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Sedimentary properties of the middle−upper eocene formations in Çardak, Burdur and İncesu, SW Turkey

Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences (Turkish J. Earth Sci.), Vol.
21, 2012,ET
p.AL.
335–373. Copyright ©TÜBİTAK
E. TOKER
doi:10.3906/yer-0909-8
First published online 31 May 2011

Sedimentary Properties of the Middle−Upper Eocene
Formations in Çardak, Burdur and İncesu, SW Turkey
EZHER TOKER1,*, M. SERKAN AKKİRAZ2, FUZULİ YAĞMURLU3,
FUNDA AKGÜN4 & SEFER ÖRÇEN5
1

Pamukkale University, Department of Geological Engineering, Kınıklı,
TR−20020 Denizli, Turkey (E-mail: egulbas@pau.edu.tr)
2
Dumlupınar University, Department of Geological Engineering, Merkez Yerleşke,
Tavşanlı Yolu, TR−43100 Kütahya, Turkey
3
Süleyman Demirel University, Department of Geololgical Engineering, Çünür, TR−32260 Isparta, Turkey

4
Dokuz Eylül University, Department of Geological Engineering, Tınaztepe, Buca, TR−35160 İzmir, Turkey
5
Yüzüncü Yıl University, Department of Geological Engineering, TR−65080 Van, Turkey
Received 04 September 2009; revised typescripts received 30 April 2010, 02 June 2010, 06 January 2011,
18 April 2011 & 04 May 2011; accepted 31 May 2011
Abstract: The integration of sedimentological, palynological and palaeontological data in three different outcrops in SW
Turkey provides a clearer understanding of the palaeoenvironments in an area between the Çardak-Dazkırı Basin and
the Isparta region during the Middle–Late Eocene. In this study, the Çardak-Dazkırı (Başçeşme Formation), Burdur
(Varsakyayla Formation) and Isparta (Kayıköy Formation) areas have been studied for facies and facies associations.
These formations contain alluvial fan, fan delta, shelf and related marine deposits. Detailed field observations allowed
34 lithofacies and 10 facies associations to be identified. The palynomorph assemblages in the Başçeşme and Varsakyayla
formations contain biostratigraphically important taxa such as Aglaoreidia cyclops, Triatriopollenites excelsus, Plicatopollis
lunatus, Subtriporopollenites constans and Subtriporopollenites anulatus ssp. nanus. The mangrove and back mangrove
elements such as Psilatricolporites crassus and Spinizoncolpites sp. also occur in these palynomorph assemblages. The
upper parts of the Başçeşme and Varsakyayla formations, which often exhibit reef developments, contain an assemblage
of orthophragmines (Discocyclina sp.), nummulitids (Nummulites sp., Assilina sp., Heterostegina sp., Operculina sp.) and
other benthic taxa (Halkyardia sp., Fabiania sp., Asterigerina sp., and Sphaerogypsina sp.). These assemblages indicate
shallow benthic zones 18-20 (SBZ 18-20). The absence of foraminifera in the Kayıköy Formation does not allow a
precise age of the unit to be determined. However, the occurrence of some planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinidae) and
the presence of clastic sediments suggest a marine environment with turbidity currents. The lateral and vertical relations
of the Başçeşme, Varsakyayla and Kayıköy formations suggest a marine transgression from west to east in SW Anatolia
during the late Middle Eocene–Late Eocene.
Key Words: facies analysis, palynology, benthic foraminifera, Eocene deposits, western Taurides

Çardak, Burdur ve İncesu Havzalarında Orta−Üst Eosen Birimlerinin
Sedimanter Özellikleri, GB Türkiye
Özet: GB Anadolu’da, Orta–Geç Eosen boyunca Çardak-Dazkırı ve Isparta arasında yüzlek veren üç farklı istifin
paleoortamları, sedimantolojik, palinolojik ve paleontolojik verilerinin bütünlüğü ile daha iyi anlaşılabilmektedir. Bu
çalışmada, Çardak-Dazkırı (Başçeşme Formasyonu), Burdur (Varsakyayla Formasyonu) ve Isparta (Kayıköy Fomasyonu)
alanlarına ait birimlerin fasiyes ve fasiyes ilişkileri çalışılmıştır. Çalışma alanına ait tüm istifler, alüvyal yelpaze, yelpaze
deltası, şelf ve denizel ortamı yansıtmaktadır. Ayrınıtlı yapılan arazi gözlemlerine göre, 34 litofasiyes ve 10 fasiyes birliği
tanımlanmıştır. Başçeşme ve Varsakyayla formasyonlarında bulunan palinomorf birliği, biyostatigrafik önemi olan
Aglaoreidia cyclops, Triatriopollenites excelsus, Plicatopollis lunatus, Subtriporopollenites constans and Subtriporopollenites
anulatus ssp. nanus, ve mangrov ve mangrove-gerisi ortamı karakterize eden Psilatricolporites crassus ve Spinizoncolpites
sp. ile temsil edilir. Genellikle resif gelişiminin yaygın olarak görüldüğü Başçeşme ve Varsakyayla formasyonlarının
üst kesimleri, zengin ve çeşitli orthophragmines (Discocyclina sp.), nummulitids (Nummulites sp., Assilina sp.,
Heterostegina sp., Operculina sp.) and diğer bentik foraminifer grupları (Halkyardia sp., Fabiania sp., Asterigerina sp.,
and Sphaerogypsina sp.) içermektedir. SBZ 18-20 (SBZ 18-20) sığ bentik zonlarını temsil eden bu topluluklar, denizel
ortam değişikliklerini anlamada önemli bir araçtır. Kayıköy Formasyonu foraminifer açısından çok fakir olduğundan


dolayı ayrıntılı olarak yaşlandırılamamıştır. Ancak, planktik foraminiferlerden Globigerinidae içermesi, birimin

335


MIDDLE−UPPER EOCENE FORMATIONS IN SW TURKEY

açık şelf ortamında çökeldiğini göstermektedir. Diğer taraftan Kayıköy Formasyonuna ait istifin başlıca kumtaşı-şeyl
ardalanmasından oluşan kırıntılı tortul bileşimi ve içerdiği tortul yapılar, türbidit akıntıların geliştiği denizel ortamı
yansıtması bakımından önemlidir. Bartonian–Priabonian yaşlı bu üç formasyona ait tortul istiflerin yanal ve düşey
yönde gösterdikleri litofasiyes değişimleri, GB-Anadolu’da Geç Eosen dönemi boyunca batıdan doğuya doğru bir
transgresyonun geliştiğini yansıtmaktadır.
Anahtar Sözcükler: fasiyes analizi, palinoloji, bentik foraminifer, Eosen çökelleri, Batı Toroslar

Introduction
The Palaeocene–Eocene outcrops mark an important
event in the history of basins developed before the
neotectonic period, which is a known extensional
tectonic regime in west Anatolia. During this time
interval also occurred the main deformation and HP/
LT metamorphism of the Menderes Massif as a result
of burial beneath the Lycian Nappes (Şengör & Yılmaz
1981; Satır & Friedrichsen 1986; Bozkurt & Satır
2000; Bozkurt & Oberhänslı 2001; Sözbilir 2002). This
Palaeocene–Eocene sedimentary succession rests
unconformably on different tectonostratigraphic
suites, such as the Lycian Nappes (Özkaya 1991;
Şenel 1991; Collins & Robertson 1997, 1998, 1999),
the Menderes Massif (Poisson 1976; Özkaya 1990,
1991; Özer et al. 2001) and the Beydağları carbonate
platform (Özkaya 1991; Collins & Robertson 1998).
The initial phase of nappe emplacement occurred
during the latest Cretaceous (Collins & Robertson
1998), after which sedimentary basins developed
on top of the imbricated Lycian basement during
the Late Palaeocene–Early Eocene (Şenel 1991). The
basin fill comprises basal conglomerates with clasts
derived from the Lycian Nappes, bioclastic platform
limestones and clastic turbidites and is interpreted
as a supra-allochthonous unit (Sözbilir et al. 2001;
Sözbilir 2002), thought to represent a temporal
restoration of a passive margin during relative
tectonic quiescence (Collins & Robertson 1998).
In this study the Middle–Upper Eocene sequences
stratigraphically overlying the Lycian Nappes are
represented by the Başçeşme and Varsakayayla
formations, and the Kayıköy Formation on the
Beydağları carbonate platform (Figures 1 & 2).
The purpose of this paper is to provide a facies
description and interpretation of the Middle–
Upper Eocene Başçeşme, Varsakyayla and Kayıköy
formations, to identify the factors that controlled
their deposition and to describe the palynological
336

and foraminifera assemblages of these units that
have been widely used in palaeoenvironmental
interpretations.
Geological Setting
The Middle–Upper Eocene outcrops are distributed
in the Çardak-Dazkırı (north of Acıgöl), Burdur
(north of Lake Burdur) and Isparta (İncesu and
Gönen towns) areas (Figures 1, 3, 4 & 6). These basins
are located in the Western Anatolia extensional
province characterized by numerous NW–SE-, NE–
SW-, E–W-trending basins (Koçyiğit 1984, 2005) and
rest on the Mesozoic Lycian Nappes and ophiolites
(Sözbilir 2005).
The Palaeocene–Eocene sedimentary assemblages
of southwestern Anatolia are made up mainly of
conglomerate, sandstone, turbiditic sandstonemudstone alternations, carbonaceous mudstone,
bioclastic limestone interbeds and, locally, limestone
blocks. The sedimentary features of these sedimentary
constituents mainly indicate a supra-allochthonous
basin type, which developed above the Lycian Nappe
package (Sözbilir 2002). The supra-allochthonous
sediments are separated from the basement rocks by
a regional unconformity (Sözbilir 2002).
Following Poisson et al. (2003) the tectonic
evolution of the study area and its surroundings
can be divided into four main stages. These are in
ascending order; (1) closure of the Pamphylian
basin and emplacement of Antalya Nappes (Late
Cretaceous–Early Palaeocene); (2) emplacement of
Lycian Nappes (end of Eocene–Early Oligocene);
(3) formation of the Oligocene molasse basins and
(4) opening of the Baklan and Acıgöl grabens under
NW–SE and N–S extensional regimes.
Deposition in the supra-allochthonous Eocene–
Oligocene marine basins in SW Anatolia, was
controlled mainly by the emplacement of the Lycian


E. TOKER ET AL.

N

Quaternary

Menderes Massif

Marine Miocene

Homa

Tertiary basins

nD
lta
Su

3

5



1

Bey Dağları Autochthon

4

Denizli

Menderes Massif

Eğridir

Antalya Nappes

Isparta

2

Tavas

Burdur

Alanya Massif

Beyşehir

Hadım Nappes
Lycian Nappes

Lycian Nappes

ophiolites

Seydişehir

Muğla
Bodrum

thrust fault

Kos
Antalya

Aegean Sea

Kaş

sif

NE

AF

Z

Alanya

East Anatolian
contractional
province

as

FZ

EA

es
pp

PLATE

Isparta

Bey Dağları

sus

M

NAFZ
West Anatolian
extensional
province ANATOLIAN
.BG .

auca

ya

N
A
O
H
T
RATOLIAN PROVINCE

ter C

Kemer

an

Black Sea

EURASIAN
PLATE

Hadım

Al

Grea

Na

Göcek
Fethiye

Akseki

Serik

dım
Ha

Korkuteli

Fenike

Bitlis-Zagros
Suture Zone

o
A

Cyprus
Cyprean Arc

Africa

Mediterranian Sea
AFRICAN
PLATE

ARABIAN
PLATE

rc

an
Aege

Z

ndgearit
R
M

DSF

ab
ny Str
Pli

N

0

0

200

25km

Km

Figure 1. Simplified geological map of SW Turkey showing the study areas: (1) Çardak-Dazkırı, (2) Burdur, (3) İncesu, (4) İğdecik and
(5) Gönen basins (modified from Gutnic 1977; Akgün & Sözbilir 2001).

Nappes in the region at the time. However, the mainly
ophiolitic detrital constituents of the Başçeşme,
Varsakyayla and Kayıköy formations indicate a
Late Eocene synsedimentary emplacement of the
ophiolite assemblages of the Lycian Nappes. The
emplacement of the Lycian Nappes in SW Anatolia
continued until the end of the Late Miocene. Field
observations in the Burdur and Isparta regions
show that ophiolitic allochthonous units of the
Lycian Nappes are overthrust on to Early Miocene
(Aquitanian–Burdigalian) marine sedimentary units.
Multiple overthrust systems of the Lycian Nappes
on to the Beydagları autochthonous carbonate and
detrital units (Late Palaeocene to Early Miocene)
suggest an anticlockwise rotation of the western side
of the Isparta Angle. Palaeomagnetic studies (Kissel
et al. 1993; van Hinsbergen et al. 2010) indicated that
the Lycian block on the western limb of the Isparta
Angle rotated anticlockwise by about 40° since the
Eocene. Furthermore, the palaeomagnetic data
suggest that the dominant tensional forces in the
study area mainly trend NW–SE.

Stratigraphy
In this study, our field observations were focused
on three different locations, namely the Middle–
Upper Eocene deposits cropping out in the ÇardakDazkırı (Başçeşme Formation), Burdur (Varsakyayla
Formation) and İncesu (Kayıköy Formation) basins.
The major geological characteristics of these Eocene
basins are briefly described below.
Çardak-Dazkırı Basin
The Çardak-Dazkırı basin is located north of the
Acıgöl Graben, mainly filled by Tertiary sedimentary
sequences and characterized by molasse type clastic
deposits (Figure 1) (Koçyiğit 1984; Göktaş et al. 1989;
Yağmurlu 1994; Akgün & Sözbilir 2001; Sözbilir
2005). The Upper Eocene Başçeşme Formation,
exposed near Başçeşme village and first named by
Göktaş et al. (1989), unconformably rests on the
Lycian Nappes (Figure 2) (Göktaş et al. 1989). The
formation is composed mainly of a fining-upward
337


FORMATION

THICKNESS(m)

LITHOLOGY

650

gravel-sand-clay
clayey limestone
travertine

2000

500

mudstone-sandstone
conglomerate
sandstone-mudstone
limestone
sandstone-mudstone
coal
reefal limestone

reefal limestone
coal

200

1500

conglomerate
sandstone-mudstone

conglomerate-sandstone
300

Armutalanı Çardak

Hayrettin

sandstone-mudstone
conglomerate
Acıgöl

Oligocene

Tokça

Bozdağ

Çameli

alluvium

Late Mid.Plio. Quaternary

AGE
GROUP

MIDDLE−UPPER EOCENE FORMATIONS IN SW TURKEY

sandstone-mudstone
conglomerate

800

Başçeşme

?Lutetian-Priabonian

reefal limestone
sandstone-mudstone
coal
limestone
sandstone-mudstone
coal

Mesozoic

conglomerate-sandstone

Lycian clastics and carbonates
not to scale

Figure 2. Generalized lithostratigraphic columnar section of
the Çardak-Dazkırı basin (modified from Şenel 1997;
Sözbilir 2005).

338

clastic sedimentary succession, which starts with
pebble to cobble conglomerates at the base (Göktaş et
al. 1989; Akkiraz 2008; Toker 2009; Toker et al. 2009).
Vertically and laterally, these coarse conglomerates
display gradual transition to a monotonous alternation
of sandstone, mudstone with coal and reef carbonates
(Göktaş et al. 1989; Akkiraz et al. 2006; Akkiraz 2008;
Toker 2009). This internal lithological variation is
divided into the following members: the reddishclaret Dazlak conglomerate; the Maden sandstone
and coaly mudstone and the Asar limestone with
corals, algae and benthic fragments (Figure 3b).
Burdur Basin
The Burdur basin is located on the northwestern side
of Lake Burdur and filled with Tertiary deposits which
are divided into supra-allochthonous sediments, the
Acıgöl group and neo-autochthonous cover units
(Yalçınkaya et al. 1986; Şenel 1997) (Figure 4). The
pre-Eocene basement comprises ophiolitic melange
and olisthostrome of the Lycian Nappes (Poisson
1977). The Varsakyayla Formation from around
Varsakyayla village, named by Poisson (1977), is well
exposed in this area and is mainly made up of locally
channellized conglomerates, planar cross-bedded
sandstones, massive and locally coaly mudstones and
bivalve and gastropod-bearing limestone (Akkiraz
2008). The Varsakyayla Formation is linked with the
Başçeşme Formation due to the similarities of their
sedimentary constituents.
İncesu Basin
The İncesu Basin is located in the apex of the
Isparta Angle and its deposits crop out around
Gönen town to the north of Isparta (Figure 7). The
Kayıköy Formation, named after Kayıköy village,
where it is well exposed (Karaman et al. 1989), is
generally greyish and includes very poorly sorted
conglomerates, amalgamated sandstones with
mudstone interbeds (Figures 13 & 14). The Kayıköy
Formation is turbiditic and is composed mainly of
sandstone and shale alternations and also contains
clayey and cherty interbeds and conglomerate
intercalations dominantly of turbiditic origin. The
Middle–Late Eocene age of the formation is deduced
from its stratigraphic position (Figure 6).


Bozkurt

Armutalanı

0 100 m

Çardak

Avdan

Hayrettin

a

33

56

47

Dazlak tepe

1181

37

20

30

59

55

55

40

58

35

54 48
56

48

Öküz
tepe
62

40

26

54

52
65

18

28

0

22
500m

b

Boztümbek tepe
1014
18 24

Figure 9

Figure 8

N

contact

strike-slip fault

normal fault

Karaova Formation

Kayaköy dolomite

Dazlak member

Maden member

Asar member

Armutalanı Formation

Kızılören Formation

sample locations

location of the measured
sections (open circles shows
beginning of the section)

syncline axis

58 dip and strike of bed

Lower Oligocene

Miocene

Quaternary

alluvium

EXPLANATION

Figure 3. (a) Geological map of the Çardak-Dazkırı area. (b) Detailed geological map of the studied area, north of Başçeşme village. Locations of measured sections are
indicated.

Boğaziçi

Baklan

65

MiddleUpper Eocene
Triassic

Başçeşme
Formation
Lycian
Nappes

N

E. TOKER ET AL.

339


FORMATION

THICKNESS(m)
1500

alluvium
Aksu
Kavak

Facies and Facies Associations

LITHOLOGY

gravel-sand-clay
mudstone-sandstone
conglomerate
coal

150

AGE
GROUP
Aquitanian

Quaternary

MIDDLE−UPPER EOCENE FORMATIONS IN SW TURKEY

conglomerate-sandstone-mudstone
reefal limestone

reefal limestone
coal
reefal limestone

conglomerate
sandstone-mudstone

1000-1500

Ardıçlı

Acıgöl

Oligocene

recristalized limestone

recrystalized limestone

150

Saraycık

conglomerate
sandstone-mudstone

sandstone-mudstone

sandstone-mudstone-limestone
270

Varsakyayla

?Lutetian-Priabonian

reefal limestone

limestone
sandstone-mudstone

Mesozoic

coal

Lycian clastics and carbonates
not to scale

Figure 4. Generalized lithostratigraphic columnar section of the
Burdur basin (modified from Yalçınkaya et al. 1986;
Şenel 1997).

340

In this section, three Eocene formations have been
analyzed in terms of their facies associations. These
associations are based on the facies defined on
logged stratigraphic sections and used palynological
data (Figures 8, 9, 11–14). Detailed descriptions of
the sedimentary features and palaeoenvironmental
interpretations of the facies and facies assemblages
are given in Tables 1–4, 7 & 8. Facies classification
of alluvial and fluvial environments is after Miall
(1978), who assigned gravel-bearing successions to
G facies, while sandy and clay facies were assigned
to S and F facies, respectively. Small letters following
the capital letter indicate the textural and structural
characteristic of each facies.
Başçeşme Formation
The Başçeşme Formation is well-exposed on the north
western margin of the Acıgöl Graben (Figure 3a).
Two outcrop sections have been logged (Figure 3b),
one of which is located northeast of Öküz Tepe, while
the other is southwest of Boztümbek Tepe (Figure
3b). The Öküztepe section is up to approximately
240 metres thick and extends laterally over a few
kilometres (Figure 8), while the Boztümbek section
is approximately 360 metres thick (Figure 9). In
sedimentary logs, fifteen lithofacies have been defined
based on type of individual beds, grain size, primary
sedimentary structures and fossil contents (Table 1).
Field photos also illustrate some of the lithofacies
features of the Başçeşme Formation (Figure 10).
This lithofacies diversity was grouped into three
main facies associations: FA1 to FA3 (Table 2). FA1
correlates with the coarse-grained Dazlak Member,
FA2 correlates with the finer-grained Maden Member
and FA3 correlates with the carbonate Asar Member
(Figures 8 & 9).
Alluvial Fan Deposits (FA1): Description – The
alluvial fan facies association is characterized by
the relative abundance of facies Gmm, Gp, Sg, Sp,
St, Shs (Table 1; Figures 8 & 9). The FA1 is generally
made up of conglomerates intercalated with pebbly
sandstones. This polygenetic conglomeratic facies
association is commonly reddish and brownish,
pebble to cobble grain size, thick bedded to massive,
poorly-sorted, matrix-supported, with erosive


Çevlik

Afyon

Çamlı

Ardıçlı

0

1 km

LAKE BURDUR

Saraycık

Göktepe

+

Quaternary

Cretaceous

studied area

uncharacterised fault

contact

Lycian Nappes

Varsakyayla Formation

Saraycık Formation

Delikarkası Formation

Miocene - Pliocene
sediments
Ardıçlı Formation

alluvium

N

KEÇİBORLU

Senir

EXPLANATIONS

Kara tepe

MiddleUpper Eocene

Kaplanlı

Aydoğmuş

Akdağ

0
500m

1591

1643

Lycian Nappes
Varsakyayla
Formation

Ardıçlı
Formation

Oligocene

Kulfa taşı

Upper Cretaceous Middle-Upper Eocene

1769

Çataltaş Tepe
18

47

43

42

sample location

(open circle shows beginning of the section)

strike and dip of bed
40

N

b

40

İnekboğazlayan hill

48

Dede hill

54

location of the measured section

04YC/01-05

Figure 11

1792Dolmaşa tepe

Figure 5. (a) Geological map of the northern part of Lake Burdur (modified from Şenel 1997b). See Figure 1 for location. (b) Detailed geological map of the northern side of
Yukarıcimbili village (north of Lake Burdur). Location of measured sections, geological sections and sample locations are indicated.

İlyas

Dikilitaş tepe

Beltarla

Sarıköy

Oyuklutekke

Ovacık

Kızıl dere

Akkoyunlu

Yelalan

Yeşilçat

Acıgöl Group

a

Figure 5b

Başmakcı

Değirmen dere

BAŞMAKÇI

Mediterranean

ANTALYA

50 km

_

Oligocene

0

E. TOKER ET AL.

341


coal

Mesozoic

neritic and hemipelagic
limestones
Kırladağları series
(Beydağları autochthon)
not to scale

FORMATION

limestone

850
230

limestone

conglomerate
sandstone-mudstone
coal
coal

Palaeocene-Eocene
Barladağ
Isparta series
series
Kayıköy

pelagic limestones

Cretaceous

100-200

conglomerate
sandstone-mudstone
blocks of neritic and pelagic
limestones

coal

20-70

Kayıköy

Kırladağları series

Palaeocene-Eocene

conglomerate
sandstone-mudstone

sandstone-mudstone

conglomerate
sandstone-mudstone

neritic limestones

limestone
coal
1000

coal

trachy-andesite

İncesu

coal

THICKNESS(m)

AGE
SERIES
Lower -“Middle” Oligocene

850

İncesu

Lower -“Middle” Oligocene

conglomerate
sandstone-mudstone

gravel-sand-clay

Delikarası

gravel-sand-clay

LITHOLOGY

Pliocene-Quaternary

conglomerate

Lower-Middle Miocene

LITHOLOGY

Barladağ
Lycian nap.

THICKNESS(m)

FORMATION

Pliocene-Quaternary

AGE
SERIES

MIDDLE−UPPER EOCENE FORMATIONS IN SW TURKEY

conglomerate-sandstonemudstone alternation

coal
neritic and hemipelagic
limestones,vsandstone,vmarl

pelagic limestones
Isparta series
(Beydağları autochthon)

not to scale

Figure 6. Generalized lithostratigraphic columnar sections of the İncesu Area, (a) Around İncesu Village. (b) Around İğdecik,
Gümüşgün villages, and Gönen and Atabey towns. See Figure 7 for location (modified from Gutnic 1977; Görmüş &
Özkul 1995;Yağmurlu 1994).

342


Keçiborlu

Figure 14

Göktepe

Güneykent

Tepelce

İleğidağ

Figure 13

İğdecik

Gönen

Figure 12

1989

Tınaz tepe

Kömürlük

2447

Gök tepe

Figure 7. Simplified geological map of north Gönen Town (modified from Gutnic 1977; Yağmurlu 1994 ).

İncesu

Çapalı

Kapıdağ

Afyon

N

İslamköy

Atabey

Mediterranean

ANTALYA

50 km

0

1 km

Delikarkası hill

0

volcanics

Middle
Eocene

measured
sections

study area

thrust fault

fault

Isparta series

Kırdağları series

Barladağ series

Antalya Nappes

Miocene
sediments
İncesu
Formation
Delikarkası
Formation
Kayıköy
Formation
Lycian Nappes

alluvium

PlioQuaternary

EXPLANATIONS
Quaternary

Lower“Middle”
Oligocene
Bey Dağları
Autochthon

Yassıviran

E. TOKER ET AL.

343


MIDDLE−UPPER EOCENE FORMATIONS IN SW TURKEY

Table 1. Description and environmental interpretation for the lithofacies in the Başçeşme Formation.
Facies

Description

Interpretation

Gmm; massive
conglomerates

granule to cobble size, massive, matrix-supported, chaotic, pebbles are rounded to
sub-rounded, poorly sorted to unsorted, generally erosive basement, irregular top,
reddish-claret coloured, locally contains sandstones; dimensions: bed thickness up to
10 m, lateral extent: tens to hundred metres, commonly intercalated with facies Sb,Sr

Gp; panar crossbedded conglomerates

granule to pebble size clast supported by coarse sandy matrix, subangular and poorly
sorted clasts, sand lenses, generally fining upward with erosive base, planar cross
channel fill
bedded, channel fill occurs, reddish-brown coloured; dimensions: bed thickness up to
4 m, lateral extent: few ten metres; intercalated with facies Sr

Gms, matrixsupported gravelstone

granule to pebble size clasts supported by sandy matrix, poorly sorted, poorly bedded,
few crudely developed normal to inverse grading,yellowish red coloured,angular
debris flow to hyper-concentrated
to subangular clasts; dimensions: bed thickness up to 6 m, lateral extent: few tens
flow deposits
metres, intercalated with facies Sb, Sl,Fl and C

Sg, gravelly
sandstones

granule to coarse-grained sandstones, poorly sorted and rounded, cross-laminated,
channel-fills, reddish coloured, dimensions; bed thickness up to 20 cm, laterally
extent: few metres, intercalated with facies Gmm, Gp

deposits from sand-dominated
chanellized flows

Shs, horizontally
stratified sandstones

medium- to fine-grained sandstone, moderately sorted, horizontally stratified
bioturbated, locally ripple laminations on top, locally hematite concretions bearing,
reddish-yellowish red coloured; dimensions: bed thickness up to 30 cm, laterally
extent: few tens of metres, intercalated with facies Gms,Sg

planar bed flow, upper flow regime

Sr, rippled sandstones

medium- to fine-grained sandstone, generally parallel laminated at the bottom and
ripples at the top of bed, lenses with mud, greyish red coloured; dimensions: bed
thickness up to 20 cm, lateral extent: few metres, intercalated with facies Sp, Gmm

subaqeous deposits at lower flow
regime

Sp, planar crossstratified sandstones

medium- to fine-grained sandstone, moderately sorted, massive bedding, planar
cross-stratified, yellowish red coloured, dimensions: bed thickness up to 25cm,
laterally extent few of metres, intercalated with facies Gmm, Gh

lower flow regime, sand waves

Sm, massive
sandstones

medium- to fine-grained sandstone, moderately sorted, normal graded, greyish
red coloured; dimensions: bed thickness up to 35 cm; lateral extent: a few metres;
intercalated with facies Gh, Fm

rapid sedimentation, sediment
gravity flow

Sf, fosilliferous
sandstones

medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, moderately sorted, planar cross-stratified,
corals, gastropods and bivalves-bearing, greyish red coloured; dimensions: bed
thickness up to 60 cm; lateral extent: a few tens of metres; intercalated with facies Fm

decreasing current velocity

Sc, calcareous
sandstones

medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, massive bedding, calcareous sandstone,
yellow coloured; dimensions: bed thickness up to 5 m; lateral extent: a few metres;
intercalated with facies Sf, Lr

edge of bank platform and shelf

Ls, sandy limestone

Sandy limestone with bioclast, grainstone, flat bedded, coarse grain size, fossil
sporadic storms and currents
fragments such as bivalves, benthic foraminifers, yellowish grey coloured; dimensions: across reef, relatively low wave and
bed thickness up to 5 m; lateral extent: a few metres; intercalated with facies Lr
current energy

Fm, massive
mudstone

mudstone, laminated, medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, massive bedding,
greyish yellow coloured; dimensions: bed thickness up to 50 cm; lateral extent: a few
metres; intercalated with facies Sg, Sf

suspension sediments, overbank
deposits, waning currents

Lr, reefal limestones

reefal limestone, flat bedding, mixing of coarse skeletal fragments such as corals,
bivalves, benthic foraminifers and algal mounds, abundant milliolid association,
greyish yellow coloured; dimensions: bed thickness up to 10 m; lateral extent: a few
tens of metres; intercalated with facies Sc

low energy, sporadic currents and
quiescent shallow water

C, coal-coally
mudstone

coal, horizontally laminated, dark brown-black coloured, abundant plant fragments;
dimensions: bed thickness up to 40 cm; lateral extent: a few tens of metres;
intercalated with facies Sm, Fm

subaerial low energy, channel
overbanks, vegetated swamps
deposits and marsh, coastal plain

344

debris-flow deposits


Gp

2

4

550

5
11
5
11

Sf
C
C

545

Sp

6

150

12
340

Gp

5

135

325

Gmm

5

320

130

Sp

5
5

125

315

5

Gp

310

Sg
Gp
Sg
Gp

305

120

7
7

7

7
7
7
7
7
7
7

Fm
Sm
Fm
Sm

Sg
Sg
Gp
Sg
Gp

85
7

Sg

Sm

4
7

1
11

6

Fm

Sm

290

Gms

6
285
11
1
3
7
7

280
275

C Fm
Sg

7
7

270
265

Sr

1
1

Sm

1

Sr

260

Sp

7
60
7

Gp

1
5

Sg

5
45
40

1
1
4
7

35

Gp

255
250

4
245

225

7
6

Shs

25
20

1
210

7

Gp

7

Sg
Gmm

Sm
Gmm

Gp

7
7

Sp

10

7
5
7
7

Sg
Gp

7
7

Gp
Gp

200
6

Gmm
L M FMC G P C B
Sand

Gp

195
7

7

Sp

6

5
190

Sg

3
11
1
1
1

580

Sm

575

Fm Sf
Sm
Gp
C
Sm

515

Gms

3
510
3

Fm
3

505

3
495

11
3

490
485
480
475
470
465

3

9

9
9
11
1
1

460
1
455
450

430
425

Sm
Sm
C
Gms
Fm

1

1
11
9
9
9
9
9
7
3
3
3
11

4
4
4
4
4
4
11

420

1

415

2

Sf
Fm
Sm
Gms
C
Fm
Sm
Fm
Sm
Fm
Sm

Gp
Gp
Gp

Fm
Sm
C
Sf
Fm
Gms
Fm
Sm
C
Sm
Gp

3
4
410

400
395
390
385
380

Sm
Fm

4

Sm

4

Fm
Sm
C

4
11
2
5
1
1
71
1
1
6
11
6
6

L M FMC G P C B
Sand

585

570
565

.S.

Loc.
Bed.

Color

L.B

Fm.
Mem.
Age

.S.

Loc.
Bed.

L.B

Color

520

405

205
15

1

10

F a n (F A 1)

215

6
7
6
6

525

435

Gp

230

5
1
5
5
1

440

6

235

220
30

Sm
C

6

240

Gp
Sg

1
11
4

530

445

A l u v i a l

55

2

BAŞÇEŞME
DAZLAK
MIDDLE-?UPPER EOCENE

7

F a n (F A 1)

70

Gp

535

505

C

590

Fm

9

Sm

7
7

295

90

75

2
5
2
2
5
5
5
5
4

6

300

A l u v i a l

BAŞÇEŞME
DAZLAK
MIDDLE-?UPPER EOCENE

7
4

Sp

/ D e l t a F r o n t (F A 2)

Sand

BAŞÇEŞME
MADEN
MIDDLE-?UPPER EOCENE

330

140

Fm

5

1

Struct.
LIT.
Coord: 25342/94691

A22
A21
A20
A19
A18
A17
A16
A15

2

595

F a n D e l t a / D e l t a F r o n t (F A 2)

335

Sg

6
6

Sm

D e l t a

145

50

m
600

BAŞÇEŞME

155

1

65

Sm
C Fm
CSm
C
Sm
C
Sm

540

BAŞÇEŞME

355

F a n

Gmm

345

80

Fm.
Mem.
Age

Sf

350

95

.S.

4

160

100

555

Fm

365

5

105

Loc.
Bed.

7

MADEN
MIDDLE-?UPPER EOCENE

1

165

110

Sm

LITHO.

360

170

115

9
11
9
111
7
11
7
9
1
11
5
5

m
560

Struct.

ASAR
UPPER EOCENE

Gmm

.

OL

TH

LI

2

A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1

x

2

10

MADEN
MID.-?UPPER EOCENE

4

175

Color
7

m
370

L.B

Fm.
Mem.
Age

.S.

Loc.
Bed.

Color

LITHOLOGY

Struct.

Ls

Lr

Lr

S h e l f (F A 3)

m
180

Struct.
L.B

Fm.
Mem.
Age

E. TOKER ET AL.

5

Sm

7
5
11
1
9
9

C Fm
Sm
L M FMC G P C B
Sand

EXPLANATIONS
coarse conglomerate
medium conglomerate
fine conglomerate
pebbly coarse sandstone
coarse sandstone
pebbly sandstone
sandstone
mudstone
sandy limestone
limestone
coal
covered
coral
benthic foraminifer
gastropod
bioclast
bivalve
channel fill
planar bedding
cross lamination
bioturbation
hematite concretions
fractured
erosive
gradational
sharp
massive bedding
flat bedding
coarsening upward
fining upward

Sf

Sm
Sm
Ls
Sm
C
Fm
Sm
L M FMC G P C B
Sand

1 grey
2 greyish yellow
3 greyish green
4 greyish red
5 yellow
6 yellowish red
7 red
9 green
10 cream
11 black

Figure 8. Measured section of the Başçeşme Formation northeast of Öküztepe. See Figure 3b for location.

345


Sp

4

Sm

m
260

355

B.
S.

Structures

Loc.
Bed.

Color

m
360

L.

Fm.

LITHOLOGY

Mem.
Age

B.
S.

Loc.
Bed.

Color
5

Structures
L.

C

4

m
130

Fm.

LITHO.

Mem.
Age

B.
S.

Loc.
Bed.

Color

Structures
L.

Fm.

Mem.
Age

MIDDLE−UPPER EOCENE FORMATIONS IN SW TURKEY

LITHO.

Lr

10

A/52

10

A/51

10

Lr

4

Sm
Fm

4

Gp

5

5

Sf

335

240

235

5

Fm

230
7
5
7

Gp

Sm

225

7
220

85
215

7
80

Gmm

210

Sp

205

75
7
70

7

5

11
4
2

2
9
9
9

Gp

C Gmm
Sm
Sm
Fm
Sm
Fm

200

55

50

DAZLAK MEMBER

60

7
7

Gmm

195

190

7

Sp

185

Gp

7

St
Gp

7

Sp

Gp

30

25

7

Gmm

20

F a n (FA-1)

35

7
7
7
7
7
1

170

165

325

320

315

4

Sm

4

Sm

5
7

10

7

Sf

L M

FMC
Sand

G

P

Sc

290
5
285

Sc

280
2
5

270

B

coarse conglomerate
fine conglomerate

Shs

limestone

Fm

coal

Sm

135

Fm
L M FMC
Sand

G

Sm
FMC
Sand

G

C

B

P

C

B

1
2
4
5
6
7
9
10
11

covered
grey
greyish yellow
greyish red
yellow
yellowish red
red
green
cream
black

coral
benthic foraminifer
gastropod
bioclast
bivalve
channel fill
planar bedding
trough cross-bedding
fractured
erosive
gradational
sharp
massive bedding
flat bedding
imbrication
fining upward
coarsening upward

Figure 9. Measured section of the Başçeşme Formation south of Boztümbek Tepe. See Figure 3b for location.

346

P

EXPLANATIONS
Gp

mudstone

C

Gp

5

sandstone

4

A/49-50

Sc

5

calcerous sandstone

4

Sm

5

150

Gmm

Gp

295

medium conglomerate

2

Sm

L M

140
5

5

300

155

Sp
Gmm

Sm

5

coarse sandstone

145

Gp

5

5

15
7
7
7

5

305

160
2

Sf
Sm

5

5

7

Sm

5

310

(FA-2)

175
40

Sm
5

275

180

45

330

Delta Fan(FA-2)

A l u v i a l

65

Sf

5

340

245

UPPER EOCENE

Fm

5

M.- ? IPPER EOC.

Sm

4

345

250

BAŞÇEŞME FORMATION
ASAR MEMER

Gp

4

350

MADEN MEM.

90

7

Fm

C o a s t a l /S h e l f (FA-3)

95

7

MIDDLE - ?UPPER EOCENE

100

Sm

5
255

D e l t a / D e l t a F r o n t

105

Sp

7
7
7
11
2
1
11

F a n (FA-2)

110

BAŞÇEŞME FORMATION

115

6

BAŞÇEŞME FORMATION
MADEN MEMBER
MIDDLE - ?UPPER EOCENE

120

D e l t a

MADEN MEMBER

125


E. TOKER ET AL.

Table 2. Facies associations of the Başçeşme Formation.

Facies Associations

Constituent Lithofacies

FA1, alluvial fan facies associations

Gmm, Gp, Sg, Sp, Sm, Shs

FA2, fan-delta/delta front facies associations

Gms, Shs, Sr, Sm, Sf, Ls, Fm, C

FA3, shelf facies associations

Gp, Sm, Sf, Sc, Ls, Lr

a

b

c

d

e
Figure 10. Field photographs of (a) bioturbation traces in the Dazlak member (b) bivalves, gastropods
and bioclasts in the Maden member, (c) coral colony and gastropods in the Maden member,
(d) coal lens in the Maden member, (e) coal seams in the Maden member. White arrows
indicate the scale of the photos. Pencil is ~15cm long; Lens cap is ~50mm in diameter.

347


MIDDLE−UPPER EOCENE FORMATIONS IN SW TURKEY

bases and irregular tops, generally structureless and
chaotically organized, with sub-rounded to rounded
clasts (Facies Gmm) (Figures 8 & 9). They can be
traced laterally for up to a hundred metres. The most
common clast components are black dolomites,
serpentinites, and ophiolitic fragments that are
most probably derived from the Lycian Nappes. The
cross-bedded conglomerates are compositionally
the same as the massive conglomerates (Gmm),
but differ in exhibiting planar cross-bedding (facies
Gp) (Figure 9). Clasts within the conglomerate are
poorly-sorted, within a coarse-grained matrix. The
coarse-grained gravelly sandstones (facies Sg) are
commonly observed as interbeds in conglomerates
and are poorly sorted and cross-laminated (Figures
8 & 9). Planar cross-stratified sandstones and trough
cross-bedded sandstones (facies Sp, St) were also
observed in massive conglomerates. Horizontally
stratified bioturbated sandstones (facies Shs) consist
of medium–fine-grained sandstones with hematite
concretions and locally ripple laminations on top
(Figure 9).
Interpretation – The abundance of matrixsupported, massive to thick bedded, and scarcity of
internal structures in reddish conglomerates and
sandstone beds of the FA1 indicate mainly debris
flow processes of alluvial fan deposition (Reineck &
Singh 1975; Miall 1996). The clasts are polygenetic
and derived from basement metamorphic rocks by
dominantly cohesive and stream debris flow (Nemec
& Steel 1984; Göktaş et al. 1989; Nemec & Postma
1993; Blair 1999; Sözbilir 2002). All these facies of FA1
suggest deposition in an alluvial fan setting in front of
high ground fed from a Lycian Nappes source area. In
the upper parts of the fan (facies Gmm, Gp, Sg, Sp),
with a steeper gradient, high energy flow dominated
and thus, overbank deposits are rarely preserved.
Generally, the FA1 facies association demonstrates a
fining upward sequence and laterally passes into fan
deltaic conditions.
Fan-delta/Delta Front Deposits (FA2): Description
– The Fan delta/delta front facies association is
composed of Gms, Shs, Sp, Sr, Sf, Sm, Ls, Fm, C
facies (Table 1; Figures 8 & 9). The grain size is
highly variable, ranging from fine grained to gravel
size. Horizontal lamination, ripples, planar crossbedding, normal graded bedding, and bioturbations
348

are characteristic syn-sedimentary structures and
occur at various stratigraphic levels (facies Shs,
Sr and Sm) and fragments of fossils such as corals,
gastropods and bivalves were also observed in FA2
(facies Sf) (Figure 9). Coarsening-upwards sequences
were commonly observed in this facies association.
The mudstone and coal are intercalated with massive
sandstones (facies Sm) (Figure 8). Intercalation of
debris flow facies such as Gmm and Sp indicates an
interfingering relationship with FA1.
Interpretation – The sand-dominated FA2 facies
association was probably deposited in a delta setting
at the toe of FA1 where the alluvial fan system is
continuous through to a fan delta system. This facies
association concordantly overlies the alluvial fan
sediments (FA1). Coal layers represent quiescent
subaerial conditions and the massive, laminated
mudstone with shell fragments indicates an alluvial
swamp environment.
Shelf Deposits (FA3): Description – The shelf facies
association is composed of Sf, Sc, Ls, Lr facies varieties
(Tables 1 & 2; Figures 8 & 9). The sandstones mostly
consist of gastropod, bivalve- and bioclast-bearing
fossiliferous sandstones and calcareous sandstones
(facies Sc and Sf). Sandy limestones with benthic
foraminifera and bivalves and reef limestones were
observed at the top of FA3. The lateral extent of these
facies usually exceeds tens of metres.
Interpretation – The FA3 facies was probably
deposited in a lagoon and shelf environment and is
characterized dominantly by sandy limestone and
reef limestone. This facies association overlies fan
delta sediments (FA2). The calcareous sandstone
(facies Sc) commonly occurs near the seaward edge
of the bank platform and shelf. The development
of this deposit requires sand-size sediments and a
means of removing sediment smaller or larger than
sand-size material. These requirements coincide with
wave action or strong tidal currents in an area of high
carbonate production (Tucker & Wright 1990). The
sandy limestone represents open shelf environments
(facies Ls). The limestone contains corals, benthic
foraminifera and bivalves typical of a shelf
environment. However, the presence of abundant
milliolid association in packstones indicates backreef or lagoonal environmental conditions (Toker
2009).


E. TOKER ET AL.

Fossil Contents – Benthic foraminifera have been
identified, particularly in the FA3 facies association
of the Asar Member (Başçeşme Formation) (Figures
8 & 9). The Nummulites assemblage, including
Nummulites fabianii and Nummulites striatus, was
identified and in addition, Fabiania cassis, Eorupertia
magna, Halkyardia minima, Spahaerogypsina globulus
Asterigerina rotula, Quinqueloculina sp., Asterigerina
sp., Discocyclina sp., Cibicides sp., Heterostegina sp.,
Eponides sp., Amphistegina sp., Alveolina sp., Assilina
sp., Halkardia sp., Nummulites sp., Operculina sp.,
Praebulalveolina sp., Eorupertia sp., Fabiania sp.,
Neoalveolina sp., Halkyardia sp., Anomalina sp.,
Mississippina sp., Pararotalia sp., Pyrgo sp., Rotalia
sp., Sakesaria sp. and Orbitolites sp., were recorded
from reef limestones (Akkiraz et al. 2006; Akkiraz
2008). The nummulitids (Nummulites fabianii)
indicate Shallow Benthic Zonation (SBZ) 19 or 20
(Less et al. 2008). Heterostegina sp., which is found
in the Başçeşme Formation, occurs in SBZ 18-19 and
indicates an upper Bartonian–Priabonian age (Özcan
et al. 2007). Furthermore, Fabiania cassis, Halkardia
sp., Rotalia sp., Miliolids, coralline red algae,
corals, gastropods and bivalves in these sections
of the Başçeşme Formation indicate a Bartonian–
Priabonian age. In this part of the section, a shallow
shelf is indicated by the presence of Nummulites
and towards deeper water, a distal-middle ramp is
indicated by orthophragminid assemblages (Bassi
2005).
Varsakyayla Formation
The Varsakyayla Formation is well exposed southwest
of the Burdur Basin (Figure 5). One outcrop section
has been logged through this formation (Figure
11). The section is north of Yukarıcimbilli village
and up to approximately 270 m thick (Figure 5a).
Sedimentary logs defined ten lithofacies based
on types of individual beds, grain size, primary
sedimentary structures and fossil contents (Table 3).
The observed lithofacies diversity was classified into
three main facies associations: FA4, FA5 and FA6
(Table 4). A further fifteen samples were analysed
palynologically (Table 7).
Fluvial Deposits (FA4): Description – The
fluvial facies association (FA4) includes Gh, Sm,
Sp, Sr, Fm facies varieties (Table 4; Figure 11). The

facies association is predominantly sandy facies
comprising medium- to fine-grained, moderately
sorted sandstones, interbedded with conglomerates
and thick-bedded mudstones. Planar cross
bedding, ripple lamination, channel-fills, hematite
concretions, plant debris and bioclasts are common
sedimentary structures in the sandstones, together
with sharp, sometimes erosive bases (facies Sp and
Sr). The conglomerates have interbeds of sandstones
which are horizontally bedded, poorly sorted and are
supported by a sandy, silty matrix. Clasts are rounded
to well-rounded in the pebble to gravel range (facies
Gh). The clasts in the conglomerates are polygenetic
and mainly derived from ophiolites of the Lycian
Nappes. Mudstones in the fluvial facies are massive
to thick bedded, have sharp contacts at base and top
and contain plant debris (facies Fm). The gravel and
medium-sand-dominated units in this facies are
mostly grey.
Interpretation – The sandy-muddy dominant facies
association (FA4) contains trough cross-bedding
and fining-upward cycles indicating the dominance
of fluvial distributary system during deposition.
The sand and mud dominated facies assemblage is
characterized by a very high proportion of floodplain
facies, with fewer channel-fill deposits (Nichols
& Fisher 2007). Planar-cross bedding is produced
by the downstream migration of two dimensional
bedforms (Harms et al. 1982). Overbank deposits are
represented by thick-bedded, greyish mudstone.
Fan Delta Deposits (FA5): Description – The
fan delta facies association (FA5) is composed of
Gmm, Gh, Sm, Sp, Sf, Sc, Fm lithofacies (Table 3;
Figure 11). The coarse-grained gravels in the FA5
facies association consist of matrix-supported,
weakly stratified, massive, poorly sorted, rounded to
subrounded pebble to cobble gravels, (facies Gmm)
with horizontally bedded sandy, silty matrix-support,
erosive bases and locally irregular tops (facies Gh).
The FA5 facies association is characterized by mostly
sandy facies (facies Sm, Sp, Sf, Sc) which are medium
to coarse grained, and moderately sorted. Planar
cross-bedding and locally channels are common
sedimentary structures in the sandstones (facies Sp,
Sm). Benthic shell fragments such as shallow water
gastropods and bivalves are abundant in this facies
association, and individual beds are bioturbated and
349


MIDDLE−UPPER EOCENE FORMATIONS IN SW TURKEY

Table 3. Description and environmental interpretation for the lithofacies in the Varsakyayla Formation.

Facies

Description

Interpretation

Gmm, massive
conglomerates

ganule to cobble size clast, silty, sandy and gravelly matrix-supported, massive and unstratified,
poorly sorted rounded to subrounded, generally erosive basement, locally sand lenses, average
clasts size is up to 23 cm, grey-greyish yellow coloured; dimensions: bed thickness up to 4 m;
lateral extent: few tens of metres; commonly intercalated with facies Sp, Sc, Lr

debris dlow deposits

Gh, horizontally
bedded conglomerates

ganule to pebble size clasts, supported by sandy, silty matrix, horizontally bedded, rounded to
well rounded, erosive basement and some part irregular top, sand lenses are common, greygreyish yellow coloured; dimensions: bed thickness up to 2 m; lateral extent: less than 10 metres;
commonly intercalated with facies Sp, Lr

debris flow to
hyper-concentrated
flow regime

Sm, massive
sandstones

medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, moderately sorted, massive bedded, locally sand lenses,
fractured, bioclasts, bioturbated, greyish coloured; dimensions: bed thickness up to 1–2 m;
lateral extent: few tens of metres intercalated with facies Sp, Sf

deposits from
lower-concentrated
flow regime

Sp, planar crossstratified sandstones

medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, pebbly, poorly sorted, sharp base, planar cross-bedded,
hematite concretions, some part channelized, greyish yellow coloured; dimensions: bed
thickness up to 50 cm; lateral extent: few tens metres; commonly intercalated with facies Gmm,
Sm

mid-channel sand
bars

Sf, fosilliferous
sandstones

medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, moderately sorted, sharp base, cross-stratifed,
gastropods, bivalves bearing, flat bedded, greyish cream coloured; dimensions: bed thickness
up to1 m; lateral extent: tens of metres; intercalated with Fm

decreasing velociy of
water close to shelf

Sc, calcareous
sandstones

medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, moderately sorted, calcareously, fining upward, contains
shell fragments (benthic foraminifera, gastropods, bivalves etc.), sharp base and top, cream
coloured; dimensions: bed thickness up to 1 m; lateral extent: few tens of metres; intercalated
with Lr

sporadic storms,
back-reef zone of
land

Sr, ripple-laminated
sandstones

medium- to fine-grained sandstone, moderately to well-sorted, sharp base, fining upward, flat
bedded, parallel laminated at base and rippled laminated on top, grey coloured; dimensions: bed
thickness up to 60 cm; lateral extent: tens of metres; intercalated with Sm, Sp, Fm

subaqeous deposits at
lower flow regime

Fm, massive
mudstone

mudstone, massive, sharp at base and top, plant debris, greyish yellow coloured; dimensions:
bed thickness up to 40 cm; lateral extent: tens of metres; intercalated with facies Sp, Sm

lower flow regime,
channel
overbank deposits

C, coal-coally
mudstone

coal, carbonaceous mud, dark brown-black coloured, plant remains; dimensions: bed thickness
up to 20 cm; lateral extent: less than 10 metres; intercalated with facies Fm

vegetated swamp
deposits, low energy
flow

Lr, reefal limestone

limestone, included gastropods, bivalves, corals and algal mounds, cream coloured; dimensions:
bed thickness up to 3 m; laterally extent: less than 10 meters; intercalated with Sc, Sh

reef framework, shelf

Table 4. Facies associations of the Varsakyayla Formation.

350

Facies Associations

Constituent Lithofacies

FA4, fluvial facies associations

Gh, Sm, Sp, Sr, Fm

FA5, fan delta facies associations

Gmm, Gh, Sm, Sp, Sf, Sc, Fm,

FA6, shallow shelf facies associations

Gmm, Sp, Sc, Lr


E. TOKER ET AL.

1

10

115

110

105

10

235

260

04YC/8

230

1

255

Sm

1

Loc.
Bed.

L.B
.S.

Age

Color

L.B
.S.
Loc.
Bed.

Sm

1

04YC/37-39
04YC/23
04YC/22
04YC/21

Lr

10

Sm

LITHOL.

10

m
265

240

1

Fm.

04YC/10
04YC/9

Sm

1

Gmm

1

Sm

1

04YC/20
04YC/19
04YC/18
04YC/17
04YC/16
04YC/15

10

100

225

Lr

Sc

250

Lr

Coastal/Shelf(FA-6)

Sr

Structures

04YC/13
04YC/12

04YC/11

UPPER EOCENE

10

m
245

LITHOL.

VARSAKYAYLA

m
120

Age

Fm.

L.B
.S.
Loc.
Bed.

Age

Color

Fm.

LITHOLOGY

Color

Structures

Structures

10

Lr

04YC/14
UPPER EOCENE

85

Gmm

1
5
2

Gh

1

Gh

220

10

215

10

1

210

4
205

1

Sm

60

VARSAKYAYLA

65

1

Sp

1

Fm

5

Sm

10

04YC/31
04YC/30

Sc

10

55

Sf

200

195

190

VARSAKYAYLA

1
70

04YC/27
04YC/26
04YC/25
04YC/24

UPPER EOCENE

Gh
Sr

1

D e l t a (FA-5)

75

Gh

1

Lr

10

Lr

185
10
180
04/YC/36
175

50

Sm

1

35

pebbly sandstone
sandstone
mudstone
limestone
coral
benthic foraminifer
algal mound
gastropod
bioclast

Sc

bivalve
channel fill

20

165

Sm
Fm
Sm
Sm
Fm

04/YC/32

bioturbation

1
1
1
1
1
5
1

160

Sm

Fm

Gmm
Fm

1
1
1
1

Sm
Sm

1

04YC/04K

Sr

04YC/05K
15

Sm
Sm

2

150

1

1

Sm

1

1
135

Fm

2
2

0

1
1
1

04YC/02K
04YC/01K
04YC/28 Sp

G

P

C

130

1

125

1
1
1

Fm

Sm
FMC
Sand

Sp
Sc

1

Sm

L M

Sm

140

1

5

Sp

145

Fm

04YC/03K
1

10

155

B

fractured

Gmm

1

F a n D e l t a (FA-5)

25

Fm

1
1
1
1
1

F l u v i a l (FA-4)

30

MIDDLE - ? UPPER EOCENE

40

B

calcerous sandstone

1
04YC/29

C

medium conglomerate

04/YC/33

04/YC/34

170

P

coarse conglomerate

04/YC/35
10

45

G

EXPLANATIONS

Gmm

1

Gh

1
1
1
1

FMC
Sand

Gmm

1

2
1
80

L M

04YC/7
04YC/6

C o a s t a l / S h e l f (FA-6)

90

F a n

Sm

1

95

Sc

Sm
Gmm
Sp
L M FMC G P
Sand

C

B

hematite concretions
plant debris
ripple lamination

trough cross-bedding
erosive
gradational
sharp
massive bedding
flat bedding
fining upward
04/YC/33 productive sample

04YC/03K barren sample
1
2
4
5
10

grey
greyish yellow
greyish red
yellow
cream

Figure 11. Measured section of the Varsakyayla Formation north of Yukarıcimbili village. See Figure 3 for location.

351


MIDDLE−UPPER EOCENE FORMATIONS IN SW TURKEY

have sharp bases. The finer unit (facies Fm) present
in FA5 consists of massive to thick bedded mudstone,
with grey plant fragments and bioturbation.
Interpretation – The FA5 facies association
represents deposition in a deepening-upward fandelta system in the Varsakyayla Formation. FA5
is probably deposited on a fan-delta front and fandelta slope. The fan-delta front facies is characterized
by pebble to cobble conglomerates, sandstones in
both channelized and nonchannelized horizontally
bedded units. Fan-delta slope strata are dominated
by extensively bioturbated, locally cross-bedded,
coarse sandstones, overlain by sandstone/fossil
conglomerate couplets (Figure 11). Thus, the fandelta slope sandstones record deposition in shoreface
to inner-shelf environments (Rigsby 1994).
Shelf Deposits (FA6): Description – The shelf
facies association (FA6) is composed of Gmm, Sp,
Sc, Lr facies (Table 3, Figure 11). Coarser-grained
conglomerates are rarely preserved and their
lateral extent is very limited in FA6 (facies Gmm).
Conglomerates with erosive bases are intercalated
with sandstones. This facies association dominantly
consists of creamy bioclastic limestone (facies Lr).
The bioclasts include foraminifera, algae, corals
and bivalves and consist of beds of dense skeletal
limestone rich in miliolid foraminifera and coralline
algae alternating with calcareous sandstones (facies
Lr, Sc).
Interpretation – The FA6 facies association was
presumably deposited in a shelf environment. The
calcareous sandstone with shell fragments was
probably deposited in a back-reef sand facies (Figure
11) (Toomey 1981). All the features of the backreef zone of land fringing platforms are strongly
influenced by the both water exchange between the
open sea and influx of river water (Einsele 2000).
Limestone composed of corals and algal mounds
is called bind stone or frame stone. The ratio of
organisms comprising the skeleton components of
these limestones (facies Lr) exceeds 50%. The shelf
facies association is characterized by the presence of
abundant shallow-marine fauna, as observed in the
bioclastic limestone facies of the upper part of the
Varsakyayla Formation. The marine transgression is
also well documented by presence of reef limestones
containing rich marine fossils, such as coral reefs,
benthic foraminifera and echinoderms.
352

Palynological Contents – Five palynological
samples were collected from the clastic part of
the Varsakyayla Formation (Figure 5a). However,
only two samples were suitable for palynological
counting. Due to the low diversity and relative
percentages of the species, 175 pollen grains in
one sample and 164 pollen grains in the other one
could be counted (Table 5). In total, 37 spore pollen
species were determined. Only two spore species,
Leiotriletes triangulus and Baculatisporites primarius
ssp. Oligocaenicus, were counted. The angiosperm
pollen average is always higher than that of spores
and gymnosperm. The pollen species Plicatopollis
plicatus (~13%), Momipites punctatus (~10%)
Momipites quietus (8%), Tricolpopollenites retiformis
(15%) and Tricolpopollenites liblarensis (8%) had
high percentages. The other angiosperms had
comparatively lower percentages (1–3%). Marine
Cleistosphaeridium sp. and Cordosphaeridium sp.,
and undifferentiated dinoflagellate cysts were also
described from the samples (Table 5).
The characteristic Early Eocene taxa Normapolles,
such as Basopollis, Interpollis and Urkutipollenites, do
not occur in the Varsakyayla Formation. According
to Riegel et al. (1999), the variety of Normapolles is
higher in the Early Eocene than in the Middle Eocene.
Normapolles were not recorded from the Middle–
?Late Eocene coal occurrences of central Anatolia
by Akyol (1980), Akgün (2002) and Akgün et al.
(2002). However, the species Plicatopollis lunatus,
Triatriopollenites
excelsus,
Subtriporopollenites
anulatus ssp. nanus and Compositoipollenites
rhizophorus ssp. Burghasungensis, generally observed
in Eocene sediments, were also identified from the
Varsakyayla Formation.
Furthermore, the palynomorph content of the two
samples is similar to the palynomorph content of the
Maden member (Başçeşme Formation) previously
made by Akkiraz et al. (2006). In particular, the
mangrove species Psilatricolporites crassus (Pelliciera)
is present in high percentages in the Maden member
(upper part of the Başçeşme Formation) and also
occurs in the Varsakyayla Formation, as a few grains.
The clastic parts of the Varsakyayla Formation are
well correlated with the Maden member (Başçeşme
Formation). However, the diversity of species
obtained from the Varsakyayla Formation is less than


TAXA
SPORE
Leiotriletes triangulus
Baculatisporites primarius ssp. oligocaeinus
GYMNOSPERMOUS
Pityosporites microalatus
ANGIOSPERMOUS
MONOCOTYLEDONEAE
Arecipites brandenburgensis
DICOTYLEDONEAE
Triatriopollenites rurensis
Triatriopollenites bituitus
Triatriopollenites excelsus ssp.typicus
Plicatopollis lunatus
Plicatopollis plicatus
Momipites punctatus
Momipites quietus
Subtriporopollenites anulatus ssp. nanus
Intratriporopollenites indubitalibis
Compositoipollenites rhizophorus ssp. burghasungensis
Polyporopollenites undulosus
Tricolpopollenites retiformis
Tricolpopollenites microhenrici
Tricolpopollenites parmularius
Tricolpopollenites henrici
Tricolpopollenites liblarensis ssp. liblarensis
Tricolpopollenites liblarensis ssp. fallax
Tricolporopollenites asper
Tricolporopollenites pseudocingulum
Tricolporopollenites cingulum ssp. oviformis
Tricolporopollenites cingulum ssp. fusus
Tricolporopollenites cingulum ssp. pusillus
Tricolporopollenites marcodurensis
Tricolporopollenites megaexactus ssp. exactus
Tricolporopollenites megaexactus ssp. brühlensis
Tricolporopollenites edmundi
Tricolporopollenites microreticulatus
Tricolporopollenites oleoides
Tricolporopollenites villensis
Tricolporopollenites solé de portai
Tricolporopollenites kruschi ssp. pseudolaesus
Psilatricolporites crassus
Tetracolporopollenites obscurus
INCERTAE CEDIS
Cleistosphaeridium sp.
Cordosphaeridium sp.
Undifferentiated dinoflagellate cysts
Total
 
(Osmundaceae: Osmunda)
 
(Pinaceae: Pinus haploxylon type)
 
 
(?Arecoideae, ?Palmae )
 
(Myricaceae: Myrica)
(Myricaceae: Myrica)
(Myricaceae)
(Juglandaceae)
(Juglandaceae)
(Juglandaceae: Engelhardia)
(Juglandaceae: Engelhardia)
(Juglandaceae: ?Carya)
(Tiliaceae)
(Icacinaceae)
(Ulmaceae: Ulmus)
(Saliaceae: Salix/Platanus)
(Fagaceae: Quercus)
(?Fagaceae, ?Eucommiaceae: ?Eucomminia)
(Fagaceae: Quercus)
(?Fagaceae)
(?Fagaceae)
(Fagaceae: Quercus)
(Anacardiaceae: Rhus)
(Fagaceae: Castanea,Castanopsis,Lithocarpus,Pasania)
(Trigonabalanus)
(Fagaceae: Castanea,Castanopsis,Lithocarpus,Pasania)
(Vitaceae: Cissus)
(Cyrillaceae)
(Cyrillaceae)
(Mastixiaceae)
(Oleaceae: Olea, Fraxinus, Ligustrum)
(Oleaceae)
(Cupuliferae)
(?Fabaceae, ?Rosaceae, ?Anacardiaceae)
(Nyssaceae)
(Pelliciera)
(Sapotaceae)
 
 
 
 
 

Table 5. Quantitative counting results of palynomorphs in the Varsakyayla Formation of the Burdur Area.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

Shallow - marine

Mangrove
Lowland - Riparian

Unknown

Lowland - Riparian

Unknown

Lowland - Riparian

Montane

Lowland - Riparian

Lowland - Riparian

Back - Mangrove

Montane

Swamp - Freshwater

Palaeovegetation Types

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 

 

Sample numbers
04/YC01
04/YC02
1
2
 
 
11
4
 
 
1
 
 
3
1
 
1
2
18
25
14
18
12
15
2
 
1
 
1
1
1
29
24
4
3
1
 
1
 
9
21
17
7
2
 
1
11
5
7
2
3
2
1
2
3
10
7
1
6
5
1
 
2
1
1
2
2
1
 
 
 
1
 
2
 
3
4
175
163

E. TOKER ET AL.

353


MIDDLE−UPPER EOCENE FORMATIONS IN SW TURKEY

in the Maden member (see Akkiraz et al. 2006 for the
whole assemblage).
Foraminifera Contents – In this study, thirty-seven
samples suitable for analysis of benthic foraminifera
in the Varsakyayla Formation contained: Nummulites
fabianii Prever, Peneroplis sp., Peneropliidae,
Halkyardia minima, Mississippina sp., Textularia
sp., Planorbulina sp., Linderina? sp., Discorbiidae,
Ditrupa sp., Halkyardia minima Liebus, Eorupertia
magna Le Calvez, and Sphaerogypsina globolus
(Table 6; Figure 11). Haurinidae and Rotaliidae
occur rarely in samples. Also, Nummulites fabianii
(nummulitids) primarily occur in samples 04YC/32–
04YC/36, 04YC/24–04YC/25, 04YC/13–04YC/22
and 04YC/37–04YC/39 (Figure 11). In this study
no orthophraminids have been identified in any of
the sections. Small benthic foraminifera (miliolids),
fragments of bivalves and corals were also observed.
The abundance of nummulitids suggests an inner
and middle shelf environment, deposited during late
Middle Bartonian–Priabonian (SBZ 18-20).
Samples between 04YC/06 and 04YC/12 have a
reef character, and do not include Nummulites and
Discocyclina, because these kinds of shallow marine
environments are not their optimal living conditions.
Samples between 04YC/29 and 04YC/31 indicate
a shelf lacustrine environment. Samples 04YC/32–
04YC/36 and 04YC/25–04YC/27 indicate a deeper
marine carbonate shelf environment. Sample 04YC/24
indicates a reef environment. Samples between
04YC/06 and 04YC/11 indicate a shelf environment,
while samples between 04YC/12 and 04YC/23
suggest a deeper shelf environment. Sample 04YC/21
indicates a shallow marine environment. Samples
between 04YC/37 and 04YC/39 suggest a carbonate
shelf environment (Figure 11). Anomaliniidae,
Discorbiidae, Peneropliidae, Textulariidae and
Valvuliniidae were also described from the samples
(Table 6).
Kayıköy Formation
The Kayıköy Formation is well-exposed around
Gönen and Atabey towns and İncesu village (Figure
7). Four outcrop sections were logged through the
Kayıköy Formation to document its lithological
characteristics (Figures 12, 13 & 14a, b). Nine
354

lithofacies were defined, based on type of individual
beds, grain size, and sedimentary structures (Table
7). Measured sections were logged in three different
places: two from southeast of İncesu, while a third
was logged east of Karakaya Tepe and the last section
was logged from the northeastern part of Kızıldere
north of Gönen (Figures 12–14). The lithofacies
diversity was grouped into main four main facies
associations, FA7 to FA10 (Table 7).
Major Channel Deposits (FA7): Description – The
major channel facies association (FA7) is characterized
by the relative abundance of facies F1, F2, F3, F4, F5
and F6 (Table 8; Figure 12). It is dominated by pebble
to cobble grain size conglomerates intercalated with
pebbly sandstones. Conglomerates are generally
thick-bedded to massive, very poorly sorted, sandy
silt matrix-supported, well-rounded, erosively based
and amalgamated (Figure 12). Pebbly sandstones are
poorly sorted and pebbles and granules are dispersed
in a matrix of sand (facies F4). Scours and load casts
at the bottom of the bed are common sedimentary
structures (Table 7). However, disorganized and
stratified sandstones were also observed in the FA7
facies associations (Figure 12).
Interpretation – The FA7 facies assemblages,
composed of conglomerate and sandstone, represent
long distance transport by high concentration
turbidity currents or debris flows and final rapid
sedimentation of all grains (Stanley & Kelling 1978;
Nemec et al. 1980). Gravels may slide into place on
liquefied mud. Some muddy gravel occurrences
could have formed from thorough mixing of gravel
and mud after sliding down a steep slope (Crowell
1957). Stratified sandstones are represented by
deposits from traction bed loads or traction carpets
at the base of a high-concentration turbidity current
(Hendry 1973, 1978; Mutti & Ricci-Lucci 1975; Hein
1982; Hein & Walker 1982; Lowe 1982; Surlyk 1984).
Disorganized sandstones were deposited by rapid
sedimentation from a high-concentration turbidity
current by consolidating a dense cohesionless
suspension and/or post-depositional liquefaction
to destroy any previously formed sedimentary
structures. Grain flow processes on steep slopes could
form disorganized sands (Piper 1978; Lowe 1982).
Proximal (Upper) Fan Deposits (FA8): Description
– The proximal (upper) fan facies association (FA8)


Rotaliidae
Textulariidae

Textularia sp.
Haueriniidae

Foraminifera
Nummulites fabianii
Halkyardia minima
Eorupertia magna
Asterigerina sp.
Eorupertia sp.
Nummulites sp.
Operculina sp.
Pararotalia sp.
Quinqueloculina sp.

Sample

04YC/02K
04YC/01K

Palynomorhps
Leiotriletes triangulus
Baculatisporis primarius ssp. oligacaenicus
Pityosporites microalatus
Arecipites burghasungensis
Triatriopollenites rurensis
Triatripollenites bituitus
Triatripollebites excelsus ssp. typicus
Plicatopollis lunatus
Plicatopollis plicatus
Momipites punctatus
Momipites quietus
Subtriporopollenites anulatus ssp. nanus
Intratriporopollenites indubitalibis
Compositoipollenites rhizophorus
ssp. burghasungensis
Polyporopollenites undulosus
Tricolpopollenites retiformis
Tricolpopollenites microhenrici
Tricolpopollenites parmularius
Tricolpopollenites henrici
Tricolpopollenites liblarensis ssp. liblarensis
Tricolpopollenites liblarensis ssp. fallax
Tricolpopollenites asper
Tricolporopollenites pseudocingulum
Tricolporopollenites cingulum ssp.oviformis
Tricolporopollenites cingulum ssp.fusus
Tricolporopollenites cingulum ssp.pusillus
Tricolporopollenites marcodurensis
Tricolporopollenites megaexactus ssp. exactus
Tricolporopollenites megaexactus ssp. brühlensis
Tricolporopollenites edmundi
Tricolporopollenites microreticulatus
Tricolporopollenites oleoides
Tricolporopollenites villensis
Tricolporopollenites solé de portai
Tricolporopollenites kruschi ssp. pseudolaesus
Psilatricolporites crassus
Tetracolporopollenites obscurus
Cleistosphaeridium sp.
Cordosphaeridium sp.
Undifferentiated dinoflagellate cysts

Not to scale

Burdur Area

Age

Formation

Priabonian

Epoch

Period

Varsakyayla

EOCENE

PALEOGENE

Priabonian

Bartonian
Varsakyayla

PALEOGENE
LATE EOCENE

MIDDLE

Table 6. Occurrence of palynomorphs and benthic foraminifera in the Varsakyayla Formation. See figure 5 for sample location.

Textularia sp.
Anomaliniidae
Discorbiidae
Haueriniidae
Peneropliidae
Rotaliidae
Textulariidae
Valvuliniidae

Heterostegina sp.
Linderina? sp.
Mississippina sp.
Nummulites sp.
Operculina sp.
Pararotalia sp.
Peneroplis sp.
Planorbulina sp.
Pyrgo sp.
Quinqueloculina sp.

Nummulites fabianii
Halkyardia minima
Eupertia magna
Sphaerogypsina globulus
Amphistegina sp.
Anomalina sp.
Asterigerina sp.
Eponides sp.
Ethelia sp.
Gypsina sp.

Foraminifera

Sample

Burdur Area

Formation

Age

Epoch

Period

E. TOKER ET AL.

04YC/39
04YC/38
04YC/37
04YC/23
04YC/22
04YC/20
04YC/19
04YC/18
04YC/17
04YC/16
04YC/15
04YC/14
04YC/13
04YC/12
04YC/11
04YC/10
04YC/09
04YC/08
04YC/07
04YC/06
04YC/27
04YC/26
04YC/25
04YC/24
04YC/36
04YC/35
04YC/34
04YC/33
04YC/32
04YC/31
04YC/30
04YC/29

04YC/04
04YC/03
04YC/02
04YC/01

04YC/05

not to scale

355


MIDDLE−UPPER EOCENE FORMATIONS IN SW TURKEY

m
60

Age Fm. Color

50

45

t

F1

1

F1

1

F1

KAYIKÖY
MIDDLE EOCENE

1
1
1
1
1

1

25
1

F4

1

20

F1

1

15

F4
03/06G

F1
F5
F1

1
1

F1

1
1
100

F1

1
1
1
1

95

90

F1

1
1

F1

1
1
1

F1

1
1

85

1
1

F1

1

80

F2

1

F6

1

75

1

03/10G

10
1
1

F6

70

03/11G

F1
L M FMC
Sand

G

P

C

B

1
1
1

F3
F6

1
65

1
1
1

F2

1

4

F1

1

5

F1

1

F1

1

1

1

105

F1
F1

1

F1

M a j o r c h a n n e l f a c i e s (FA-7)

F6
F6

M a j o r c h a n n e l f a c i e s (FA-7)

F1

1

30

110

F6

1

1
1
1
1
4
4

115

1
1
11
1
35

m
120

F6

1
1
1
1

40

Lithology

1

F1
F6
F6

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
4
1
1
1
1
1
1

55

Structures
Local
L.B.S. bedding

Lithology

KAYIKÖY
MIDDLE EOCENE

Structures
Local
Age Fm. Color
L.B.S. bedding
1

1
1
1
1
7

F6
F1

1
L M FMC
Sand

G

P

C

B

Figure 12. Measured section of the Kayıköy Formation in the northeastern part of Kızıl Dere, north of Gönen Town.

is characterized by lithofacies F1, F2, F3, F5, F6 and
F9 (Table 8 and Figure 13). It consists of massive,
pebble to cobble grain size conglomerates, bedded,
356

disorganized conglomerates and medium- to coarsegrained sandstones. Conglomerates are badly sorted
but fine upwards, with well-rounded clasts, sharp


F1

8
4

245

F3
F6
F3

4
4
4
4
1
1
8

F6
F6
F2

8
8
8
8
1
1
1
5
8

85

65

60

3

F9

4

F3

4
8

F6

4

F1

1

F5

3
50

45

40

4
8
8
1
1
1

F1

1

4
8
8
8
8
8
8

20

15

F5
155

F6
F6
F6
F6

8
8
8
8
8
8

F1

8
4

130

F2

9
L M FMC
Sand

G

P

C

B

Local
Bed.

Color

Fm.

Age

Color

L.B.S.

5

F6

5

F5

5

F5
F2
F5
F6

295

290

1

5

F2
F6
F2
F5

1

F2

6

F1
F1
F5

5
8
6
6
6
4
4
5
6
4

F3
F6
F6

285

4

F1

F6

1

F5

4

F1

4
5
5
5
8
8
8
4
4
4
4
4

F6
F6

F1
F6
F5
F1
F5
F2

280

4

F5
F6
F2

4

F6

F2
F6

8
8
8
4

FMC
Sand

G

P

C

F2

1
1
270

265

260

F6
L M

F5

1

F2

1
1
1

F6
F5
FMC
Sand

G

P

C

B

EXPLANATIONS

F1

4

1

L M

F5

4

F2
F2

1

275

F2

4

F6

310

F3
F6
F5

5

F5

140

135

315

1
5
1
1

F6

10

5

1
4

4

8

F6
F5

5
5
5

5

F5

1

F1

F2
F6
F2
F6

1

8
6

150

145

F1

1
320

300

6

160

F5

F6
F6
F6
F2

185

175

4

5

8
6
6
6
8
6
6

4

180

F5

5
5
1
1
1

325

Medial fan lobe facies (FA9)

25

190

F1

8
8
8
8

195

4
4
4

330

305

205

200

335

F6

210

165

F6

8

30

8

170

8
35

215

F6
F6
F1
F6

F5
F5

6
6

220

Medial fan channeled facies (FA9)

55

KAYIKÖY

75

MIDDLE EOCENE

80

F5
F6
F6
F3
F1
F5

F5

225

P r o x i m a l ( Upper ) F a n (F A 8)

90

F2
F5
F2

6
6
6

KAYIKÖY

4
8

95

230

MIDDLE EOCENE

8

F5

6
6
6

F2
F6

4
100

6

F1

340

F6
F6
F5

235

F6

4

Medial fan depositional lobe facies (FA9)

105

F2
F6
F2

F5

4

Medial fan lobe facies (FA9)

110

6
6
5

240

F2
F2 F5

345

F6

F5
4
4
4
8
4
8
8

LITHOLOGY

4

F6
F6
F2

6

Structures

4
4
4

F6

6
6
5
6
1

F2

115

70

m
350

1
1
4

250

8

LITHOLOGY

KAYIKÖY

4
120

Local
Bed.

m
255

Structures

L.B.S.

Fm.

F2
F5

Age

LITHOLOGY

MIDDLE EOCENE

m
125

Local
Bed.

Color
4
4
1

Structures

L.B.S.

Fm.

Age

E. TOKER ET AL.

B

coarse sandstone

erosive
gradational
sharp
massive bedding
flat bedding

medium sandstone

coarsening upward

mudstone

fining upward

coarse conglomerate
fine conglomerate

covered
benthic foraminifera
bioclast
channel fill

1
3
4
5

fractured

6

grey
greyish green
greyish red
yellow
yellowish red

hematite concretions

8

brown

load cast

9

green

amalgamation

Figure 13. Measured section of the Kayıköy Formation east of Karakaya Tepe.

357


MIDDLE−UPPER EOCENE FORMATIONS IN SW TURKEY

Table 7. Description and environmental interpretation for the lithofacies in the Kayıköy Formation.

Facies

Description

Interpretation

F1, disorganized
conglomerates

granule to cobble size clasts, very poorly-sorted, well-rounded clasts, sandy, silty
matrix-supported, locally sandstone lenses, non-stratified bedded, flat basement
and irregular top surface, hematite concretions, grey coloured; dimensions: bed
thickness up to 6 m; lateral extent: less than five metres; intercalated with Sm

subaqueous debris flow, long
distance
transport by high
concentration

F2, poorly sorted gravel
with
gravel clusters

granule to cobble size clasts, very poorly-sorted, well-rounded clasts, clast- to
matrix-supported with a coarse-grained sandy matrix, locally iregular clusters of
cobble to boulder size clasts, erosive base, locally normal graded, green-brown
coloured; dimensions: bed thickness up to 4 m; laterally extent: few tens of metres;
intercalated with facies F5

rapid deposition from
turbulent
hyperconcentrated flows and
coarser
gravel clusters; reflect
hydraulic
lateral grain size segregation

F3, normal graded
gravels

granule to pebble size clasts, normally graded clast-supported by medium- to
coarse-grained sand, sandy matrix, moderately to poorly sorted, well-rounded clasts,
locally erosive basement, commonly fining upward, greyish coloured; dimensions:
bed thickness up to 1 m; lateral extent: few tens of metres; intercalated with facies

deposition by waning
high-density turbidity flows

F4, disorganized pebbly
sandstones

medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, pebbly, massive bedded, poorly sorted, flat
based and irregular upper surface common structures are scours and load casts at
the bottom of bed, greyish
coloured; dimensions: bed thickness up to 2 m; lateral extent: less than ten metres

long-distance transport by
high concentration turbidity
current;
rapid collective grain
deposition of a pebble-sand

F5, disorganized
sandstones

medium- to coarse-grained sandstone with sharp flat undulose or loaded base,
gravel lenses in some part bioclasts, bioturbated, amalgamated, greyish, yellowish
red coloured; dimensions: bed thickness up to 70 cm; lateral extent: few metres;
intercalated with facies F2, F6

rapid deposition from high
concentration turbidity
current

F6, stratified sandstones

medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, moderately cemented, matrix-supported,
parallel stratified, locally normal to inverse graded, locally gravel lenses, benthic
foraminifera fragments, greyish coloured, dimensions; bed thickness up to 2 m,
laterally extent few metres, intercalated with facies F5

traction bed load of high
concentration turbidity
current

F7, thick bedded
sandstone-mudstone
couplets

medium-grained sandstone-mudstone couplets, medium-thick- bedded, welldeveloped normal graded, sand/mud ratio is high, generally sharp base, contact,
locally erosive base, partly sandstone lenses visible in mudstone, pervasive Tabc
Bouma divisions are present, load structures in sandstones and parallel laminations,
amalgamations, yellowish coloured, sand; lateral extent: few metres

deposition by highconcentration turbidity
current

F8, thin bedded
sandstone-mudstone
couplets

medium-grained sandstone-mudstone couplets, medium-thick-bedded, well-sorted,
well-developed normal graded, sand/mud ratio is low, generally sharp base, contact,
locally erosive base, partly sandstone lenses visible in mudstone, pervasive Tabc
Bouma divisions are present, load structures in sandstones and parallel laminations,
amalgamations, yellowish coloured; lateral
extent: few metres

deposition by low-density
turbidity currents

F9, mudstone/shale

mudstone, flat bedded partly massive, sharp base and upper surface, parallel
lamination on top, fractured, burrows, grey coloured; dimensions: bed thickness up
to 2 m; lateral extent: tens of metres; intercalated with facies

deposited suspension of lowdensity turbidity
currents

bases, contain benthic shell fragments and are
intercalated with sandstones (facies F1) (Figure 13).
The sandstones are poorly-sorted, flat based and
bioturbated. Most of them have scoured surfaces, and
bed amalgamation is present (Figure 13).
358

Interpretation – The massive, disorganized
conglomerates of the Kayıköy Formation are
considered to be debris flow deposits in the proximal
(upper) fan (FA8), associated thin alternating sand
and mud deposits that can be interpreted as overbank


E. TOKER ET AL.

deposits. Similar disorganized conglomerates can be
interpreted as relating to deposition within either the
proximal (upper) fan or proximal parts of the medial
fan distributary channels (Table 7; Figure 13). All
these coarse clastics represent high-concentration,
turbidity currents (Mutti & Ricci-Lucci 1975).
Medial Fan Deposits (FA9): Description – The
medial fan facies association (FA9) includes the F1,
F2, F3, F5 and F6 facies varieties (Table 7, Figure 13).
Medial fan deposits were observed as two different
facies, namely the medial fan channel facies and
medial fan depositional lobe facies. The medial fan
channel facies is characterized by massive poorlysorted conglomerates, with well-rounded clasts, sharp
bases and locally irregular tops, hematite concretions
and bioclasts (Figure 13). The depositional lobe
facies is composed of medium- to coarse-grained,
thick-bedded, parallel stratified, non-channelized,
thickening-upward sandstones with load casts,
(facies F5 and F6; Figure 13). These thick-bedded
sandstones are characterized by classical Bouma
sequences but complete Bouma sequences are absent.
Most of the beds consists of Ta-c Bouma sequences,
whereas the Tb, Tab, Tbc/e divisions are less commonly
observed. The sand/mud ratio of these deposits is
very high and bed amalgamation is typical.
Interpretation – The middle fan association (FA9)
is also a combination of channel-fill deposits (facies
F1), interchannel deposits (facies F2, F3, F4) and
overbank deposits (facies F6 and F9). The sandstones,
with sharp, scoured to flat bases, normal grading and
parallel laminated tops, suggest deposition from
traction bed loads or traction carpets at the base
of a high- concentration turbidity current (Hendry
1973, 1978; Hein 1982; Hein & Walker 1982; Lowe

1982; Surlyk 1984). The base-missing sandstone
beds (Tb, Tbc) are interpreted as the deposits
of low-concentration turbidity currents (Lowe
1982). The medial fan depositional lobes occur as
thickening-upward and thinning-upward sequences
which correspond to lobe progradation and lobe
abandonment, respectively.
Distal Fan Deposits (FA10): Description – The
distal fan association (FA10) includes facies F1,
F6, F7, F8 and F9 (Table 8; Figure 14a, b) and is
dominated by moderately thick, massive mudstone
with thin (0.5–5 cm), fine-grained sandstones
which are massive, or exhibit Bouma Td/e sequences
characteristic of this facies. The sandstone beds show
typical base-missing Bouma sequences, such as Td/e,
Tb-e, Tb/e. The sandstone/mud ratio is less than 1. The
lower contacts of sandstone beds are sharp, whereas
the upper contact of the same beds is gradational
with overlying mud beds (Figure 14b).
Interpretation – The distal fan facies association
(FA10) comprises thin and fine turbidites (facies
F8 and facies F9) and mud interbedded with basemissing sandstone beds. They were probably
deposited by low-concentration turbulent flows far
from channel sources (Bouma 1962, 1964; Stow et al.
1996; Einsele 2000).
Formanifera Contents – The Kayıköy Formation
is characterized by a lack of fossil content and only
yielded a few fossil samples, such as Nummulites
sp., Assilina sp., Discocyclina sp., Rotaliidae and
Nodosariidae (Plate 3). Some samples also contain
planktonic foraminifera, such as Globigerina sp.,
and Globigerinidae. This formation is repesented by
flysch deposits containing planktonic foraminifera
and thin-bedded mudstone-sandstone alternations.

Table 8. Facies associations of the Kayıköy Formation.

Facies Associations

Constituent Lithofacies

FA7, major channel facies associations

F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6

FA8, proximal (upper) fan facies association

F1, F2, F3, F5, F6, F9

FA9, medial (middle) fan facies association (channeled and depositional lobes)

F1, F2, F3, F5, F6

FA10, distal fan/basin plain facies association

F1, F6, F7, F8, F9

359


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