).

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Comparing Vietnam's water supply, rural water supply for 2011-2015 accounts for
25.61% of total investment in water infrastructure (totaling 5.85 billion $). Rate of
investment capital for rural water supply compared to investment capital for water supply
infrastructure in Vietnam in the period 2011-2015 (accounting for 25.61% of total
investment in water supply infrastructure). The demand for investment in rural water
supply for the period 2018-2025 is 5.59 billion USD (0.63 billion USD per year on
average) and 12.22 billion USD in the next 2025-2040 period an average of 0.82 billion
USD per year. Therefore, the demand for investment in rural water supply in the coming
time is 1.44 times higher than the period 2011-2015. According to the assessment of the
Center for Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (RWSA), the constructions
will be medium and large scale compared to the previous period in order to ensure the
sustainability of the constructions. From 2016 onwards, the investment capital for the rural
water supply system will be integrated into the new rural program.

Fig 1: Investment capital for rural water supply in Vietnam until 2040
Nguồn: Global Infrastructure Outlook and author's calculations
In addition, according to the National Action Plan report, sustainable maintenance
of rural water supply facilities for the period 2016-2020 (2016), funding for maintenance
of sustainable water supply facilities is 4,358.618 billion VND. To compensate for this
funding, it is necessary to involve the private sector in investment, management and


operation of water supply facilities in rural areas, reducing the burden on the state budget.
Studies pointing out that the private sector and the state sector and the management
community in the water sector have their own pros and cons. There are a number of
comparative studies between the private sector and the public sector in the water supply
sector. According to the authors Antonio Estache and Martín A. Rossi (2002) using 1995
data with sample sizes of 50 companies in Pacific regions and using test results in the US.
With this topic study, Elizabeth L. Kleemeier (2010) summarized the rural private operator
initiatives as a promising option for addressing sustainability and sustainability issues. The
site describes 25 case studies from Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, Latin America, the
Caribbean, South and Southeast Asia. In addition, the Latin American study by George,

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Clarke, Katrina and Scott (2009), based on a comparison before and after private sector
participation, shows that the proportion of household. The results of a study in Portugal by
Rui Cunha Marques (2008) compared water supply systems managed by the private sector
and the state sector, indicating that the management of the water supply system in the area
The private sector is better than the state sector . However, the study by Edouard Pe'rard
(2009) in OECD countries is based on the evaluation of 22 empirical tests with 51 case
studies showing that private sector participation in water supply has not a positive
consequence. A study by L. Koestler (2009), in four case studies in Uganda, shows that
private sector participation provides a high degree of motivation and effectiveness, but is not
appropriate at all community. Research by Eshien Chong, Freddy Huet, Stephane Saussier,
and Faye Steiner (2006) supplies water in France with a sample size of 3,650 enterprises
(31% managed by the public sector and 69% managed by the other sector). The average water
price of pumping stations managed by PPP is higher than the average water of 17.45%.
Another aspect is the satisfaction of water service users at water supply stations by
different organizations, which is an important objective in overall quality management. In
the field of public service in general and water supply services in particular, there are many
studies to evaluate customer satisfaction. According to the study by KC Ellawala and
DPMP Priyankara (2016) in southern Sri Lanka from July to September 2015, a sample of
583 households with 25 interview questions revealed that the site the residence area is the
most influential parameter on satisfaction. Satisfaction on the safety of the smell was more
than 95% of the respondents. The authors Parviz Fattahi, Amirsaman Kherikhah, Ramin
Sadeghian, Shahla Zandib and Saeed Fayyaz (2011) propose a model for measuring the
level of satisfaction of customers in the water supply sector. Some important criteria such
as water quality, quantity of water, corporate responsibility, etc are differentiated and used
in the proposed model. Adnan Enshassi (2005) surveyed 609 households in Gaza Strip
states, the results of which show that most respondents were dissatisfied with the service
water supply relates to water quality, quantity and continuity. A study by Karoline
Hormann (2016) analyzes the determinants of user satisfaction in clean water, sewage and
trash in Portugal. The study conducted a survey of 1,070 clients conducted by the
Portuguese Water and Wastewater Management Authority. And using the logitic model to
analyze the relationship between overall service satisfaction and service satisfaction, the
results show that overall consumer satisfaction with specific service aspects but not related
to socio-economic and demographic features. The study by Jayaramu KP, B. Manoj
Kumar, Prasanna Rashmi KK (2014) in the city of Hubli-Dharwad, South India for a long
time compared two continuous water supply and intermittent water supply in Hubli. The
results of the study show that most clients in the continuous water supply area are very
satisfied with water quality, continuity, quantity, and pressure; while there is little (12%)
dissatisfaction in discontinuous water supply.
In Vietnam, the general concept of private sector is based on level of generalization
including public sector and non-state sector. There are many opinions about the private
sector in Vietnam's regulations such as Joint Circular 37/2014/TTLT-BNNPTNT-BTCBKHĐT of the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam provides: (1) Private; (2)

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Cooperatives; (3) Public non-business units; (4) Enterprise. In Circulars 54/2013/TT-BTC,
assigns the works to directly manage, use and exploit, including: (1) Public non-business
units; (2) Enterprises; (3) People's committees of communes, wards and townships. And
according to Directive No. 35/CT-TTg, the order of priority for management and operation
assignment is as follows: (1) Enterprises; (2) Public non-business units; (3) Commune
People's Committee. According to Doan The Loi, Nguyen Tuan Anh (2016) in the water
sector, some forms of management organizations such as communities, cooperatives,
commune people's committees are not entirely state-owned or private sector .In order to
identify private sector , the research team divides the active organizations and individuals
that provide rural water supply into three main areas
(1) Private sector includes: organizations and individuals investing in the
construction of rural water supply facilities (CRWS) and directly managing or privatized
rural water supply enterprises, government no holding share (over 50% of capital). The
private sector mainly operates as an enterprise (under Enterprise Law 2014, excluding state
owned enterprises) and individual business households.
(2) The State-owned sectors: are state-owned organizations whichs set up
construction of rural water supply facilities The state sector usually consists of state-owned
enterprises, Public non-business units; (the Center for Rural Water Supply and
Environmental Sanitation, management board)
(3) The other sectors: is organizations outside the two sectors, such as People's
Committees, communities, cooperative groups, etc., are jointly invested in the construction
of rural water supply facilities and managed directly
Each management model in Vietnam shows different advantages and disadvantages.
Considering the differences between the private sector and the remaining models, they can
be grouped into two areas: (1) water supply stations managed by the private sector; (2)
Water supply stations managed by the rest of the area (non-private sectors including Stateowned enterprises, public service delivery agencies, Commune People's Committees,
cooperatives, community management). The efficiency of private sector management
compared to the rest of the region does the private sector actually operate better than the
rest in terms of water prices and customer satisfaction? From there, it is possible to export
solutions to attract or overcome pros and cons to attract the private sector to participate in
investment, management and operation of rural water supply facilities.
2. Method
To determine the difference between the private sector and the rest of the water
price and customer satisfaction in this study based on dummy variable modeling.
a. Evaluate the difference between water prices
Used by estimating the smallest price regression on a set of indicator variables for
organizational choice and a set of exogenous factors (including water supply technology,
capacity, capital productivity investment, life expectancy, ...), the length of the system, the
number of households serving, the rate of water loss ....

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p =DPδ +Xβ +u with u ~ (0,Σ)
Where p is the price of water for 1m3 (VND/m3)
DP: A dummy variable containing the management involvement index of different
management organizations
DP=1 if privater sector is managed
DP= 0 if the rest area is managed
X is a set of exogenous controls
u is the (heteroskedastic) stochastic error.
We are interested in the coefficients δ which measure the average shift in price across
different the private sector and the rest manage. Here dummy D receives a value of 1 when the
water supply station managed by the private sector manages, and receives zero value when the
water supply station managed by the rest of the area includes: public sector, Commune
management, cooperative management, and community management. Analysis and processing
of results use IBM-SPSS 22.0 statistical software. This model used by the authors Eshien,
Freddy, Stephane, Faye (2006) to examine the differences in water pricing between privatesector water supply stations under PPP contracts with linear regression model.
According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and Mouhamed
(2016), the private sector participates in investment, management and participation in areas with
high population density and high income. In the whole country, the private sector is involved in
investment and management mainly in the two major deltas, the Red River Delta (north) and the
Mekong Delta (south). According to the General Statistics Office, the population density in
2016 in the Red River Delta is the highest in the country at 994 persons/km2, and the region
with the third highest population density is 433 people/km2. Water supply stations were
surveyed mainly in the Red River Delta and the Mekong Delta. In particular, the Red River
delta has a variety of management models, and the efficiency of each province is different,
while in the Mekong Delta the provinces have the same management models.
Table 1: Data of water supply station analysis
No

1

2

796

Province

Describe the data

Thai Binh, Ha
Nam, Long An

Survey data for 30 water supply stations, corresponding to each province surveyed 10
stations. There are 15 stations managed by the private sector, 5 managed by the
State, 10 by the People's Committee (Commune People's Committee,
cooperative, community) in 2015 under the auspices of the Australian Embassy.

Ha Nam, Bac
Ninh, Vinh
Phuc, Hung
Yen, Phu Tho,
Thanh Hoa,
Quang Ninh,
Ha Noi

Survey data includes 37 water supply stations in Ha Nam (3 stations), Bac Ninh
(5 stations), Vinh Phuc (2 stations), Hung Yen (5 stations), Phu Tho (2 stations) ,
Thanh Hoa (4 stations), Quang Ninh (7 stations) Hanoi (6 stations). Data
collected by the Institute for Irrigation Economics and Management in 2017. The
data for the 2017 survey includes 19 stations managed by private sector, 12
managed by state owned sector and 6 managed by Commune People's
Committee .


b. Evaluate the difference between customer satisfaction
In determining the difference in customer satisfaction of the private sector and the
rest of the region, the authors used the dummy variable model to distinguish the private
sector and the rest. The impact on customer satisfaction as analyzed above is the amount of
water, quality and location of households using the system. Using the data set of 900
households surveyed by the Institute of Economics and Management of Irrigation under
the Australian Embassy's implementation of the Private Sector Assessment in 2015 in three
provinces of Ha Nam (300 households), Thai Binh (300 households), Long An (300
households).
S =αD + βY+u
S is customer satisfaction on the likert scale of 5 points.
DS: a dummy variable containing the management involvement index of different
management organizations
DS= 1 if privater sector is managed
DS= 0 if the rest area is managed
Y is the control variable (including water hours, water pressure, color, odor, taste of
water and distance from household to water supply station). In addition, in this study, the
author proposes additional features for the water supply station such as project duration,
length of pipeline / household, scale of water supply station.
Factor α to consider the degree of customer satisfaction differences between the
private sector and the rest. Data set of 900 households interviewed after analysis using
IBM-SPSS 22.0 statistical software.
3. Results
3.1 Description of characteristics of the objects to be surveyed
a. Pumping Stations
Based on data collected from 67 pumping stations in 10 provinces (including 9
provinces in the North and a province in the South) among them 34 pumping stations
managed by the private sector (accounting for 50.75%) and 33 water supply stations
managed by the other sector (accounting for 49.25%) (see table 2) .
Table 2: Selected pumping stations in survey
Organization
The other sectors
No

Province

Private
Sector

I

Northern

1

Bac Ninh

2

2

Ha Nam

10

3

Ha Noi

4

Govermen
t Sector

2
1

Commune
People‘s
Committee

Coope
Community
rative

Tota
l

Rate
(%)

0

0

1

5

7.46

2

1

1

14

20.90

0

1

0

6

8.96

797


Organization
The other sectors
No

Province

Private
Sector

Govermen
t Sector

Commune
People‘s
Committee

Coope
Community
rative

Tota
l

Rate
(%)

4

Hung Yen

3

1

0

1

0

5

7.46

5

Phu Tho

2

0

0

2

0

4

5.97

6

Quang Ninh

1

6

0

0

0

7

10.45

7

Thai Binh

5

1

2

1

1

10

14.93

8

Thanh Hoa

2

1

0

1

0

4

5.97

9

Vinh Phuc

0

2

0

0

0

2

2.99

II

Southern

1

Long An

5

3

1

0

1

10

14.93

34

17

5

7

4

67

100.00

50.75

25.37

7.46

10.45

5.97

100

Total
Rate (%)

The characteristics of the rural water supply station are described in Table 3, the
size of the rural water supply stations operated by the private sector is larger than the rest.
The performance in terms of m3 night-day and work life of the rest of the area is higher
than that of the private sector.
Table 3: The characteristics of the rural water supply station
Management
area

Capacity according Performance
to design
by m3 daynight (%)
(m3day-night)

Water price
Pipeline Life expectancy
includes VAT
length (km) for 2017 (years)
(VND/m3)

The rest of
the area

1256.03

0.61

20.48

7

5235

Private
sector

2979.62

0.57

47.94

5

6349

b. Household users
Table 4 show the analytical variables. In there, the average water price of the
pumping stations survey is 5,800 VND/m3, the lowest is 2,500 VND/m3 which managed
by the community (Long An Province) and the highest is 8,400 VND/m3 which managed
by individual business households (Long An Province). Other features of the pumping
station water are showed in Table 4 below.
Table 4: Features of the pumping stations were surveyed in the analysis model
Variable Concept
P

798

The current water price of the pumping
stations, the water price included VAT
(VND / m3)

Minimum Maximum
2500

Mean

8400 5800.075


Variable Concept

Minimum Maximum

Mean

D

Denoting the management area. Value1 is
the managment of private sector and value
0 is the managment of other sector

0

1

0.507

X1

Total lost water divided the km of the system

.019

1.243

0.296

X2

Rate of water loss %)1

.050

.750

0.276

X3

Number of connected households divided
10000

.015

.800

0.206

X4

Length of pipeline divided number of
connected households (m/ household)

3.338

107.260

18.505

X5

Project duration to 2017

0.000

30.000

6.150

P

After clarifing other values in water quality assessments such as color, smell, and taste,
and other water quality assessments. Table 5 shows 900 interviewed households then filtering
out 442 households which the results describing by region, province of management. In table
5, the results of analysis of the households after filtering out, the proportion of households in
the private sector and the rest are 58.82% and 41.18%, respectively. And the proportion of men
and women is 55.88% and 44.12% respectively (see table 5).
Table 5: Features of interviewed households by region and province
Ha Nam
Gender
Male
Female

Long An

Thai Binh
Total

Rate(%)

Other
Sectors

Private
sector

Other
Sectors

Private
sector

Other
Sectors

Private
sector

10

20

69

65

22

61

247

55.88

7

15

56

58

18

41

195

44.12

Table 6 illustrates the features related to customer satisfaction in the analysis model.
Table 6: Results of Features related to customer satisfaction in the analysis model
Variable Concept

1

Min

Max

Mean

S

Satisfied customers about water supply system according
to a five point Likert scale (1- Very dissatisfied, 2 - Not
satisfied, 3 - Normal, 4 - Satisfied, 5- Very satisfied)

1

5

3.67

DS

Managed area, value 1 is the private sector‘s
management and value 0 is other sectors‘s management

0

1

.59

Y1

How many hours a day is there in your family? (124h, 2 – Only day, 3- Only night, 4-1/2 day, 5Depending on day, 6-Depending on time)

1

7

2.97

Y2

Intensity of clean water (1-strong, 2-medium, 3-weak,
4-depending on time, 5- other)

1

5

1.50

Calculated by total sales of water

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Variable Concept

Min

Max

Mean

Y3

The color of water (1-Very bad , 2-Bad, 3- no color,
4-Good, 5-Very good)

2

5

3.82

Y4

The smell of water (1-Very foul, 2-foul, 3- No smell,
4-Good, 5-Very good)

2

5

3.48

Y5

The taste of water (1-salty, 2- brackish, 3-sour, 4-quite
sweet, 5-sweet)

2

5

4.36

Y6

Distance from system to home (km)

.01

7.50

1.85

Y7

Service life to 2017

2

30

11.03

Y8

Length of pipeline/household (m /household)

3.33

45.05

14.26

Y9

Number of households by design (100 households)

1.00 105.00

19.35

3.2 The difference between the private sector and other sectors
a. Difference in water prices
The least squares OLS estimation result of the model was significant (Sig.F = 0.00),
which was smaller than α = 1% meaning that at least one independent variable affects the
dependent variable of the water price. And the regression coefficient R2 = 0.346 with the
Durbin–Watson coefficient d = 1.717; With k '= 6, n = 67 so having dU = 1.642, dL =
1.251 and 4-dU = 2.358, so the model has no level 1 correlation. And the VIF coefficient
for 6 variables is less than 2 so there is no multicollinearity (Hoang Trong and Chu Nguyen
Mong Ngoc, 2008). This cooefficient is in the range 1-3, so the model does not have selfcorrelation. The results of the estimation coefficients are presented in Table 7. The analysis
results show that the water price of the pumping stations managed by the private sector is
higher than that of the other sectors of 962 VND/m3. This difference is statistically
significant at <1%. If the price difference between the two management areas is
comparable, the average price of survey pumping stations is about 16.59%. This result is
slightly lower than the research paper Eshien Chong. The results of water price differences
between pumping stations mananged by PPP compared with the pumping stations
mananged by the goverment directly is 17.45%2. As a result of the model, if the 1%
improvement in water loss rate is achieved, it will be improved by 25.16 VND/m3, which
is statistically significant at <5%. According to the Government's Decision No. 2147/QĐTTg, the water loss rate from 2015-2020 will decrease by 1.4% per year and 0.6% per year
from 2020-20253. Flowing this goal of decision, the government will invest the budget to:
(1) Enhance public awareness; (2) Enhance the capacity of local authorities; (3) Improved
management capacity for water supply units; (4) To build and perfect mechanisms and
2

I n the study by Eshinen Chong (2006), the difference in water prices of pumping station between
mananged PPP and managed goverment is € 26 compared with the price water is 159 €
3
According to Decision No 2147 / QD-TTg by the Prime Minister dated November 24, 2010 Approving the
national program against loss, clean water collection until 2025 with the main objective to 2020 is 18% 2025
is 15%

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policies on the prevention of water loss (5) Prevent the loss of clean water due to
technology. If the 2015-2020 target is achieved as set out, each year with m3 the water
supply stations will decrease by 35.22/m3/year. As the service life of the system increases,
the water price decreases. In this model it shows that when the service life of the system
increases by one year, the water price will decrease by 6.97 VND/m3 but this result is not
statistically significant.
Table 7: The regression estimation results explain the difference in water prices
between the private sector and the other sectors
Model

Unstandardized
Coefficients
B

Intercept

Std. Error

4810.624

385.364

D

961.810

281.304

X1

-996.558

X2

Standardized
Coefficients

t

Sig.

Beta

Collinearity
Statistics
Tolerance

VIF

12.483

.000

.409

3.419

.001

.789

1.267

649.506

-.224

-1.534

.130

.531

1.885

2516.189

1173.533

.282

2.144

.036

.654

1.530

X3

533.486

796.017

.084

.670

.505

.721

1.387

X4

1.826

9.197

.027

.199

.843

.607

1.648

X5

-6.972

25.799

-.038

-.270

.788

.575

1.740

b, Difference of satisfaction
According to the results of regression analysis using least squares OLS, because the
significance level of the model (Sig.F = 0.00) is smaller than α = 1%, the regression model
is statistically significant. The regression coefficient R2 = 0.408. This model has no self
correlation because the Durbin-Watson coefficient is d = 1.295 with sample n = 442 in the
range of 1 of 10 independent variables (Hoang Trong, Chu Nguyen Mong Ngoc, 2008). Customer
satisfaction with water supply service stations managed by the private sector was higher
than the other sectors, accounting for about 0.161, which was 4.4% higher than the
average. In general, the difference is statistically significant <5%. There are two
indicatorsthat affect customer satisfaction: water availability and intensity of clean water,
in which the intensity of clean water index most affects the customer satisfaction 10.71%
(with significance <1%). For water quality, the three most important indicators are color,
smell and taste. Water color affects the overall satisfaction of the water supply service
stations, which accounts for 5.85% (significance <1%) followed by a 4.77% smell
(significance <10%), water taste did not significantly affect customer satisfaction. In
indicator of location of customers compared to water supply service station, which affects
1.63% of overall satisfaction, the minus "-" shows that the customer's location as far as
possible, the satisfaction decreases (with significance. <5%). And the longer service life,
the lower the customer satisfaction. As the service life increases by one year, customer
satisfaction is reduced by 0.013 overall satisfaction (significance <10 %). The larger the

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scale of the water pumping station, the higher the customer satisfaction, but the value that
affects the overall satisfaction is small and not statistically significant.
Table 8: The regression estimation results explain the difference in customer
satisfaction between the private sector and the other sectors
Model

Unstandardized
Coefficients
B

Intercept

Standardized
Coefficients

Std. Error

2.342

.350

D

.161

.082

Y1

-.021

Y2

t

Sig.

Beta

Collinearity
Statistics
Tolerance

VIF

6.696

.000

.087

1.971

.049

.699

1.431

.017

-.051

-1.229

.220

.806

1.240

-.393

.042

-.391

-9.259

.000

.771

1.298

Y3

.288

.082

.156

3.491

.001

.684

1.462

Y4

.175

.067

.120

2.634

.009

.659

1.518

Y5

.041

.054

.032

.755

.451

.765

1.308

Y6

-.060

.026

-.108

-2.354

.019

.653

1.530

Y7

-.013

.005

-.123

-2.751

.006

.692

1.444

Y8

.016

.004

.188

4.312

.000

.721

1.387

Y9

.001

.001

.029

.657

.511

.727

1.376

4. Discussion and Conclusion
The results show that the private sector has a high water price and a higher level of
satisfaction than the rest of the region (state and other sectors). Research results from 67
northern and southern Vietnam stations indicate that the private sector has higher water
prices than the rest 962 VND/m3. With higher private sector water prices than the rest of
the managed area, the poor will be affected by water supply stations served by the private
sector. And the water loss rate of the management units in the period 2015-2020 if the
objectives of the water loss reduction program are achieved, the water price per year will
decrease by 36.54 VND/m3-year . As life expectancy increased, the price of water tended
to decrease, the rate of decline was not large and not statistically significant. On Customer
Satisfaction Analysis results also showed that the private sector customer satisfaction was
higher than the remaining 4% compared to the average satisfaction score on the likert
scale. And factors such as: 1) waiting time for water deliveries, (2) pressure of water, (3)
color of water, (4) smell of water, taste of water affect not much to customer satisfaction.
The more distant the customer's home, the less the satisfaction of the customer and the
lifetime of the building affects about 0.5% compared to the average satisfaction of the
water supply stations on the likert scale.
5. References
1. Antonio Estache và Martín A. Rossi (2002), “How Different Is the Efficiency of
Public and Private Water Companies in Asia?” The World Bank Economic Review,
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