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AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol. 7 (2), 30 – 41

FACTORS AFFECTING THE TOURISTS’ SATISFACTION
AT TRADITIONAL TRADE VILLAGE TOURIST PLACE IN BAY NUI,
AN GIANG PROVINCE
Hua Ngoc Thuy Trang1, Nguyen Huu Dang1
1

Can Tho University

Information:
Received: 21/08/2018
Accepted: 01/01/2019
Published: 11/2019
Keywords:
Traditional trade village,
Tourist destination, Tourists’
satisfaction.

ABSTRACT
This study aims to determine factors that affect tourist satisfaction at
traditional trade village tourist place in Bay Nui, An Giang province by
using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The researcher
conducted a survey of 285 interviewees; including tourists who visited
traditional trade village tourist locations and other tourist attractions as well
as tourists who stayed at hotels and guesthouses the surrounding Bay Nui’s
area. Based on the result of the study, the author recommended some specific
solutions to enhance tourists’ satisfaction at traditional trade villages at Bay
Nui, An Giang province.

discontinuous mountains, located between Tri


Ton and Tinh Bien districts of An Giang province.
Nowadays, Bay Nui has become an attractive
tourist destination with majestic mountains and a
cool climate all year round. People here are so
proud of their regional culture and eager to reach
the harmony between tradition and modernity.
Many countries around the world have built
traditional trade village brands and preserved their
traditional cultural values. In Japan, traditional
trades have been maintained and operated. At the
beginning of the twenty-first century, Japan
opened 867 traditional trades. China has also
promoted rural industrialization, paying attention
to development through its factory enterprises.
The Korean Government has considered
traditional trade village development as an
important strategy in the country’s development
through creating more jobs for farmers. In
Vietnam, along with the country's economic

1. RATIONALE OF THE RESEARCH
An Giang tourism currently attracts more than 6
million tourists annually. According to the
statistics, in 2017 An Giang province welcomed
around 7.3 million domestic and international
tourists and increase 12 percent and 7 percent
compared to the previous year and the plan 2017
respectively. According to the report, the number
of in-house tourists and travelers was estimated to
reach 6 hundred thousand arrivals, reaching 100

percent of the year plan, especially the
international arrivals was estimated at over 75
thousand, 50 percent compared to the same period
last year. Tourism revenue was around VND
3,700 billion, up 16 percent and 9 percent higher
than the year plan (Source: An Giang Provincial
People's Committee, 2017). Bay Nui is one of the
key tourist destinations of An Giang province.
This is also known as That Son, including seven

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AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol. 7 (2), 30 – 41

development, the number of traditional trade
villages has over 2 thousand traditional villages.
Particularly, there are some notable traditional
trade villages in Bay Nui such as Khmer Van
Giao brocade weaving village (Tinh Bien), Palm
sugar cooking village (Tinh Bien, Tri Ton) and
Chau Lang pottery village (Tri Ton). These
villages are livelihood of more than 90 thousand
Khmer people living in Tri Ton and Tinh Bien,
accounting for about 4 percent of the An Giang’s
population (Source: Statistical Yearbook of Tri
Ton and Tinh Bien districts, An Giang province,
2015). The development of trade villages has
contributed to rural economic restructuring;
created more jobs and made more valuable items.

However, traditional trade villages are facing
many difficulties such as management tunover,
operation and development that are not
commensurate with the potential. Despite
welcoming many tourists each year, the
infrastructure, human resources, quality of
tourism products have not satisfied the demand of
tourists. Some traditional trades with cultural
values - a hundred-year history of the Khmer
people in Bay Nui is gradually disappearing.
Within the desire to contribute to discover factors
affecting the tourists’ satisfaction at traditional
trade village in Bay Nui, contributing to support
local managers to have appropriate policies to
develop the local tourism, improving the quality
of services for tourists as well as, contributing to
the sustainable economic development, ensuring
the live and job of people in trade villages and
maintaining the traditional features, the subject:
“Factors affecting the tourists’ satisfaction at
traditional trade village tourist place in Bay Nui,
An Giang province” has been selected for
research in both theory and practice.

access to tangible and intangible cultural values
closely related to a traditional trade village. The
traditional village is both a typical tourist product
when the village has the ability to attract visitors
and is an additional tourism product when
creating souvenir items for tourists.

Customer satisfaction is their reaction to the
perceived difference between known experience
and expectation (Parasuraman et al., 1988).
Customer’ satisfaction is their emotional response
to service providers on the basis of comparing the
difference between what they have received and
previous expectations. The expectations of
customers are formed from the shopping
experience, friends, colleagues and the
information of sellers and competitors. In simple
terms, customer’ satisfaction is what the customer
feels about the service provider after using the
service. Tourists’ satisfaction is a function of the
satisfaction level of two factors: functional factors
(goods, products) and service factors of suppliers.
Researching customer’ satisfaction with these two
types will help service organizations find the most
effective customer service strategy, while helping
businesses attract and maintain customers, thereby
improving the competitiveness of enterprises and
localities (Luu Thanh Duc Hai et al., 2011).
Besides, tourists’ satisfaction is considered to be
the overall satisfaction with the destination, so it
is affected by various aspects of the trip, such as
transportation, activities provided, etc. Travel
destination
satisfaction
affects
tourists’
satisfaction with the service or organization of the

trip (Nina K. Prebensen, 2004).
There are many research topics about the factors
that affect tourist satisfaction. Luu Thanh Duc Hai
et al. (2011) studied factors affecting tourists'
satisfaction when traveling to Kien Giang using
the service quality analysis model and testing the
scale of satisfaction level of service quality with
six variables: (1) Tourism landscape, (2)
Infrastructure, (3) Transportation, (4) Tour guides,
(5) Accommodation facilities and (6) Prices. The
result of the factor analysis shows that there are

2. THEORETICAL BASIS AND
RESEARCH MODEL
2.1 Theoretical basis
Traditional trade village tourism is a form of
cultural tourism, through which visitors have

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AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol. 7 (2), 30 – 41

five components that have a causal relationship
with the tourists' satisfaction. Nguyen Trong Nhan
et al. (2014) studied the satisfaction level of
international visitors for floating market tourism
in Can Tho city and surrounding areas by eight
criteria: (1) Natural environment (3) measurement
variables, (2) Infrastructure (4) measurement

variables), (3) Response and safety assurance of
vehicles (6) measurement variables), (4) Catering,
sightseeing,
shopping,
entertainment
(4)
measurement variables), (5) Accommodation
facilities (7) measurement variables), (6) Security
and Safety (3) measurement variables), (7) Tour
guides (6) measurement variables) and (8) Prices
of services (5) measurement variables. After
analysis, identify two factors affecting tourist
satisfaction: factor one is "Environment and
Infrastructure" and factor two is "Service and
Price". Suthathip Suanmali (2014) uses the
SERVPERF model to measure tourist satisfaction.
The result shows that there are 5 factors that
influence the satisfaction of tourists in Chiang
Mai, Thailand: Hospitality, Attraction, Cost,
Environmental Factors and Infrastructure.

gap between expectations and reality; reality is
customer’ satisfaction about the quality of the
service. Then, the author has inherited and
hypothesized H1, H2.
Hypothesis H1: Feeling of Reliability affects the
same dimension with tourist satisfaction.
Hypothesis H2: Feeling of Responsiveness affects
the same dimension with tourists’ satisfaction.
Luu Thanh Duc Hai et. Al. (2011) studied factors

affecting tourist satisfaction when traveling to
Kien Giang using the service quality analysis
model and testing the scale of satisfaction about
the quality level of service. The result shows that
the tour guide attitude has the strongest impact on
the tourists’ satisfaction, next is the form of the
tour guide. A tour guide is a representative of a
tourist destination to introduce tourists to the
culture, history and special features of the
destination. Therefore, the professional service
capacity of the tour guide is an important factor
affecting the tourists’ satisfaction. The next
hypothesis of the study is:
Hypothesis H3: Feeling of Service capacity
affects the same dimension with tourist
satisfaction.

2.2 Hypothesis and research model
Based on the reference of criteria used to measure
tourists’ satisfaction from previous studies and
adding evaluation content to the research topic,
the questionnaire was developed built on a 5-level
Likert scale. The study proposed eight
hypotheses, with 31 observed variables affecting
tourists’ satisfaction.

Landscape, natural environment is one of the
factors directly affecting the ability to attract
tourists. Phan Thi Dang (2015) points out the
factors that attract tourists when choosing an

ecotourism are natural scenery and cool climate
suitable for camping. Therefore, beautiful
landscape and fresh air will affect the tourists’
satisfaction, hypothesis H4 is stated as following:
Hypothesis H4: Feeling of Natural environment
affects the same dimension with tourist
satisfaction.
Infrastructure and technical facilities of tourism
include: Network and transport means,
Communication network, electricity and material
facilities. Besides, the tourists’ satisfaction is
considered the overall satisfaction with the
destination, so it is affected by various aspects of
the trip including roads, vehicles, facilities quality

The hypotheses in the research model
Parasuraman (1988) points out the gap between
perceptions and expectations of customers when
using services based on 5 factors such as:
Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, Empathy,
and Tangible value. Each criteria is used twice:
first to determine customer expectations about the
service they want to use and the second time to
measure customer perception of the performance
of products and services provided by the supplier.
Through the model, it is possible to identify the
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AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol. 7 (2), 30 – 41


of the destination, etc. The satisfaction of the
tourist destination affects the tourist satisfaction
with the service of the trip (Nina K. Prebensen,
2004). From there, the author hypothesized H5:

Chiang Mai, Thailand. Costs include expenses for
accommodation, meals, transportation and
souvenirs. Perceptions of prices will affect
customer’ satisfaction. Hypothesis H7 is stated as
following:

Hypothesis H5: Feeling of Infrastructure affects
the same dimension with tourist satisfaction.

Hypothesis H7: Feeling of Price affects the same
dimension with tourist satisfaction.

Mano and Oliver (1993) suggest that tourist
satisfaction is based on a variety of factors,
including a destination, market location, quality of
service, visitor expectations and experience of
each traveler during their stay. Satisfaction is the
comparison of expectations with customer
experiences. Satisfaction with products and
services, which is understood as customer’
satisfaction during transaction with the business,
the Travel Products that destination bring to
tourists are compared with what they expect
before traveling. The next hypothesis of the study

is:

A survey of tourists' satisfaction with sightseeing
activities at resources tourism sites in Ho Chi
Minh City by Hoang Trong Tuan (2015) shows
the rigor degree of relationships is different, the
strongest is the relationship between tourist
satisfaction and safety. For a new tourist
destination, the most important is security and
safety. If the destination safety and security for
tourists, the image of the destination will be
improved, increasing tourist satisfaction. From
there, the author hypothesized H8:
Hypothesis H8: Feeling of Security affects the
same dimension with tourists’ satisfaction.

Hypothesis H6: Feeling of Travel Products affects
the same dimension with tourist satisfaction.

The proposed research model is as following:

Suthathip Suanmali (2014) points out that Cost is
one of the factors affecting tourists’ satisfaction in
Reliability
Responsiveness
Service capacity
Natural environment

Tourists’ satisfaction
with tourist destinations


Infrastructure
Travel products
Price
Security

Figure 1. Proposed research model
Source: Author (2018)

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AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol. 7 (2), 30 – 41

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

representation, this study used a sample size of
300 observations. Survey result obtained 285
eligible observations, 15 observations did not
meet the survey requirements. Based on the
frequency of tourists at tourist destinations, the
topic focuses on collecting information at major
tourist destinations in Bay Nui such as Tra Su
Melaleuca forest and Temple of Bau Muop.

3.1 Data Collection Methods
3.1.1 Secondary data
Secondary data of the study using time of data in
the period of 2015 - 2017, collected from
reference, based on available information sources:

Reports of the Department of Culture, Sports and
Tourism of An Giang province (Number of
tourists visiting), data from Vietnam National
Administration of Tourism, data from the General
Statistics Office of Vietnam, data from the An
Giang Provincial Portal, data from the Tri Ton
District Portal, data from the Tri Ton District
Portal (Statistical Yearbook), socioeconomic
development plans of An Giang province and data
from tourism companies in An Giang province.

3.2 Analytical methods
To assess the current situation of tourism
development in the trade villages in Bay Nui, the
topic uses statistical analysis.
To identify factors affecting tourists' satisfaction
at traditional trade village tourist places in Bay
Nui, An Giang province an in-depth interview
method was used with tourists at Bay Nui, then
adjusted to scale: The initial theoretical scale of
the research topic is built on the scales of previous
studies. Based on the result of the in-depth
interview to calibrate the scale, thereby building
an official scale for the topic.
In order to estimate the influence of factors
affecting tourist satisfaction at traditional trade
village in Bay Nui, the researcher used descriptive
statistics method and rating scales measured by
Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient, EFA
method and linear regression method.


3.1.2 Primary data
Primary data was collected from interviews;
interviewees were individual tourists traveling to
Bay Nui.
The method was Convenience sampling, selecting
the tourists who were traveling to traditional trade
villages such as Khmer Van Giao brocade
weaving village (Tinh Bien), Palm sugar cooking
village (Tinh Bien, Tri Ton), Chau Lang pottery
village (Tri Ton), tourist destinations in Bay Nui
such as Temple of Bau Muop (Tinh Bien), Tra Su
Melaleuca forest (Tinh Bien), Ta Pa Lake (Tri
Ton) and O Thum Lake (Tri Ton) for direct
interview.
Determination of sample size: Based on the
research of Hair & ctg (2006) for reference of the
expected sample size, whereby the minimum
sample size will be 5 times the total number of
observed variables, this is the appropriate sample
size for the study used EFA discovery factor
analysis (Nguyen Dinh Tho, 2011). With the
formula n = 5*m, m is the number of questions in
the questionnaire. Within the study, there were 31
variables, so the survey panel conducted interview
with 31 survey questions, the minimum number of
collected sample according to the formula was
155 observations. In order to ensure better

4. RESEARCH RESULTS

4.1 Description of research sample
Survey results of tourists at traditional trade
village in Bay Nui, An Giang province show that
tourists range 19 to 58 years of age, the average
age is 29 years old and mostly students and active
young people who like to travel. The gender of
tourists who have visited traditional trade villages
in Bay Nui are primirily female, accounting for
66.2%, while the male gender accounts for 33.8%.
In addition, the income of each interviewee varied
due to age, education level and profession. Most
high-income interviewees had stable income such
as bankers or business men/women whereas lowincome earners were mostly students, housewives
and farmers.
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AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol. 7 (2), 30 – 41

According to the survey data, tourists visiting
traditional trade villages in Bay Nui had many
different levels of education. Specifically, 21.8%
of visitors held lower-secondary education, 30.6%
of visitors possessed high-school education,
15.5% of visitors with Intermediate-College level
and 32.0% of visitors had university degrees.
Educational level is also one of the factors
affecting travel demand, awareness and spending
levels of tourists. The survey showed that the ratio
of tourists with university degrees was highest in

the group with the understanding that the higher
the education level, the more demand for travel
and leisure.

4.2 Scale results
The result of the reliability test showed that the
Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients of the scales are all
higher than 0.7. The corrected item - total
correlation is greater than 0.3. However, the
parking lot near the tourist area of the
Infrastructure group has a total correlation of
0.266 < 0.3, Cronbach's Alpha coefficient if item
deleted will be 0.723. The author deleted this
variable and the remaining variables were
included in the Exploratory Factor Analysis
(EFA).

Table 1. Measurement scale testing

Cronbach’s Alpha

Item meet the conditions
of Cronbach’s Alpha
reliability

Item not meet the
conditions of Cronbach’s
Alpha reliability

Reliability


0.845

3

-

Responsiveness

0.715

3

-

Service capacity

0.730

3

-

Natural environment

0.744

3

-


Infrastructure

0.723

5

1

Travel products

0.769

4

-

Price

0.748

4

-

Security

0.717

5


-

30

1

Model

TOTAL

Source: Survey data on visitors in Bay Nui, An Giang between August 2017 and January 2018

4.3 Exploratory Factor Analysis

with Principal Component method and using
Varimax rotation with disturbance of factors to
forming new factor groups. The result shows that
all observed variables have a factor loading
greater than the standard (0.50).

Test result of KMO coefficient = 0.682, Bartlett
Sig. test significance level = 0.000, total variance
explained = 63.591%. The scale shows that
Eigenvalue = 1.102 satisfies the exploratory factor
analysis. The author put 30 variables into the EFA

Table 2. Rotated Component Matrix

Variables


Component
1

Clean restroom

0.767

Wide road

0.708

Easy road

0.691

2

3

4

35

5

6

7


8

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AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol. 7 (2), 30 – 41

Variables

Component
1

Variety transportation

0.639

Wide parking lot

0.613

2

Unique specialties and
souvenirs

0.794

Special drinking and
eating service


0.771

Variety and interesting
activities

0.767

Interesting tourist line

0.729

3

Reasonable visiting
cost

0.781

Reasonable specialties
and souvenirs cost

0.763

Reasonable eating and
drinking cost

0.761

Reasonable follow
services price


0.691

4

Providing service as
promised

0.883

Finding information
easily

0.875

Information is fully
provided

0.844

5

Fresh air

0.846

Natural scenic views

0.792


Beautiful scenic views

0.780

6

Friendly tour guide

0.872

Professional tour guide

0.764

Good English skills of
tour guide

0.758

7

Staff always support
tourists

0.837

Solve complaints fast

0.785


Provide fast service

0.749

36

8

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AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol. 7 (2), 30 – 41

Component

Variables

1

2

3

4

5

6

7


8

Safe tour

0.809

No pesty vendors

0.761

The number of visitors
traveling there

0.518

9

No homeless

0.820

No burglar

0.801
Source: Survey data on visitors in Bay Nui, An Giang between August 2017 and January 2018

Through the factor rotation result, 9 factors were
discovered and all variables had factor loading
greater than 0.5. The variables of the new factors

are sorted and named accordingly: Infrastructure,
Travel products, Price, Reliability, Natural
Environment, Service Capacity, Responsiveness,
Safety and Security. In addition, the author also
tested the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient of the
new factors. The result showed that all the factors
have Cronbach Alpha coefficient greater than 0.6.

In theory, a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0
(or near 0) means that the two variables are not
related to each other; conversely if a coefficient of
-1 or 1 means the two variables have an absolute
relationship. If the value of the correlation
coefficient is negative (r < 0), it means that when
x increases, y decreases (and vice versa, when x
decreases, y increases); If the correlation
coefficient value is positive (r > 0), it means that
when x increases, y increases, and when y
increases, x increases.

4.4 Multiple regression analysis

Table 3. Correlation coefficien
Y
Y: Tourists’
satisfaction
Sig.
X1:
Infrastructure
X2: Travel

products
X3: Price
X4: Reliability

X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X6

X7

X8

X9

0.081

0.241**

0.313**

0.285**


0.195**

0.280**

0.317**

0.188**

0.101

0.171

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.001

0.000

0.000

0.001

0.089

1


-0.025

-0.065

-0.033

-0.047

-0.015

-0.073

-0.098

-0.057

1

0.219**

0.004

0.044

0.027

0.033

-0.104


-0.088

1

-0.070

-0.082

-0.038

0.096

-0.098

-0.019

1

-0.021

-0.096

0.028

0.020

0.033

1


0.063

-0.044

-0.036

-0.107

1

0.071

-0.137*

-0.116

1

-0.068

-0.113

1

X5: Natural
environment
X6: Service
capacity
X7:
Responsiveness


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AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol. 7 (2), 30 – 41
Y

X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X6

X7

X8: Safety

X8

X9

1

0.412**


X9: Security

1

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-sided test).
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-sided test).
Source: Survey data on visitors in Bay Nui, An Giang between August 2017 and January 2018

The correlation coefficient is statistically
significant at the level of 0.01. In Table 4, the
value of sig. of the two independent variables X1
and X9 greater than 0.01, not correlated with the
dependent variables, the author deleted these two
variables before going into regression test.

Using the linear regression analysis method with
the dependent variable being Tourist satisfaction;
the independent variables are seven factor groups
of the scale including Travel products, Price,
Reliability, Natural Environment, Service
capacity, Responsiveness and Safety. Seven factor
groups of the scale are included to analyze with
the Enter method. The result shows that the
adjusted R square is 0.508 > 0.5; This means that
seven independent variables account for 50.8% of
the variation of the dependent variable, the
remaining 49.2% are due to non-model variables
and random errors. Durbin - Watson index d =
1.889; According to Hoang Trong & Chu Nguyen

Mong Ngoc (2008), if the remaining do not have
the first-order correlation, the value of d will be
close to 2. Thus, it can be concluded that the
regression model has no first-order correlation.

Analyzing the correlation between the dependent
variable and the seven independent variables, the
strongest correlation is the correlation between
tourist satisfaction and Responsiveness (0.317);
Next is the correlation between tourist satisfaction
and Price (0.313); Next is the correlation between
tourist satisfaction and Reliability (0.285); Next is
the correlation between tourist satisfaction and
Service capacity (0.280); Then the correlation
between tourist satisfaction and Travel products
(0.241); Next is the correlation between tourist
satisfaction and the Natural Environment (0.195);
Finally is the correlation between tourist
satisfaction and Safety (0.188).

In the ANOVA, the sig value of the F-test is 0.000
< 0.05. Thus, the linear regression model is
consistent with the overall.

Table 4. Coefficients

Collinearity Statistics
Model

B


Std. Error

Sig.
Tolerance

VIF

(Constant)

-2.320

0.343

0.000

Travel products

0.145

0.037

0.000

0.941

1.063

Price


0.297

0.039

0.000

0.922

1.085

Reliability

0.243

0.031

0.000

0.983

1.018

Natural environment

0.196

0.037

0.000


0.983

1.018

Service capacity

0.242

0.031

0.000

0.961

1.041

1

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AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol. 7 (2), 30 – 41

Collinearity Statistics
Model

B

Std. Error


Sig.
Tolerance

VIF

Responsiveness

0.238

0.036

0.000

0.979

1.021

Safety

0.300

0.042

0.000

0.961

1.041

Source: Survey data on visitors in Bay Nui, An Giang between August 2017 and January 2018


The analysis result shows that the Sig value of the
independent variables is < 0.05, indicating that the
independent variables are significant in the
research model and these variables have an impact
on tourists’ satisfaction at traditional trade
villages tourist place. In addition, VIF values less
than 2 indicate no multicollinearity, meaning that
independent variables do not affect each other.

The analysis result showed that the satisfaction of
tourists to trade village in Bay Nui, An Giang
province focused on four main factor groups:
Price, Reliability, Service Capacity and Safety. In
addition, other three factors of Natural
Environment, Responsiveness and Travel
Products also contributed significantly to tourist
satisfaction.

The model shows that seven independent
variables (Travel Product, Price, Reliability,
Natural
Environment,
Service
Capacity,
Responsiveness and Safety) all positively affect
the dependent variables. If the remaining
independent variables remain unchanged when the
rating of Travel products increases by 1 unit, the
tourist satisfaction will increase by an average of

0.154 units. Similarly, when the rating of Price
increases by 1 unit, tourist satisfaction will
increase by an average of 0.297 units. When the
rating of Reliability increases by 1 unit, tourist
satisfaction will increase by an average of 0.243
units. When the rating of Natural Environment
increases by 1 unit, tourist satisfaction will
increase by an average of 0.196 units. When the
rating of Service Capacity increases by 1 unit,
tourist satisfaction will increase by an average of
0.242 units. When the rating of Responsiveness
increases by 1 unit, tourist satisfaction will
increase by an average of 0.238 units. And when
the rating of Safety increases by 1 unit, tourist
satisfaction will increase by an average of 0.300
units.

5.2 Managerial implications

5. CONCLUSION AND
IMPLICATIONS

Development of trade village tourism in An Giang
has many limitations currently. The investment
and exploitation of tourism products is not
commensurate with the potential shortage of a
large-scaled project of trade village that attracts
tourism. Throughout the site survey at traditional
trade villages in Bay Nui, the author found that
the local labor force still did not meet the

requirements of customer service. Trade village
tourist locations were still primative while others
have disappeared. Besides, the local authority has
not paid much attention to those villages and
tourists only knew those places through word of
mouth and the Internet. Furthermore, due to not
attracting much tourism, the promotion and
marketing have not been supported by local
tourism firms.
First, the local cultural identity needed to be
reserved and promoted in sustainable ways in
order to improve the Natural Environment factor,
which gain the attention of tourists. Tourism
development associated with the development of
traditional trade villages is attracting more and
more tourists. Besides economic and social
benefits, this tourism type also contributes to
conserve and promote cultural and national

MANAGERIAL

5.1 Conclusion
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AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol. 7 (2), 30 – 41

identity. It is necessary to support trade villages,
to restore and develop traditional occupations,
folklore activities and build a cultural tourism

environment. Improved infrastructure and
protected eco-tourism environment will maintain
cultural and traditional beauty and contribute to
the development of trade villages. Moreover,
environmental and ecological landscapes need to
be protected also. Tourism development is always
accompanied with environmental pollution.
Consequently, action needs to be taken to keep the
environment clean and protect the landscape.

restricted methods to limit price squeeze
i.e.reeducate them to understand their roles as
“Civil Servants”.
Fifth, improve the Service Capacity factor. Staff
plays an important role in influencing tourist
satisfaction. In short-term, opening training
courses about servicing and guiding tourists in a
polite way. In long-term, tourism staff needs to
improve their foreign language skills to attract
more international visitors.
Sixth, improve the Price factor. In short-term, it is
necessary to build a reasonable price policy,
posting fixed costs for items such as handicrafts,
unique souvenirs and specialties. There is no
situation of unethical price fixing. The Price
factor is one of the factors that has major
influence on tourist satisfaction in the model of
this study so that a reasonable fixed price policy is
needed.


Second, improving the Travel Products factor.
Currently, local unique cuisine as well as unique
souvenirs are popular at trade villages while travel
products as well as new attractions and activities
are still limited. In the short-term, it is necessary
to build brands for traditional products; improve
the product competitiveness, develop diverse
products in terms of design, quality and create
featured souvenir products for tourism. On the
other hand, connecting trade villages with tourist
spots in the area in order to develop traditional
trade so that they can boost investment and
infrastruture (roads, yards, traditional houses,
product introduction center, etc.); promoting and
introducing products to entice attractive
destinations.

Finally, improve the Reliability factor. In order to
improve this factor, it is necessary to create a
presentation about the history of the trade villages
and the product characteristics in each trade
village. Providing complete information, guiding
visitors through the trade village, participating in
the daily activities of the local people should be
included.
6. LIMITATIONS & DIRECTIONS FOR
FUTURE RESEARCH

Third, improve the Responsiveness factor. Trade
villagers are not aware of the value of tourism, so

it is necessary to raise awareness for local people,
especially the younger generation regarding the
available human resources, focusing on building a
qualified well-trained labor force. Staff plays an
important role in tourism services due to contact
directly with visitors. The service, attitude and
working style of the staff can directly affect the
tourist’s perception. In order to adapt tourism
requirements, tourist destinations need to focus on
training
knowledge
and
service-skilled
professionals.

6.1 Limitations
The research is limited due to tight time and
budget:
First, due to the Convenience sampling method,
the overall representative capacity is limited.
Relatively small sample sizes may lead to errors,
which could have affected the study result.
Second, the author can only approach domestic
travelers but international one.
6.2 Directions for Future Research
From the above limitations, the author proposes
some directions for future research as followings:

Fourth, improve the Safety factor. In order to
ensure tourism density, local authority needs some


40


AGU International Journal of Sciences – 2019, Vol. 7 (2), 30 – 41

First, the scope and subject of the study should be
expanded to increase the sample to minimize
errors. Furthermore, the Convenience Sampling
method can be replaced by Random sampling to
ensure a greater reliability.
Second, international
interviewed.

visitors

should

service quality in Tien Giang Ptrovince. Can
Tho University Journal of Science, Vol 33, 29
- 37.
Mano, H. and Oliver, R. L. (1993). Assessing the
dimensionality and structure of the
consumption experience: evaluation, feeling,
and satisfaction. Journal of Consumer
Research, Vol 20 , 451 - 466.

be

Third, this research might skip many factors

affecting tourist satisfaction; the future research
should consider adding new factors to make the
model more reliable and appropriate.

Nina K. Prebensen. (2004). Tourists’ satisfaction
with a Destination: Antecedents and
Consequences. Finnmark College.
Nguyen Dinh Tho. (2011). Methods of scientific
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