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Food systems sustainability and environmental policies in modern economies


Food Systems
Sustainability and
Environmental Policies in
Modern Economies
Abiodun Elijah Obayelu
Federal University of Agriculture – Abeokuta (FUNAAB),
Nigeria

A volume in the Advances in
Environmental Engineering and
Green Technologies (AEEGT) Book
Series


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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Obayelu, Abiodun Elijah, 1972- editor.
Title: Food systems sustainability and environmental policies in modern
economies / Abiodun Elijah Obayelu, editor.
Description: Hershey, PA : Engineering Science Reference, 2017.
Identifiers: LCCN 2017019881| ISBN 9781522536314 (hardcover) | ISBN
9781522536321 (ebook)
Subjects: LCSH: Food supply. | Food security. | Environmental policy.
Classification: LCC HD9000.5 .F5996 2017 | DDC 338.1/9--dc23 LC record available at https://
lccn.loc.gov/2017019881

This book is published in the IGI Global book series Advances in Environmental Engineering and
Green Technologies (AEEGT) (ISSN: 2326-9162; eISSN: 2326-9170)
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Titles in this Series

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Innovative Strategies and Frameworks in Climate Change Adaptation Emerging Research ...
Alexander G. Flor (University of the Philippines Open University, Philippines) and Benjamina
Gonzalez Flor (University of the Philippines, Phiippines)
Engineering Science Reference • ©2018 • 165pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781522527671) • US $165.00
Utilizing Innovative Technologies to Address the Public Health Impact of Climate Change ...
Debra Weiss-Randall (Florida Atlantic University, USA)
Engineering Science Reference • ©2018 • 295pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781522534143) • US $185.00
Economical and Technical Considerations for Solar Tracking Methodologies and ...
S. Soulayman (Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Syria)
Engineering Science Reference • ©2018 • 647pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781522529507) • US $245.00
Hydrology and Best Practices for Managing Water Resources in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands
Christopher Misati Ondieki (Kenyatta University, Kenya) and Johnson U. Kitheka (South
Eastern Kenya University, Kenya)
Engineering Science Reference • ©2018 • 266pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781522527190) • US $205.00
Computational Techniques for Modeling Atmospheric Processes
Vitaliy Prusov (University of Kyiv, Ukraine) and Anatoliy Doroshenko (National Academy
of Sciences, Ukraine)
Information Science Reference • ©2018 • 460pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781522526360) • US $205.00
Advanced Nanomaterials for Water Engineering, Treatment, and Hydraulics
Tawfik A. Saleh (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia)
Engineering Science Reference • ©2017 • 384pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781522521365) • US $200.00
Handbook of Research on Inventive Bioremediation Techniques
Jatindra Nath Bhakta (University of Kalyani, India)
Engineering Science Reference • ©2017 • 624pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781522523253) • US $260.00

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Editorial Advisory Board
A. B. Aromolaran, Adekunle Ajasin University, Nigeria
I. Ayinde, Federal University of Agriculture – Abeokuta, Nigeria
Olusegun Fadare, International Food Policy Research Institute, Nigeria
Charles B. L. Jumbe, University of Malawi, Malawi
Adeniyi Labintan, Centre de Partenariat et d’Expertisepour le Développement
Durable (CePED), Benin
I. B. Oluwatayo, Limpopo University, South Africa
B. T. Omonona, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Shabbir Shahid, International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA), UAE
A. Sobowale, Federal University of Agriculture – Abeokuta, Nigeria

List of Reviewers
G. A. Abu, University of Agriculture – Makurdi, Nigeria
Clementina Oluwafunke Ajayi, Federal University of Technology – Akure, Nigeria
Oluwole Matthew Akinnagbe, Federal University of Technology – Akure, Nigeria
Oyeyinka Akinwumi, Federal University of Agriculture – Abeokuta, Nigeria
Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
Luke Amadi, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Adetayo K. Aromolaran, Federal University of Agriculture – Abeokuta, Nigeria
Samuel Awoniyi, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Nigeria
Raphael Babatunde, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
O. S. Balogun, Forestry Research Institute, Nigeria
Olubunmi Lawrence Balogun, Babcock University, Nigeria
Oluwafemi Sunday Enilolobo, Bells University of Technology, Nigeria
Josue Mbonig, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal University, South Africa


Edgar Muhoyi, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
I. J. Ogwu, University of Abuja, Nigeria
Olugbire Oluseyi Olutoyin, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Nigeria
Kabir Kayode Salman, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
F. A. Sowemimo, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Adigun Toyin, Landmark University, Nigeria


Table of Contents

Foreword...........................................................................................................xviii
Preface.................................................................................................................. xx
Acknowledgment. ............................................................................................. xxv
Section 1
Overview and the General State of Food Systems
Chapter 1
Integrating.Environment,.Food.Systems,.and.Sustainability.in.Feeding.the.
Growing.Population.in.Developing.Countries........................................................1
Abiodun Elijah Obayelu, Federal University of Agriculture – Abeokuta
(FUNAAB), Nigeria
Chapter 2
Food.and.Environment:.A.Review.on.the.Sustainability.of.Six.Different.
Dietary.Patterns....................................................................................................15
Pedro Pinheiro Gomes, National Statistics Institute, Portugal
Section 2
Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Climate Change, and Other
Environmental Issues
Chapter 3
Performance.of.Small-Scale.Irrigation.Schemes.Under.Climate.Change.in.
Low-.and.Middle-Income.Countries:.A.Systematic.Review.of.the.Evidence......33
Edgar Muhoyi, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
Josue Mbonigaba, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa




Chapter 4
Biofuel.Production.and.Its.Implications.in.a.Transitive.Low.Carbon.
Development.Country:.The.Case.of.South.Africa................................................71
Constant Labintan, Centre de Partenariat et d’Expertise pour le
Développement Durable (CePED), Benin
Harald Winkler, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Abiodun Elijah Obayelu, Federal University of Agriculture – Abeokuta
(FUNAAB), Nigeria
Section 3
Sustainable Consumption and Health: Contemporary Issues and
Policies
Chapter 5
Sustainable.Food.Consumption.in.the.Neoliberal.Order:.Challenges.and.
Policy.Implications...............................................................................................90
Henry E. Alapiki, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Luke Amadi, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Chapter 6
Comparing.the.Effects.of.Unsustainable.Production.and.Consumption.of.
Food.on.Health.and.Policy.Across.Developed.and.Less.Developed.. Countries.
............................................................................................................................124
Josue Mbonigaba, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Section 4
System Innovations and the Transition to Sustainable Food Systems
in Developing and Emerging Economies
Chapter 7
Harmonising.Roles.of.Agricultural.Extension.With.Other.Agencies.Involved.
in.Agricultural.Development.Towards.Sustainable.Food.Systems.in.. Nigeria.160
Oluwole Matthew Akinnagbe, Federal University of Technology, Nigeria
Chapter 8
Making.Agricultural.Input.Subsidies.More.Effective.and.Profitable.in.Africa:.
The.Role.of.Complementary.Interventions........................................................172
Joseph S. Kanyamuka, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural
Resources, Malawi
Charles B. L. Jumbe, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural
Resources, Malawi
Jacob Ricker-Gilbert, Purdue University, USA




Chapter 9
Rice.Production.and.Processing.in.Ogun.State,.Nigeria:.Qualitative.Insights.
From.Farmers’.Association.................................................................................188
Evans S. Osabuohien, Covenant University, Nigeria
Uchechukwu E. Okorie, Covenant University, Nigeria
Romanus A. Osabohien, Covenant University, Nigeria
Section 5
Food Controversies in Developing and Emerging Countries
Chapter 10
Rights-Based.Approach.to.Food.and.Nutrition.Security.in.Nigeria...................217
Clementina Oluwafunke Ajayi, Federal University of Technology –
Akure, Nigeria
Kemisola O. Adenegan, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Section 6
Farmland Conservation and Environmental Stewardship
Chapter 11
Economics.of.Soil.Fertility.Management.Practices.in.Nigeria...........................236
Ibukun Joyce Ogwu, University of Abuja, Nigeria
Olubunmi Abayomi Omotesho, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
Abdulazeez Muhammad-Lawal, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
Chapter 12
Economic.Impact.Assessment.of.the.National.Fadama.Development.Project.
on.Rural.Farming.Communities.in.Niger.State.of.Nigeria.................................264
Godwin Anjeinu Abu, University of Agriculture – Makurdi, Nigeria.
Steve A. Okpachu, Federal College of Education (Technical), Nigeria
M. Mallam, University of Agriculture – Makurdi, Nigeria
Related References............................................................................................ 276
Compilation of References. ............................................................................. 315
About the Contributors. .................................................................................. 361
Index.................................................................................................................. 369


Detailed Table of Contents

Foreword...........................................................................................................xviii
Preface................................................................................................................. xx
Acknowledgment. ............................................................................................. xxv
Section 1
Overview and the General State of Food Systems
This section provides an overview of food systems and the current issues in the
literature.
Chapter 1
Integrating.Environment,.Food.Systems,.and.Sustainability.in.Feeding.the.
Growing.Population.in.Developing.Countries.......................................................1
Abiodun Elijah Obayelu, Federal University of Agriculture – Abeokuta
(FUNAAB), Nigeria
Food.is.indispensable.to.life..It.plays.an.important.role.in.the.economy.but.what.
is.not.well.known.is.the.impact.of.production.and.consumption.that.food.has.on.
the.environment..The.nexus.of.food.systems.and.the.environment.are.complex.and.
driven. by. many. economic,. socio-cultural,. and. environmental. factors. considered.
to.be.important.in.the.contemporary.global.arena..As.the.world.population.grows,.
there. is. an. increased. demand. on. the. already. stretched. food. system. and. fragile.
environment..Processes.along.the.food.chain.from.agricultural.production.to.food.
consumption.produce.outputs.other.than.consumable.food.that.are.returned.to.the.
natural.environment.such.as.pollution.or.waste..This.chapter.sheds.light.on.the.links.
in.food.systems.and.environment.in.developing.countries..A.major.finding.is.that.
the.existing.food.systems.that.were.supposed.to.produce.adequate.food.for.all.are.
placing.major.stress.on.environmental.assets.including.soil,.water,.fisheries,.and.
biodiversity..For.food.systems.to.be.sustainable,.all.hands.must.be.on.deck.








neoliberal.order.can.be.reconciled.with.the.need.to.save.the.ecology..Beyond.the.
fundamental.objectives,.there.is.a.need.to.assess.the.links.between.the.global.food.
system,.as.influenced.by.neoliberal.order,.and.the.signs.that.it.leads.to.adversity.
for. low-income. countries.. A. review. of. relevant. literature. in. the. sustainable.
consumption. field. is. explored. using. content. analysis. to. examine. links. between.
neoliberal.food.consumption.dynamics,.the.logic.of.global.food.politics,.and.the.
emerging.terminological.shifts.from.food.consumption.to.food.system..The.world.
systems.theory.and.the.Marxian.political.ecology.framework.are.used.to.show.that.
sustainability.is.notable.for.emphasizing.resource.efficiency.and.equitability,.which.
can.be.useful.when.sustainability.challenges.are.matched.with.ecological.policies..
This.chapter.makes.some.policy.recommendations.
Chapter 6
Comparing.the.Effects.of.Unsustainable.Production.and.Consumption.of.
Food.on.Health.and.Policy.Across.Developed.and.Less.Developed.. Countries.
............................................................................................................................124
Josue Mbonigaba, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
The. unsustainable. food. consumption. across. high-income. countries. (HICs). and.
low-income.countries.(LICs).is.expected.to.differ.in.nature.and.extent,.although.no.
formal.evidence.in.this.respect.has.been.documented..Documenting.this.evidence.
is.the.aim.of.this.chapter..Specifically,.the.chapter.seeks.to.answer.the.following.
questions:.1).Do.the.contexts.in.less.developed.countries.(LDCs).and.developed.
countries.(DCs).make.the.nature.and.extent.of.unsustainability.in.food.consumption.
different?.2).Do.the.mechanisms.of.the.linkage.between.unsustainability.of.food.
consumption. and. health. outcomes. independent. of. countries’. contexts?. 3). Are.
current.policies.against.unsustainable.food.consumption.equally.effective.in.DCs.
and.LDCs?.These.questions.are.answered.by.means.of.a.systematic.review.of.the.
literature.for.the.period.2000-2017..The.findings.are.that.the.nature.and.extent.of.
unsustainability.is.quite.different.across.contexts.of.LICs.and.HICs.
Section 4
System Innovations and the Transition to Sustainable Food Systems
in Developing and Emerging Economies
This section discusses the roles of innovations to sustainable food systems in
developing and emerging economies.
Chapter 7
Harmonising.Roles.of.Agricultural.Extension.With.Other.Agencies.Involved.
in.Agricultural.Development.Towards.Sustainable.Food.Systems.in.. Nigeria.160
Oluwole Matthew Akinnagbe, Federal University of Technology, Nigeria




The.success.of.sustainable.agriculture.depends.not.just.on.the.motivations,.skills,.and.
knowledge.of.individual.farmers,.but.on.action.taken.by.the.agricultural.extension.
agency. in. harmonising. the. activities. of. other. agencies. involved. in. agricultural.
development..This.chapter.looks.into.the.coordinating.roles.of.agricultural.extension.
with.other.agencies.involved.in.agricultural.development.towards.sustainable.food.
systems.in.Nigeria..The.agricultural.extension.agency.needs.to.coordinate.other.
agencies.in.rural.development.to.ensure.unity.of.purpose.and.avoid.duplication.of.
efforts..Agricultural.extension.is.considered.the.best.institution.to.coordinate.other.
agencies.involved.in.agricultural.development.towards.sustainable.food.system.in.
Nigeria.because.of.the.edge.agricultural.extension.has.at.grassroots.level.in.light.
of.community.organizing.and.empowerment.role..Government.in.all.tiers.should.
support.the.agricultural.extension.agency.by.ensuring.that.all.development.partners.
liaise.with.the.agency.before.carrying.out.their.work.to.enhance.sustainable.rural.
development.
Chapter 8
Making.Agricultural.Input.Subsidies.More.Effective.and.Profitable.in.Africa:.
The.Role.of.Complementary.Interventions........................................................172
Joseph S. Kanyamuka, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural
Resources, Malawi
Charles B. L. Jumbe, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural
Resources, Malawi
Jacob Ricker-Gilbert, Purdue University, USA
The.combined.effects.of.declining.soil.fertility,.continuous.mono-cropping,.poor.crop.
residues.management,.and.limited.resources.are.considered.the.major.constraints.
to.increased.crop.productivity.in.Sub-Saharan.Africa..It.is.for.this.reason.that.most.
African.governments.in.Sub-Saharan.Africa.have.been.implementing.farm.input.
support.programmes.to.boost.smallholder.production..While.substantial.amounts.
of.resources.are.committed.to.support.such.programmes,.evidence.suggests.that.the.
increased.use.of.modern.inputs.such.as.inorganic.fertilizers.on.the.main.staple.food.
crops.appear.to.be.only.marginally.profitable.or.even.unprofitable..There.is.a.renewed.
realization.that.the.use.of.fertilizer.input.alone.to.raise.farm.productivity.is.likely.
to.be.impeded,.if.sufficient.attention.is.not.given.to.complementary.interventions.
such.as.integrated.soil.fertility.management.technologies.and.extension.services..
This. chapter. provides. evidence. from. several. African. countries. on. the. role. of.
complementary.interventions.in.enhancing.profitability,.effectiveness,.and.efficiency.
with.which.farm.inputs.such.as.inorganic.fertilizer.and.improved.seed.are.applied.








margin. of. N93,460. and. rice. with. a. gross. margin. of. N. 51,051. gave. the. highest.
return.per.Naira.invested.of.1.77..The.study.showed.that.the.difference.between.the.
pre-project.and.post-project.income.was.insignificant.at.5%..Scarcity.of.production.
inputs.and.the.attendant.environmental.degradation.were.the.constraints.experienced.
in.the.project..The.chapter.concludes.that.Fadama.projects.positively.impacted.on.
beneficiaries. by. sustainably. increasing. farm. income.. The. chapter. recommends.
that.the.National.Fadama.Development.Project.should.make.timely.provision.of.
subsidized.production.inputs.
Related References............................................................................................ 276
Compilation of References............................................................................... 315
About the Contributors.................................................................................... 361
Index................................................................................................................... 369


xviii

Foreword

It is my unreserved pleasure to write this forward to the book of readings, Food
Systems Sustainability and Environmental Policies in Modern Economies, as a
valuable and instructive text for all actors in consumer economics and indeed issue
around environment as applied to food production and sustainability all over the
world. My salutation goes to the insightful editor of this book for thinking out the
concept and engineering of this text. I am convinced, after going through the writeups that this piece will deliver the needed information and fill the niche needs of
researchers, graduate and undergraduate students interested in this very important
field germane to the human capital existence and development.
This book is divided into six sections comprising twelve chapters which can be
summarised into basic information on food sustainability options (Chapters 1, 2
and 5), food production and agricultural systems (Chapters 3, 9, and 11), managing
food resources (Chapters 1 and 6), food for health (Chapters 6 and 10), alternative
uses of foods for biofuels and implication on food security (Chapters 4), as well as
management of agricultural value chain development (Chapters 3, 7, 8, 9, and 12).
Of special interest are Chapters 1 (which draws the ramifying implications of the
food systems, sustainability, environmental factors governing food systems along
the value chain, among others), Chapter 2 (which deals with the effect of changing
dietary pattern and the environment vis-à-vis the consumers’ accessibility and the
divide between food inaccessibility and accessibility as well as the greenhouse
effects) and Chapter 4 (which deals with biofuels production from staple foods on
farmers’ income and food security as a prospect towards green economy in Africa)
I have implicit confidence in the quality of erudite authors patronised in this text
as well as their literary acumen add a lot of value to the book and will stimulate
readership of the diverse treatise which draws examples from Africa’s situation,
thus making the contents applicable for African readership in the first instance and
the world at large.


Foreword

I therefore, congratulate the editor of this book for yet another precocious effort
in the annals of food systems development, sustainability and environmental effects,
towards the development of the broad field of consumer economics and a veritable
and invaluable addition to knowledge as well as a worthwhile and educative expose
for seekers of knowledge (researchers, graduate and undergraduate students) in this
field, for academic development as well as for aesthetics.
Idris A. Ayinde
Federal University of Agriculture – Abeokuta (FUNAAB), Nigeria

xix


xx

Preface

INTRODUCTION
Food systems play a key economic and social role in all societies and are fundamental
to ensuring sustainable development. Sustainable food systems are critical to improve
food security and nutrition as well as for poverty alleviation but the current food
system in most parts of the world is destroying the very environment on which future
food production rely. The world’s food system is facing unprecedented challenges.
The global population is set to reach 8.1 billion in 2025, with 95% of population
growth driven by developing countries. The food system must ensure this growing
population has access to the nutrition it needs to flourish, especially as climate
change re-shapes agricultural production. This means tackling the twin nutritional
challenges facing the world: hunger and nutrient deficiencies, along with unhealthy
diets and obesity. In the presence of climate change, increasingly challenging landuse conflicts, rising health and social costs on from both individual and societal,
demographic change and a growing global population, sustainability problems arising
from food systems will likely become more serious in the future. The absence of
sustainability measures implies a social and moral responsibility governance, policy
makers, farmers, and consumers to do their part in combating hunger. Nature has
gracefully provided the necessary inputs to feed us, and we have in many occasions
taken these precious gifts for granted. Working toward a sustainable food supply
is crucial, but it will not be achieved without a shift in our current food systems
which are not sustainable. Food systems affect everything from the nutrient value
of crops and food products, to the health of livestock, the environment, and even
the economy. Efforts are needed to understand other mechanisms that lead to an
unhealthy diet; including gaps in environmental and policy supports to enable more
locally based food distribution


Preface

This book, “Food Systems’ Sustainability and Environmental Policies in Modern
Economies” contains materials that will enable the readers to be able identify the
interactions between food systems, contemporary issues and environmental policies,
as well as the opportunities for effective policy, fiscal, social and/or technical
interventions.

GLOBAL CHALLENGES ON FOOD SYSTEMS
AND THE NEED FOR URGENT SOLUTION
With limited global resources, and in the face of environmental changes, meeting
future food security challenges will first require a shift in thinking from just
‘producing food’ (and other sectoral interests) to food systems. Food security no
doubt in many developing and emerging countries is under increasing stress due to
convergence of issues (such as: climate change, resource depletion, dysfunctional
farm policies, and loss of biodiversity) which are threats to the availability of healthy
food for an ever-increasing population. A food system embraces all the elements
(environment, people, inputs, processes, infrastructure, institutions, markets and trade)
and activities that relate to the production, processing, distribution and marketing,
preparation and consumption of food and the outputs of these activities, including
socio-economic and environmental outcomes. A sustainable food system (SFS)
is a dynamic concept that embraces the interconnectedness of all the food-related
activities and the environment within which these activities occur. Conditions that
ensure sustainability in food systems vary widely across countries and regions, as
well as across different stakeholders (e.g. poor or marginal food producers who
may chronically or seasonally lack productive capacity to cover own food needs,
or urban low-income and non-food producers). Sustainable food systems take into
account environmental, health, social and economic concerns in the production and
consumption of food. Sustainable food production for example, uses systems and
practices that can be continued indefinitely without depleting non-renewable resources
(e.g., soil, energy, biological diversity), causing ecological harm, or widening social
inequities (within and across communities, countries, or generations). Sustainable
food systems need to increase agricultural productivity, improve climate resilience,
and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for agriculture and related land use change.
Because of the complex social-ecological systems involving multiple interactions
between human and natural components in food systems, research studies on this
important issue are necessary in order to be able to redirect our food systems and
policies towards better-adjusted goals, and improved food and nutritional security

xxi


Preface

and societal welfare. Globally, food systems are responsible for 60% of global
terrestrial biodiversity loss, around 24% of the global greenhouse gas emissions,
33% of degraded soils, the depletion of 61% of ‘commercial’ fish populations, and
the overexploitation of 20% of the world’s aquifers. These pressures on our natural
resource base are expected to significantly increase with population, urbanization
and super-marketization trends, as well as dietary shifts to more resource-intensive
food. By 2050, an expected 40% of the world population will be living in severely
water-stressed river basins and greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture may
increase from 24% to 30%. There are also a number of alarming disparities worldwide
that reveal the impacts of current food systems on our health. Nearly 800 million
people are hungry; over 2 billion suffer from micronutrient deficiencies, while over
2 billion people are obese.
Building sustainable food systems has become a popular motto and a major
endeavor to redirect our food systems and policies towards better-adjusted goals
and improved societal welfare. Sustainable food systems need support from a vast
range of stakeholders from the farmers to the final consumer, from governments to
private sector to civil society. Policy measures for sustainable food systems, should
increase agricultural productivity and gender sensitive agriculture production,
enhance climate resilience, reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and
related land use change, improve nutrition, strengthen value chains and improve
market access. Sustainable food systems may therefore depends on the success of
the Zero Hunger Challenges elements, such as zero food waste, 100 percent access
to food and increasing smallholder’s income. This book contributes to the emerging
literature on food system transformation.

ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
The book is made up of 12 chapters distributed among six sections.

Section 1: Overview and General State of Food Systems
The first section provides an overview of food system in developing countries.
In Chapter 1, Obayelu A. Elijah gives an account of the links in food system, the
environment and sustainability in developing countries. He takes the stock of what
we know and some of the things we do not know so far about food systems. Gomes,
Pedro Pinheiro in the 2nd chapter details through grey literature the impacts of six
dietary patterns on consumption and sustainability of food systems

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Preface

Section 2: Sustainable Agricultural Systems,
Climate Change, and Environmental Issues
This 2nd section is very important because of the effects of climate change on
agricultural production. Edgar Muhoyi and Josue Mbonigaba in the 3rd chapter
demonstrate how small-scale irrigation schemes (SSIS) can be used to sustain
agricultural systems in the presence of climate change and environmental challenges.
The 4th chapter by Labintan Constant, Winkler, Harald and Obayelu Abiodun Elijah
investigates the implications of the use of biofuel production in transitive low carbon
development countries with a case study of South Africa. The aforementioned
according to the authors can have implications on food security and agrarian
transformation in African countries.

Section 3: Sustainable Consumption and Health
– Contemporary Issues and Policies
This section of the book zeros in on contemporary issues and policies relating to
sustainable consumption and health. Henry E. Alapiki and Luke Amadi in Chapter
5 provide details information on sustainable food consumption in the Neo Liberal
Order stating the challenges and policy implications. Josue Mbonigaba in Chapter
6 brings on board the effects of unsustainable production and consumption of food
on health and policy across developed and less developed countries.

Section 4: System Innovations and the
Transition to Sustainable Food Systems in
Developing and Emerging Economies
This section embarks on an exploration of some key innovations in the course
of transition to sustainable food systems in developing and emerging countries.
Akinnagbe Oluwole Matthew in Chapter 7 discusses how harmonization of
coordinating roles of agricultural extension with other agencies involved in
agricultural development can help in sustainable food systems in Nigeria. Joseph
S. Kanyamuka, Charles B.L Jumbe and Jacob Ricker-Gilbert write in Chapter 8
on the making agricultural input subsidies more effective and profitable in Africa.
They established that despite substantial amounts of resources committed to support
agricultural subsidies programmes in Africa, evidence suggests that the increased
use of modern inputs such as inorganic fertilizers on the main staple food crops
appear to be only marginally profitable or even unprofitable. In Chapter 9, Evans
S. Osabuohien, Uchechukwu E. Okorie and Romanus A. Osabohien examined
the importance of indigenous institutional arrangements in rice production and
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Preface

processing activities. The authors suggest the need for actively involving the rice
farmers through the Rice Growers Association of Nigerian (RGAN) for an effective
rice production and processing system in Nigeria.

Section 5: Right Approaches to Sustainable Food
System in Developing and Emerging Countries
This section which happens to be the shortest but an important section focuses on
the focuses on the right things to do for sustainable food system. Ajayi, Clementina
Oluwafune, and Adenegan, in Chapter 10, examine the need for a rights-based
approach to food and nutrition security in Nigeria.

Section 6: Farmland Conservation and
Environmental Stewardship
The section centres on issues relating to farmland conservation. Ogwu, I. J.,
Omotesho, O. A. and Muhammad-Lawal, A. in Chapter 11 investigate the effects
of different soil fertility management practices on maize production. The authors
suggest that Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) for maize production is
the most profitable method. Chapter 12 by Abu, G. A., Okpachu, A. S. and Mallam,
M. examine the economic impact assessment of the national fadama development
project on rural farming communities in Niger State of Nigeria. The authors concludes
that Fadama projects positively impacted on beneficiaries by sustainably increasing
farm income
Abiodun Elijah Obayelu
Federal University of Agriculture – Abeokuta (FUNAAB), Nigeria

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