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Economics of sustainable energy


Contents
Cover
Title page
Copyright page
Dedication
Preface
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Opening Remarks
1.2 Research Questions Asked
Chapter 2: Delinearized History of Economics and Energy
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The European Tract of Economics History
2.3 Transition of Money
2.4 The Nature Science Tract of Economics History
2.5 Connection to Energy
Chapter 3: The Incompatibility of Conventional Economic Analysis Tools
with Sustainability Models
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Current Economic State of the World
3.3 The Status of the Money God

3.4 The Current Economic Models
3.5 The Illogicality of Current Theories
3.6 The Delinearized History of Modern Economics
3.7 The Transition of Robotization
3.8 Yellow Gold vs. Black Gold
3.9 How Science and Economics Mimic the Same Aphenomenality
Notes
Chapter 4: State-of-the Art of Current Technology Development
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Denaturing for a Profit
4.3 Aphenomenal Theories of the Modern Era
4.4 The Sugar Culture and Beyond
4.5 The Culture of the Artificial Sweetener
4.6 Delinearized history of Saccharin® and the Money Trail


4.7 The Culture of Aspartame
4.8 The Honey-Sugar-Saccharin-Aspartame Degradation in Everything
4.9 Assessing the Overall Performance of a Process
Chapter 5: Comprehensive Analysis of Energy Sustainability
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Sustainability in the Information Age and Environmental Insult
5.3 Climate Change Hysteria
5.4 The Energy Crisis
5.5 Petroleum in the Big Picture
5.6 Science of Healthy Energy and Mass
Chapter 6: The Islamic Track of Economical Analysis
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Function of Gold Dinars and a New Paradigm for Economic Analyses
6.3 Labor Theory of Value
6.4 Zero Waste Economy
6.5 Role of Government in State’s Economy
6.6 Macroeconomy and Theory on Money
6.7 The Optimum Lifestyle
6.8 The Gold Standard for Sustainable Economy
Chapter 7: Framework of Economics of Sustainable Energy
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Delinearized History of Modern Age
7.3 Petroleum Refining and Conventional Catalysts
7.4 The New Synthesis


7.5 The New Investment Model, Conforming to the Information Age
Chapter 8: Economics of Sustainable Energy Operations
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Issues in Petroleum Operations
8.3 Critical Evaluation of Current Petroleum Practices
8.4 Greening of Petroleum Operations
8.5 Zero-Waste Operations
8.6 Characteristic Time
8.7 Quality of Energy
Chapter 9: Role of Government in Assuring Energy Sustainability
9.1 Introduction


9.2 The U.S. Government
9.3 The Wealth Paradigm
9.4 Zero Interest
9.5 Zero-Waste Economics
Chapter 10: Summary and Conclusions
10.1 Summary
10.2 Answers to the Research Questions
Chapter 11: References and Bibliography
Index
End User License Agreement

List of Illustrations
Chapter 1
Figure 1.1 Knowledge model vs. aphenomenal model.
Figure 1.2 Congressional approval rate for last 32 years (Gallup data).
Figure 1.3 Nature is inherently sustainable (From Khan and Islam, 2007).
Chapter 2
Figure 2.1 If truth criteria are not met, time only increases ignorance and false
confidence.
Figure 2.2 New science only added more arrogance, blended with ignorance to
Dogma science.
Figure 2.3 Exchange of goods can cause economic growth or collapse, depending
on the starting point (solid circle: natural starting point; hollow circle:
unnatural/artificial starting point).
Figure 2.4 Rise of bitcoin transactions.
Figure 2.5 Miner fee rise in 2016–2017 (from website 1).
Figure 2.6 Price of Bitcoin from inception to the end of 2017.
Figure 2.8 World reserve of gold. (from Gold Reserve, Inc.)
Figure 2.9 US Annual gold production. (From California Gold Mining, Inc.)
Figure 2.10 Gold price fluctuations since 1971 decoupling of gold and US dollars
(From onlygold.com).
Figure 2.11 Inflation adjusted price of gold (from Rowlatt, 2013).
Figure 2.12 U.S. mine production of silver from 1860 to 2000. Total production


prior to 1860 was estimated to be 25 metrics tons (t) (Data from USGS, 2018a).
Figure 2.13 Silver reserve in top silver reserve countries (from Statistia, 2018c).
Figure 2.14 Silver/gold price in USA (from https://goldprice.org/gold-pricehistory.html).
Figure 2.15 Gold/Silver ratio distribution (From Fulp, 2016).
Figure 2.16 Showing rarest metals (from Haxel et al., 2002).
Figure 2.17 Variation in “gold dollar” and “petrodollar” (left y-axis represents gold
price in $/oz, while right y-axis represents crude oil price (in $/bbl), from
American Bullion, Inc.
Figure 2.18 Variation of gold price and oil price during 1987–2012, From
American Bullion, Inc.
Chapter 3
Figure 3.1 The rich are benefitting the most from the stock market’s historic run
(Wile, 2018).
Figure 3.2 Past and future projection of shares of global wealth of the top 1% and
bottom 99% (Oxfam Report, 2018).
Figure 3.3 Past shares of global wealth of the top 1% and bottom 99% (from Khan
and Islam, 2016).
Figure 3.4 Economic disparity and movement of wealth in USA.
Figure 3.5 Economic disparity in USA Bottom (visible) pink line is the top 10%
(original data from Credit Suisse, 2014).
Figure 3.6 National debt increase during various presidencies.
Figure 3.7 Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.
Figure 3.8 Our current epoch is an epic failure of intangible values.
Figure 3.9 The change in human collective activities from 1750 to 2000 (from
Adams and Jeanrenaud, 2005).
Figure 3.10 Lung cancer mortality rate in Sweden Cancer Trends During the 20th
Century (Hallberg, 2002).
Figure 3.11 Rise in obesity (OECD analysis of health survey data, 2011).
Figure 3.12 Incidence of diabetes in children under age 10 years in Norway, 1925–
1995 (from Gale, 2002).
Figure 3.13 Robotization of humanity: the current state of the world.
Figure 3.14 US defense spending in recent history (From John Fleming/The
Heritage Foundation, 2018).


Figure 3.15 Healthcare cost as a percentage of GDP for various developed
countries (OECD Report, 2017).
Figure 3.16 Price variation in diabetes treatment chemicals (OECD Report, 2017).
Figure 3.17 Aggregated revenues reported by pharmaceutical and biotechnology
companies from 1991 to 2014 (OECD Report, 2017).
Figure 3.18 Percentage of children (aged 0 to 17) who are living in relative
poverty, defined as living in a household in which disposable income, when
adjusted for family size and composition, is less than 50% of the national median
income. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/oct/19/big-pharma-moneylobbying-us-opioid-crisis.
Figure 3.19 Both optimism and fear lead to movements in the financial market,
thereby stimulating economy that is stacked up against sustainability.
Figure 3.20 Modern science and technology development schemes focus on
turning natural into artificial and assigning artificial values, proportional to the
aphenomenality of a product.
Figure 3.21 Lewis Dual Economy thrives on the existence of inherent disparity.
Figure 3.22 Sustainability can be defined as the inevitable outcome of a
conscientious start (1: phenomenal start with phenomental intention; 2:
aphenomenal start and/or aphenomenal intention). Figure redrawn from Khan
and Islam (2016).
Figure 3.23 Good behaviors in humans lie within optimum regime of individual
liberty (redrawn from Islam et al., 2017).
Figure 3.24 Origins of the Arabic word for “happiness” – a non-Eurocentric view.
Figure 3.25 Maximizing the Rate of Return on Investments for Others – This
figure illustrates one prospect that becomes practically possible if intangible
benefits are calculated into, and as part of, a well-known conventional treatment of
investment capital that was developed initially to deal purely with tangible aspects
of the process and on the assumption that money would normally be invested only
to generate a financial return to its investor (From Zatzman and Islam, 2007).
Figure 3.26 Sensitivity of business turnover to employer-employee trust – Under
a regime guided by the norms of capital-dependent conventional economics,
trustworthiness counts for nothing. Under an economic approach that takes
intangibles into account, on the other hand, revenue growth in an enterprise
should be enhanced.
Figure 3.27 The figure depicts the direction of ‘legal derivation’, the process by
which law is discerned, for each of the theorists’ models.
Figure 3.28 Both scientific and social theories have invoked aphenomenal
premises that have become increasingly illogical.


Figure 3.29 Real demand reaches equilibrium whereas artificially created
demand leads to implosive economic infrastructure that ends up with a crisis.
Figure 3.30 Knowledge has to be true; otherwise it will create false perception
and total opacity in the economic system.
Figure 3.31 From ill intention and ill-gotten power comes the onset of the cancer
model. It gains traction increasing misery of the general population upon which
the ‘Aphenomenal Model’ is being applied.
Figure 3.32 Every ‘-ism’ introduced in the modern age belongs to the same false
premise that launched the current civilization in the deliberate hunger game
model.
Figure 3.33 The great debate rages on mostly as a distraction from the real debate
that should be on fundamental premises that are taken at face value.
Figure 3.34 Interest rate over the years (shaded area US recessions) data from
Research. Stlouisfed.org.
Figure 3.35 Historical fluctuation of inflation rates in USA (redrawn from
Website 1).
Figure 3.36 Interest rate and inflation rate.
Figure 3.37 Interest rate and inflation rate over the years (from Federal Reserve
Economic Data).
Figure 3.38 Philip’s short-run graph.
Figure 3.39 Taxes as a percentage of GDP for various countries. The darker bar is
the US; the darkest bar the average for advanced countries (OECD Report, 2017).
Figure 3.40 Pictorial depiction estates with tax concerns (from Krugman, 2017).
Figure 3.41 The Rahn curve.
Figure 3.42 Taxation is part and parcel of the government growth.
Figure 3.43 History of government employment and manufacturing employment
(From Jeffrey, 2015).
Figure 3.44 Government size or government debt hasn’t been a partisan issue.
Figure 3.45 Transition from real value to perceived value of commodities (data
from Commodity Futures Trading Commission website).
Figure 3.46 Falsehood is turned into truth and ensuing disinformation makes
sure that truth does not come back in subsequent calculations.
Figure 3.47 A new paradigm is invoked after denominating spurious value as real
and disinformation into ‘real knowledge’.
Figure 3.48 How falsehood is promoted as truth and vice-versa.


Figure 3.49 Inflation rate and world events.
Figure 3.50 Gold prices throughout modern history in US $. (from
Onlygold.com).
Figure 3.51 Various uses of gold (redrawn from Thomas, 2015).
Figure 3.52 The Dow Jones Industrial Average from the years 1928/9–1934, with
annotations describing brief historical-economic events (modified from:
Velauthapill 2009).
Figure 3.53 Illustrates the long-term inflation adjusted price of gold based on
2011 dollars (data from MeasuringWorth.com, as reported by Ferri, 2013). It
highlights the average $500 per ounce price over the 220 year period, which was
passed through many times.
Figure 3.54 Inflation adjusted oil price for last 70 years.
Figure 3.55 Ratio of gold price (per ounce) over oil price (per barrel). Grey areas
mark recession periods.
Figure 3.56 Net development (true GNP per capita, after subtracting foreign debt
payments & re-exported profits of TNC’s, etc.) and net dependency for various
countries.
Chapter 4
Figure 4.1 Economic activities have become synonymous with corporate
profiteering and denaturing of the society.
Figure 4.2 The outcome of short-term profit-driven economics model.
Figure 4.3 Millions of tons of sugar produced globally over the years (from
Website 2).
Figure 4.4 Sugar production history by region (From Islam et al, 2015).
Figure 4.5 Sugar structure (note how all catalysts disappear).
Figure 4.6a Chemical structure of saccharin and related salts.
Figure 4.6b Chemical reactions used during saccharin manufacturing.
Figure 4.7 Saccharin consumption share in 2001 (From Khan and Islam, 2016).
Figure 4.8 The dominance of saccharin has been continuing in last 3 decades.
(From Islam et al., 2015)
Figure 4.9 Cost per tonne for various sugar products (2003 value), from Islam et
al., 2015).
Figure 4.10 Aspartame market growth since 1984 (From Khan and Islam, 2016).
Figure 4.11 Market share of various artificial sweeteners (from Islam et al., 2015).


Figure 4.12 Chemical structure of Aspartame®.
Chapter 5
Figure 5.1 Public perception toward energy sources (Ipsos, 2011).
Figure 5.2 Energy outlook for 2040 as compared to 2016 under various scenarios
(*Renewables includes wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, and biofuels, from BP
Report, 2018).
Figure 5.3 World plastic production (From Statista, 2018).
Figure 5.4 Annual per capita water consumption in metric ton in 2013 (from
Statista, 2018a).
Figure 5.5 (from USGS, 2017).
Figure 5.6 Oil dependence of various countries (From Hutt, 2016).
Figure 5.7 Spider Chart of Saudi Arabia (When comparing multiple countries on a
spider).
Figure 5.8 Breakdown of Saudi Arabia’s prosperity index.
Figure 5.9 Norway’s prosperity index in spider chart form.
Figure 5.10 Breakdown of Norway’s prosperity index.
Figure 5.11 Oil dependence in terms of GDP share and historical oil prices (World
Bank, 2017).
Figure 5.12 Trends in GDP and Energy intensity.
Figure 5.13 The bell curve has been the base curve of many theories in modern
era (x-axis is replaced with time and y-axis with global oil production).
Figure 5.14 Population growth history and projection (data from CIA Factbook,
UN).
Figure 5.15 Estimated, actual, and projected population growth (decline).
Figure 5.16 World population growth for different continents.
Figure 5.17 There are different trends in population growth depending on the
state of the economy.
Figure 5.18 Per capita energy consumption growth for certain countries.
Figure 5.19 A strong correlation between a tangible index and per capita energy
consumption has been at the core of economic development (from Goldenberg,
1985).
Figure 5.20 While population growth has been tagged as the source of economic
crisis, wasteful habits have been promoted in name of emulating the west.
Figure 5.21 Population and energy paradox for China (From Speight and Islam,


2016).
Figure 5.22 Oil production and import history of USA (data from EIA).
Figure 5.23 US data that appear to support Hubbert’s “peak oil” hypothesis (From
Speight and Islam, 2016).
Figure 5.24 Comparison of Hubbert curve with Norwegian oil production (from
Speight and Islam, 2016).
Figure 5.25 Association for the study of peak oil (ASPO) produced evidence of
Hubbert peak in all regions.
Figure 5.26 Actual global oil production (surface mined tar sand not included).
Figure 5.28 Production-Cost and Market-Price Realities “At The Margin” (From
Zatzman and Islam, 2007).
Figure 5.29 US public debt as percentage of GDP.
Figure 5.30 Energy content of different fuels (MJ/kg), from Spight and Islam,
2016.
Figure 5.31 Fossil fuel reserves and exploration activities.
Figure 5.32 Discovery of natural gas reserves with exploration activities (From
Islam, 2014).
Figure 5.33 Natural gas production history in New York state (from Islam, 2014).
Figure 5.34 Locations of unconventional shale plays in lower 48 states (from
Ratner and Tiemann, 2014).
Figure 5.35 Moving from conventional to unconventional sources, the volume of
the petroleum resource increases.
Figure 5.36 Cost of production increases as efficiency, environmental benefits
and real value of crude oil declines (modified from Islam et al., 2010).
Figure 5.37 Current estimate of conventional and unconventional gas reserve
(From Islam, 2014).
Figure 5.38 Abundance of natural resources as a function of time.
Figure 5.39 Water plays a more significant role in material production than
previously anticipated (from Islam, 2014).
Figure 5.40 Gas hydrate deposits of Alaska (From Islam, 2014).
Figure 5.41 Known and inferred natural gas hydrate occurrences in marine (red
circles) and permafrost (black diamonds) environments (From Islam, 2014).
Figure 5.42 Future trends in some of the major future user of unconventional gas
(from EIA report, 2013).


Figure 5.43 Gas hydrates that are the largest global sink for organic carbon offer
the greatest prospect for the future of energy (From Islam, 2014).
Figure 5.44 Water: a source of life when processed naturally but a potent toxin
when processed mechanically.
Figure 5.45 Aristotle’s four-element phase diagram (steady-state).
Figure 5.46 Divinity in Europe is synonymous with uniformity, symmetry, and
homogeneity, none of which exists in nature.
Figure 5.47 Recasting Figure 5.45 with the proper time function.
Figure 5.48 Water and fire are depicted through taegeuk (yin yang).
Figure 5.49 Korean national flag contains ancient symbol of creation and creator.
Figure 5.50 Combination of various fundamental elements make up the rest of
the creation (From Islam, 2014).
Figure 5.50 Evolution of Yin and Yang with time (from Islam, 2014).
Figure 5.51 Sun, earth, and moon move at a characteristic speed in infinite
directions.
Figure 5.52 Orbital speed vs size (not to scale).
Figure 5.53 The heart beat (picture above) represents natural frequency of a
human, whereas brain waves represent how a human is in harmony with the rest
of the universe (From Islam et al., 2015).
Figure 5.54 Maximum and minimum heart rate for different age groups (From
Islam et al., 2015).
Figure 5.55 Tangible/intangible duality continues infinitely for mega-scale to
nanoscale, from infinitely large to infinitely small.
Chapter 6
Figure 6.1 A large market means consisting of high demand (D1) compared to
small market (D0) even at a different price level. This also causes large investment,
in turn causing high supply (S1). Through the cost and return function, a large
market generates large income as well (from Koutsoyiannis, 1979).
Figure 6.2 Derivation of demand. Graphical presentation of Utility function by
Thomas Malthus and Alfred Marshall. Derived from Total Utility (TU) curve,
Marginal Utility is congruent with Demand curve (D) against price and quantity
(from Koutsoyiannis, 1979).
Figure 6.3 Cost Push and Demand Pull Inflation. Economists agree that increase
in cost – as illustrated by shifting Aggregate Supply upward (AS0–AS1) causes
increase in general price level. From P0 to P1. Similar effect occurs when there is an
increase in Aggregate Demand – illustrated by shifting upward of AD curve (AD0–


AD1) (from Branson, 1989).
Figure 6.4 Difference between zero-interest economy and interest-based
economy is glaring.
Figure 6.5 Islamic society finds an optimum between individual liberty and
regulatory control.
Figure 6.6 Good intention launches off knowledge-based model where as a bad
intention throws off the cognition to ignorance and prejudice.
Figure 6.7 Intentions are the driver of sustainability.
Figure 6.8 Niyah is original intention, whereas qsd is dynamic intention.
Figure 6.9 Summary of Islamic economy vis-à-vis modern economy.
Chapter 7
Figure 7.1 Documenting pathways by which intangible natural gifts are destroyed
by being converted into tangibly valuable commodities.
Figure 7.2 Economic models have to retooled to make price proportional to real
value.
Figure 7.3 Summary of the historical development of the major industrial
catalytic processes per decade in the 20th century (from Fernetti et al., 2000).
Figure 7.4 Natural chemicals can turn an sustainable process into a sustainable
process while preserving similar efficiency.
Figure 7.5 Trend of long-term thinking vs. trend of short-term thinking.
Figure 7.6 Bifurcation, a familiar pattern from the chaos theory, is useful for
illustrating the engendering of more degrees of freedom in which solutions may be
found as the “order” of the “phase space,” or as in this case, dimensions, which
increase from one to two to three to four.
Figure 7.7 In the knowledge dimension, data about quarterly income over some
selected time span displays all the possibilities – negative, positive, short-term,
long-term, cyclical, etc.
Figure 7.8 Linearization of economic data.
Figure 7.9 When intangibles are included, the rate of return becomes a
monotonous function of the investment duration.
Figure 7.10 Business turnover cannot be studied with conventional economical
theories.
Figure 7.11 If regular light bulbs were lousy replacements for sunlight, the
florescent light is scandalous – the true shock and awe approach, at your expense
(from Islam et al., 2010).


Figure 7.12 By converting sunlight into artificial light, we are creating
spontaneous havoc that continues to spiral down as time progresses. Imagine
trying to build a whole new “science” trying to render this spiral-down mode
“sustainable”.
Figure 7.13 In the current technology development mode, cost goes up as overall
goodness of a product declines.
Figure 7.14 Increasing threshold investment eliminates competition – the
essence of free market economy and economic growth.
Figure 7.15 Because of the “stupidity, squared” mode, technology development in
the west continues at the expense of technology dependence in the east. In this,
the developing countries are ignorant because they think that this technological
dependence is actually good for them and developed countries are ignorant
because they think one can exploit others at the level of obscenity and get away
with it in the long-term. Are you better off today than you were 4000 years ago?
You don’t have to consult Moses to find an answer.
Figure 7.16 As a result of the over-extension of credit and subsequent
manipulation (by the creditors: Paris Club etc.) of the increasingly desperate
condition of those placed in their debt, nostrums about “development” remain a
chimaera and cruel illusion in the lives of literally billions of people in many parts
of Africa, Asia and Latin America. (Here the curves are developed from the year
1960.)
Figure 7.17 Pathways destructive of intangible social relations (cf. Figure 1)
Figure 7.18 Is it the total population that makes the economy plummet, or rather
the growth in the corrupt portion that one should worry about?
Figure 7.19 The role of interest rate and the operating principles around the
world.
Figure 7.20 The role of interest rate in driving economic decline.
Chapter 8
Figure 8.1 Crude oil formation pathway (After Chhetri and Islam, 2008).
Figure 8.2 General activities in oil refining (Chhetri and Islam, 2007b).
Figure 8.3 Pathway of oil refining process (After Chhetri et al., 2007).
Figure 8.4 Natural gas “well to wheel” pathway.
Figure 8.5 Natural gas processing methods (Redrawn from Chhetri and Islam,
2006b).
Figure 8.6 Ethylene Glycol Oxidation Pathway in Alkaline Solution (After
Matsuoka et al., 2005).


Figure 8.7 Schematic showing the position of current technological practices
related to natural practices.
Figure 8.8 Different phases of petroleum operations which are seismic, drilling,
production, transportation & processing and decommissioning, and their
associated wastes generation and energy consumption (Khan and Islam, 2006a).
Figure 8.9 Schematic of wave length and energy level of photon (From Islam et
al., 2010).
Figure 8.10 Breakdown of the no-flaring method (Bjorndalen et al., 2005).
Figure 8.11 Supply chain of petroleum operations (Khan and Islam, 2006a).
Figure 8.12 Water vapor absorption by Nova Scotia clay (Chhetri and Islam,
2008).
Figure 8.13 Decrease of pH with time due to sulfur absorption in de-ionized
water (Chhetri and Islam, 2008).
Figure 8.14 Schematic of sawdust fuelled electricity generator.
Figure 8.15 Water-fire yin yang, showing how without one the other is
meaningless.
Figure 8.16 The sun, earth, and moon all are moving at a characteristic speed in
infinite directions.
Figure 8.17 Orbital speed vs size (not to scale) (From Islam, 2014).
Figure 8.18 Natural light pathway.
Figure 8.19 Wavelength spectrum of sunlight (From Islam et al., 2015).
Figure 8.20 Colors and wave lengths of visible light.
Figure 8.21 Artificial and natural lights affect natural material differently.
Figure 8.22 Wavelength spectrum of visible part of sunlight.
Figure 8.23 Visible natural colors as a function of various wavelengths and
intensity of sunlight.
Figure 8.24 Wavelength and radiance for forest fire, grass and warm ground
(From Li et al., 2005).
Figure 8.25 Blue flame radiance for butane (From Islam, 2014).
Figure 8.26 Artificial light spectrum (From Islam, 2014).
Figure 8.27 Comparison of various artificial light sources with sunlight.
Figure 8.28 Comparing within the visible light zone will enable one to rank
various artificial light sources (From Islam et al., 2010).
Figure 8.29 Formation of a shield with dark and clear lenses (From Islam et al.,


2010).
Figure 8.30 Benefit to environment depends entirely on the organic nature of
energy and mass.
Figure 8.31 Oxygen cycle in nature involving the earth (From Islam, 2014).
Figure 8.32 Hydrogen cycle in nature involving the earth.
Figure 8.33 Water cycle, involving energy and mass.
Figure 8.34 Whole rock Rb-Sr isochron diagram, basement samples (From Islam
et al., 2018).
Figure 8.35 Natural processing time differs for different types of oils.
Figure 8.36 Natural processing enhances intrinsic values of natural products.
Figure 8.37 The volume of petroleum resources increases as one moves from
conventional to unconventional (From Islam, 2014).
Figure 8.38 Cost of production increases as efficiency, environmental benefits
and real value of crude oil declines (modified from Islam et al., 2010).
Figure 8.39 Overall refining efficiency for various crude oils (modified from Han
et al., 2015).
Figure 8.40 Crude API gravity and heavy product yield of the studied US and EU
refineries (The yield of heavy products, such as residual fuel oil, pet coke, asphalt,
slurry oil and reduced crude, is calculated as a share of all energy products by
energy value) (from Han et al., 2015).
Figure 8.41 Current estimate of conventional and unconventional gas reserve
(From Islam, 2014).
Figure 8.42 Abundance of natural resources as a function of time.
Figure 8.43 Water plays a more significant role in material production than
previously anticipated (from Islam, 2014).
Figure 8.44 As natural processing time increases so does reserve of natural
resources (from Chhetri and Islam, 2008).
Figure 8.45 Production/reserve ratio for various countries.
Figure 8.46 Crude oil production continues to rise overall (From EIA, 2017).
Figure 8.47 U.S. reserve variation in recent history (From Islam, 2014).
Figure 8.48 Technically recoverable oil and gas reserve in the U.S.A. (From
Islam, 2014).
Figure 8.49 Sulfur content of the U.S.A. crude over the last few decades (From
Islam, 2014).


Figure 8.50 Declining API gravity of USA crude oil.
Figure 8.51 Worldwide crude oil quality (From Islam, 2014).
Figure 8.52 The three phases of conventional reserve.
Figure 8.53 Unconventional reserve growth can be given a boost with scientific
characterization.
Figure 8.54 Profitability grows continuously with time when zero-waste oil
recovery scheme is introduced.
Chapter 9
Figure 9.1 Population growth history and projection. (Source: data from CIA Fact
Book).
Figure 9.2 Population growth rate over the years 1760–2100.
Figure 9.3 World population growth for different continents (data from UN
DESA/Populations Division, 2015).
Figure 9.4 Trends in population growth depending on the state of the economy.
Data from http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/.
Figure 9.5 Wars of different variety.
Figure 9.6 Post-Colonial War Model & Hierarchy Under Gold and Silver
Currency.
Figure 9.7 A depiction of today’s banking system is nothing but a spurious
money-making scheme.
Figure 9.8 Schematic of a zero-waste energy and mass consumption scheme.
Figure 9.9 True sustainability cannot be determined with a short-term analysis.
Chapter 10
Figure 10.1 HSSAN degradation has been ubiquitous in modern era.
Figure 10.2 It is not enough to arrest the degradation; the trend has to be
reverted.
Figure 10.3 Current economic policies act like a cancer to the social economic
health.
Figure 10.4 For overall economic welfare, each financial crisis has to be dealt
with natural remedies that are well intentioned and far away from the greed and
fear cycle.
Figure 10.5 Budgetary and regulatory growth in US Government.
Figure 10.6 Economy under a benevolent government that imposes zero waste
technology with zero interest rate with gold as the standard.


List of Tables
Chapter 2
Table 2.1 Fundamental premises of Aristotle in relation to economic theories.
Table 2.2 Transition money from the gold standard.
Table 2.3 Gold reserve held by various countries (data from Holmes, 2016).
Table 2.4 Top gold holding countries.
Table 2.5 Gold reserve and Recent production (Data from USGS, 2018).
Table 2.6 Mine production and reserve of various countries.
Table 2.7 Distinction between gold and silver.
Table 2.8 Comparison of various traits of gold and oil.
Chapter 3
Table 3.1 Spending in various households (from Roth, 2017).
Table 3.3 Occurrence of Autism (data from CDC, 2017).
Table 3.9 The HSS®A® pathway and its outcome in various disciplines.
Table 3.1 Inflation rates during last.
Chapter 4
Table 4.1 Typical features of natural processes, as compared to the claims of
artificial processes (From Khan and Islam, 2016).
Table 4.2 True difference between sustainable and unsustainable processes
(Reproduced from Khan and Islam, 2012).
Table 4.3 Features of external entity (from Islam, 2014).
Table 4.4 How natural features are violated in the first premise of various
‘laws’and theories of the science of tangibles (Islam et al., 2014).
Table 4.5 Transitions from natural to processed.
Table 4.6 Sugar consumption for various regions/countries (from Islam et al.,
2015).
Table 4.7 Commodity price over last few decades (from Islam et al., 2015).
Table 4.8 Prices of various artificial sweeteners (From Islam et al., 2015).
Table 4.10 Global exports of saccharin (from USITC publication,
http://www.usitc.gov/publications/701_731/pub4077.pdf).
Table 4.11 Synthesized and natural pathways of organic compounds as energy
sources, ranked and compared according to selected criteria.


Chapter 5
Table 5.1 Ranking of various countries on oil dependence and Leagum prosperity
index.
Table 5.2 Per capita energy consumption (in TOE) for certain countries.
Table 5.3 US crude oil and natural gas reserve (Million barrels).
Table 5.4 The tangible and intangible nature of yin and yang (from Islam, 2014).
Table 5.5 Characteristic frequency of “natural” objects (from Islam, 2014).
Chapter 7
Table 7.1 Some “breakthrough” technologies (From Khan and Islam, 2016).
Table 7.2 The transition from natural to artificial commodities, and the reasons
behind their transition.
Table 7.3 The HSS®A® pathway and its outcome in various disciplines.
Table 7.4 Natural processes vs. Engineered processes.
Table 7.5 The HSS®A® pathway in energy management schemes.
Table 7.6 Overview of Petroleum Refining Processes (U.S. Department of Labour,
n.d.).
Chapter 8
Table 8.1 Emission from a Refinery (Environmental Defense, 2005).
Table 8.2 Primary wastes from oil refinery (Environmental Defense, 2005).
Table 8.3 Wave length and quantum energy levels of different radiation sources
(From Islam et al., 2015).
Table 8.1 The tangible and intangible nature of yin and yang (From Islam, 2014).
Table 8.2 Characteristic frequency of “natural” objects (From Islam, 2014).
Table 8.3 Sun composition (Chaisson and McMillan, 1997).
Table 8.4 Wavelengths of various visible colors (From Islam, 2014).
Table 8.5 Wavelengths of known waves (From Islam et al., 2015).
Table 8.6 Artificial sources of various waves (from Islam et al., 2016).
Table 8.7 Various elements in earth crust and lithosphere (From Islam, 2014).
Table 8.8 Table of Elements in the Human Body by Mass (from Emsley, 1998).
Table 8.9 Published isotopic mineral ages for Precambrian basement in
southwestern Ontario, Michigan, and Ohio (From Islam et al., 2018).
Table 8.10 Summary of Proven Reserve Data as of (Dec) 2016. (From Islam et al.,


2018)
Chapter 9
Table 9.1 Cost of gold production for China Gold Intl. Resources.


Scrivener Publishing
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Economics of Sustainable Energy

Jaan S. Islam
M.R. Islam
Meltem Islam
M.A.H. Mughal


This edition first published 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA and Scrivener
Publishing LLC, 100 Cummings Center, Suite 541J, Beverly, MA 01915, USA
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
ISBN 978-1-11952-5-929


Dedication
“We dedicate this book to Elif Hamida Islam, whose thirst for knowledge and passion for
true perfection have been an inspiration to us” Jaan Islam,
M. Rafiq Islam, and Meltem Islam
“I am dedicating this book to my children: Ibrahim, Sarah and Javaria. Their affinity for
TRUTH and kindness to me is the coolness of my heart.”
– A.H. Mughal


Preface
The public confidence in the political, financial, and corporate media establishment is at
its nadir. Economics – a subject that is uniquely concerned with optimum distribution of
wealth in the society-has become a laughing stock in the face of unprecedented
accumulation of wealth among the richest 1% and the spectacular failure of the
Establishment to arrest the free-fall of social justice. Yet, the “left” cannot think of
anything more than more taxation whereas the “right” cannot think of anything more
than more tax breaks for the rich. The scientific community is equally clueless. What
Nobel Laureate Chemist Robert Curl characterized as “technological disaster” is only
supported by Nobel laureate economist, Robert J. Shiller, as a “failure of the economic
profession in contributing anything significant to society”. The discipline of economics is
already infamous for having the most number of paradoxes, but what could beat the
paradox of the US economy growing “stronger” proportional to the national debt, that
stands at a record high? This book offers hope and guides the readership to developing
full understanding of the root causes of the current global crisis. It then shows how the
spiralling down can be reversed and true sustainability restored.
Every year, as soon as the Oxfam report on global economic inequality reminds us about
the direction our civilization is heading, there is a hysterical reaction, but hysteria dies
down within weeks and we go back to the lifestyle that brought us here today. Often the
blame is laid on the millennial generation for their “apathy”, “lust for comfort” and
“bratty” attitude. Yet, business insider surveys indicate it’s the same millennial generation
overwhelmingly cares for the state of the world and the direction that our civilization is
heading. Nearly 50% of them ranked climate change and destruction of nature as their
primary concern. This is followed by concern for war and global conflict, and then global
economic inequality. The vast majority of those surveyed are willing and eager to make
lifestyle changes. This book breaks open the hypocrisy of our civilization and stops the
blame game at its tracks and identifies the root causes of today’s world economy, ecology,
and global politics. Because economics is the driver of today’s civilization, the book starts
with the delinearized history of economics, covering the entire span ranging from the
ancient Greeks to the Information Age. Step by step all pieces of disinformation are
exposed, making it clear to see the root causes of the spiralling down mode in global
economy. In this, the top 10 economists of modern era (selected from both “right” and
“left”) are deconstructed and their “mistakes” identified. The book shows that these
“mistakes” are embedded in every economic policy that has driven modern economy. As
part of this policy, climate change crisis, wars and conflicts, and overall economic
extremism are but symptoms that lie in the core of modern civilization.
Just as the economics is the spiritual driver of our civilization, technology development is
the mechanical driver of our civilization. This book deconstructs the technology
development mode that has emerged from Newtonian mechanics and blossomed during
the “plastic era” for over a century. Root causes of unsustainability of this technology
development mode are exposed, laying the foundation for developing sustainable


technology, with sustainable energy management as the prototype. The book makes it
clear that changes in economic policies are a prerequisite to changes in energy
management and technology development. Only then can one begin to talk about
reversing the global spiralling down of economic welfare and the state of the
environment.
The book demonstrates that changes in lifestyle are necessary but not sufficient. No
economic policy or technology development mode has a chance to survive, let alone thrive
unless supported by the political establishment. In this process, the government plays a
pivotal role. The challenge is to change the attitude of the government from a “selfserving” controlling mode to a representative philanthropic mode. This new system of
economic development and political governance is inspired by a long-forgotten
understanding of political economics: medieval Islamic economics. In reviewing the
history of economics from trade, currencies, and interest, the strengths and weaknesses
of various economic developments over our centuries are evaluated. Based on the
historical analysis, a step-by-step procedure is outlined for this fundamental change in
our society today. As a whole, this book is the first of modern era to offer such a
comprehensive analysis, complete with solutions to the entire crisis of today’s
civilization.
Jaan S. Islam
M. R. Islam
Meltem Islam
M.A.H. Mughal


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