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VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

DO THI BICH THAO

PROMOTING ROLES OF SUBJECTIVE FACTORS OF PEOPLE’S
PUBLIC SECURITY FORCE IN NATIONAL SECURITY
PROTECTION IN VIETNAM IN PRESENT TIME

Major: Dialectical materialism and historical
materialism
Code: 9 22 90 02

SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION
ON PHYLOSOPHY

HANOI - 2019


The dissertation has been completed at:
GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES


Supervisor: Assoc. Prof., Dr. PHAM XUAN PHUC

Opponent 1: Assoc. Prof., Dr. Phan Trong Hao
Opponent 2: Assoc. Prof., Dr. Nguyen Ba Duong
Opponent 3: Assoc. Prof., Dr. Nguyen Trong Tuan

This doctoral dissertation will be defended at the Academy-level
Board of Examiners at 477 Nguyen Trai Str., Thanh Xuan dist., Hanoi
at: ……………….. on…………./ 2019

The doctoral dissertation can be found at:
National Library of Vietnam
Library of Graduate Academy of Social Sciences


INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale for the study
National security is a fundamental and important issue of a nation
and is a prerequisite for the nation to develop and flourish. Protecting
national security plays a crucial role and constitutes the task of the entire
Party, people and army. Being fully aware of its significance, our Party and
State have always determined: “Strengthening national defense and security
is an important and constant task of the Party, the State and the entire
people, with the People's Army and the People’s Public Security being the
core forces” [41, p.45].
Each nation and people, through their development, always adopted
different methods, ways and measures to ensure national security
effectively on the overall scope, as well as in each field. Ensuring national
security is acknowledged to be an extremely difficult task, and it is also the
honor that the Party, the State and the people assign to the public security
forces - to assume the primary responsibility national security maintenance.
The leaders, commanders, officers and comrades of the whole force always
grasp the spirit, “The People's Public Security are willing to sacrifice
themselves to serve the country and the people”, overcoming all difficulties
and successfully completing their assigned duties.
Amid complicated changes and fluctuations in the country, the
region and the world, exerting multi-dimensional impacts on the national
security assurance of the public security force, the renovation in our
country, with great and historical achievements, still faces significant


difficulties and challenges. The economy has not developed sustainably;
GDP growth rate is not high, economic structure still has improper aspects
and the risks of economic derailing and falling further lagged behind have
not been eliminated. The security situation of the strategic areas still has the
potential of instability. The hostile forces escalated their activities of
“peaceful evolution”, riots and subversion in order to remove the leading
role of the Party, changing the socialist regime in our country. The trend of
globalization and revolution in science and technology is advancing rapidly,
becoming a direct production force, promoting the development of the
knowledge economy, making strong and profound changes in socialpolitical relationships, bringing great benefits to humanity, but also being
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used by hostile forces, reactionaries and criminals to threaten peace and
stability. Non-traditional security risks are complicated. In order to fulfill
the assigned tasks, the reality requires the public security force to be always
alert and take effective measures to fight against the false allegations,
sabotage political thought as well as activities infringing upon national
security in an attempt to place pressure to remove the leadership of the
Communist Party and demand multi-party and regime change.
Applying the Marxist-Leninist philosophy to dealing with the
relationship between objective conditions and subjective factors of the
public security force in ensuring national security, first of all, it is required
that police officers must be a highly enlightened politician, having a strong
political stance, knowledge of law, natural sciences, social sciences and
humanities, modern science and technology; having solid professional
qualifications, psychological endurance, physical fitness ... In fact, these
requirements are to promote the subjective factor of the public security
force in ensuring national security. In perception as well as in research,
there exist a number of different points of view when presenting the
concept of objective and subjective factors; dialectical relationship between
subjective and objective factors as well as the role and mechanism of action
of subjective factors in the movement of social laws. In the view of national
security, most research projects only mention aspects of tasks,
responsibilities, powers...in ensuring national security in each specific field
and mainly related to the public security profession. The exploitation of the
issue of ensuring national security tasks from the perspective of subjective
factors in the current context of the country is still under research.
Therefore, a comprehensive, systematic and in-depth study on the
promotion of the subjective factor of the public security force in ensuring
national security in Vietnam is extremely urgent at the present time.
Based on the abovementioned analysis, we choose the topic
“Promoting the role of the subjective factor of the People's Public Security
Force in national security protection in Vietnam in present time” for a PhD
dissertation, specialized in dialectical materialism and historical
materialism.
2. Objectives and tasks of the study
Research Objectives:

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On the basis of clarifying several theoretical and practical issues on
promoting the role of the subjective factor of the People's Public security
force, the thesis proposes a number of basic requirements and solutions to
promote the role of the subjective factors of the public security force in
ensuring national security in Vietnam today.
Research Tasks:
First, an overview of the research works related to the dissertation topic;
Second, clarifying a number of theoretical issues on promoting the role of
the subjective factor of the public security force in ensuring national security in
Vietnam today;
Third, analyzing the situation of promoting the subjective factor of the
public security force in ensuring national security in Vietnam today; Pointing out the
advantages and limitations along with their causes in promoting the role of the
subjective factor of public security forces.
Fourth, proposing requirements and some basic solutions to effectively
promote the role of the subjective factor of public security forces in ensuring national
security in Vietnam today.
3. Research subjects and scope
3.1. Research subjects: promoting the role of the subjective factor of
public security forces in ensuring national security in Vietnam.
3.2. Scope of the study: The thesis focuses on researching and
evaluating the promotion of the role of the subjective factors of public security
forces in ensuring national security throughout the territory of the Socialist
Republic of Vietnam since 2013 (Resolution No. 28-NQ/TW, dated October
25, 2013 of the 11th CPV Central Committee on the strategy of national defense
in the new situation).
4. Theoretical background and research methodology
The theoretical background is Marxism-Leninism, Ho Chi Minh
ideology and the views of the Communist Party of Vietnam on the subjective
factor and promoting the role of the subjective factor of public security forces
in ensuring national security.
The research methodology is based on the principles and views of
dialectical materialism and historical materialism: the method of general
analysis, the method of inductive, interpreting, the method of combining
history - logic, comparative methods, expert methods and general methods of
social science.
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5. Findings of the dissertation
Regarding the theory: The dissertation contributes to supplementing
and completing the theory of promoting the role of the subjective factor of
public security forces in ensuring national security in Vietnam; The
dissertation also highlights the advantages and limitations in promoting the
role of the subjective factors of public security forces today.
Regarding the practice: The dissertation is a work that contributes
to summarizing the practice of promoting the role of the subjective factor of
public security forces in ensuring national security, clearly indicating the
achieved results, limitations, shortcomings and causes, as a basis for
proposing solutions to improve the effectiveness of promoting the role of
the subjective factor of public security forces in ensuring national security
in Vietnam today.
6. Theoretical and practical significance of the dissertation
Theoretical significance: The dissertation contributes to codifying
the views of Marxism-Leninism and Marxist researchers on the subjective
factor and the role of the subjective factor. On the basis of clarifying the
role of the subjective factor of public security forces in ensuring national
security, the dissertation has proposed requirements and some solutions to
improve the efficiency of promoting the role of the subjective factor of
public security forces in ensuring national security in Vietnam today.
Practical significance: The dissertation has a reference value for
researching, teaching, learning about issues related to subjective factors and
subjective factors of the people's public security forces in ensuring national
security in Vietnam today. The research results of the dissertation are also
recommended to improve the effectiveness of promoting the role of the
subjective factor of public security forces in ensuring national security in
Vietnam today.
7. Structure of the dissertation
In addition to the introduction, conclusion and references, the thesis
is structured into 4 chapters and 10 sections.

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Chapter 1
AN OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH PROJECTS RELATED TO
THE DISSERTATION
1.1. Research projects on subjective factors and promoting the
role of subjective factors
1.1.1. Research projects on the subjective factors and the role of
the subjective factors
Among the studies of former Soviet authors, such projects can be
cited as “Dialectics on objective conditions and subjective factors in the
construction of communism” by G.E.Gleserman, “Philosophical issues”
Journal, No. 6/1965; “The objective and subjective" by V.Ph.Cudemin,
Moscow, 1976; "Dialectics of the objective and subjective in the expression
of social laws” by A.Ph.Iaxkevich, Moscow; “Dialectics of the objective
and subjective in development socialism” by various authors, Kiep, 1980;
the article “The subjective and objective in the social processes” by
B.A.Voronovich, “Philosophic sciences” Journal, No. 3/1984 ...
In Vietnam, several research projects related to these topics are the
article by Ho Van Thong – “Some issues about the relationship between
subjective and objective factors in practice” [96, p.195-221]. In this work,
the author discussed objective and subjective relationships with reference to
the physical and mental category; from there, pointing out the similarities
and differences between these two pairs of categories.
Marx - Engels- Lenin - Stalin discussed the relationship between
the subjective and objective factors [30]. This document is used for
management classes, presenting social laws, human activities in history, the
objectivity of social laws, the role of subjective factors in the development
of the society, the relationship between objective conditions and subjective
factors in socialist society.
In the article “Subjective factors in the applying mechanism and in
the activities of social laws” [48], author Luong Viet Hai mentioned the
different conceptions of dialectics between the objective and subjective in
the influencing mechanism and in the activities of social laws, thereby
pointing out unreasonable conceptions of the role of subjective factors.

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Author Pham Van Duc states in his article “The position and
significance of subjective factors in the applying mechanism of social laws”
[44] that it is first necessary to understand the correct concept of factors in
order to make the requirement that subjective factors are understood as the
underlying causes and conditions as well as one of the basic and sustainable
decisions of the historical process.
Author Pham Van Nhuan, in the article “An approach about pairs
of categories of objective conditions and subjective factors” [85], has a
different perspective on the subjective conditions and subjective conditions.
In the article “Studying the concept of subjective factors of social
life” [100] author Nguyen Thi Bich Thuy puts forward the problem to
research, awareness, explanation and social improvement, Marxist
philosophy system of categories: production forces - production relations,
infrastructure - superstructure, social existence - social consciousness, ...
reflecting the structure of social life.
With the above-mentioned issues, it can be seen that, in general, the
issue of subjective factors and the role of subjective factors has been
mentioned in many different aspects. Most authors agreed that the
subjective factors are governed and regulated by objective conditions. But
the subjective factors are relatively independent, which can react and
change the objective conditions.
1.1.2. Research projects on promoting role of subjective factors
Regarding this content, we can mention the article of the author
Sergeev - The characteristics of dialectics between objective conditions and
subjective factors in social and socialist management in the book
“Scientific management of society” by VG Afanasev [117, p.46-90].
In the article entitled Subjective factors and objective conditions in
socialist management [58], author Vu Huy raised the question of the
interaction between management systems and managed systems in society,
which bears close relation to subject-object, subjective factors and objective
conditions. In light of that issue, the author gives the view on objective
conditions, subjective factors attached with social development.
In the article The role of the subjective factor in the unity of three
benefits [79], the author Nguyen Chi My proved that humanity always
operates according to certain interests.

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Author Tran Bao in the article Regarding objective conditions and
subjective factors in the construcion of socialism; the fundamental factors
that enhance the quality of the subjective factors in the construction of
socialism [18] demonstrated studies on methods and standards to
distinguish objective conditions and subjective factors in social life.
Author Tran Thanh in the article The significance of subjective
factors in the socialist orientation of economic development in our country
today [96] mentioned the issue of continuing to promote the role of
subjective factors, first of all the leading role of the Party and the
administration of the State to create social consensus and have specific
grounds, jobs and steps to construct socialism successfully.
In addition to the above works, a number of doctoral dissertations
have mentioned the issue of subjective factors in general.
Author Le Huu Xanh, in his doctoral dissertation Enhancing the
role of subjective factors in the building of the contingent of Party members
in our rural areas today [113], confirmed that the role of subjective factors
is directly related to the human element.
Doctoral dissertation The impact of objective conditions and
subjective factors in the construction of a socialist-oriented market economy in
Vietnam by Duong Thi Lieu [64].
In the doctoral dissertation The relationship between objective
conditions and subjective factors in the development of socialist ideologies in the
youth of Vietnam People's Army today [102] the author Nguyen Duc Tien said
that subjective factors are the qualification in all aspects of the military youth, and
considered the socialist ideology development as a result of the dialectical impact
between objective conditions and subjective factors.
Author Pham Ngoc Minh in his work On subjective and objective
factors, some theoretical and practical issues in our country today [83] have
focused on the dialectical relationship between the subjective and objective
factors in the period of national advancement toward socialism.
Author Nguyen Tien Thu in the Doctoral dissertation Dialectics
between the cognitive subject and object and promoting the role of
cognitive subject in learning of Vietnamese students today [98].
Author Pham Van Nhuan in doctoral dissertation The relationship
between objective conditions and subjective factors in developing the working-

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class nature of the Vietnam People's Army [85] has conducted general studies
on pairs of categories of objective conditions and subjective factors.
In the doctoral dissertation Promoting the human factor of the
contingent of border guards in the national sovereignty and border security
[56]. The author Nguyen Dinh Hung stated that the human factor is the sum
of the characteristics of human qualities and capabilities which are formed
and developed in association with human activities.
1.2. Basic theoretical studies on national security and subjective
factors of public security forces in ensuring national security
Regarding this issue, a number of works can be listed:
The works Protecting the nation in the new situation a number of
theoretical and practical issues [110]: The authors have raised new
perspectives on defending the Nation, building the entire people's national
defense and building a strong people's army in political term.
Curriculum Basic issues of national security protection (People's
Security Academy, Hanoi, 2004): This is a textbook used internally;
including basic issues of national security, ensuring national security, and
ideological points of view to ensure national security.
Building Public Security forces in the new situation (Strategy and
Science Institute of Public Security, People's Publication Publishing House,
Hanoi, 2006).
Protection of national security, economic security and human rights
with criminal law during the construction of the rule of law state [26]: the
authors study general issues on national security, international security and
rights people from the perspective of criminal law.
International economic integration - issues posed to the public
security [55]: Through 4 topics, by questions and answers, the book has
shown readers the overall but very specific picture about international
economic integration, problems posed to the task of ensuring national
security, the task of preserving social order and safety, the task of building
forces and logistics - technology in the People's Public Security.
The art of protecting the national security: theory and practice
[107]: From the explanations of what is the national security, the history of
formation and development of art of protecting national security, the author
has studied the art of protecting national security in actual fight to protect
the national security.
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The work People's Public Security of Vietnam with the work of the
Personality of Revolutionary public security officer of Ho Chi Minh [62]:
affirms that the work Personality of Revolutionary public security officer is
always in line with the process of building and maturing of people's public
security force.
Some non-traditional security issues in Viet Trung border area
(Nguyen Thi Phuong Hoa, Vietnam Academy of Science, Chinese Research
Institute, Social Sciences Publishing House, Hanoi, 2018).
In addition to the above works, Pham Thai Binh's doctoral
dissertation can be cited as Social class’s struggling with the task of
protecting the National Security in the current renovation process in
Vietnam [17].
1.3. Studies on solutions to promote the role of subjective
factors of the public security force in ensuring national security
With regard to this content, we can mention the study Improving
the leadership and commanding capacity at all levels of the people's
public security force - Proceedings of ministerial conferences [12].
Building the intellectual contingent of the people's public securities
in the new situation [16]: The book presents the theoretical and practical
issues on the intellectual contingent in a systematic and comprehensive
manner.
Promoting the human resource of public security forces for
renovation and international integration in Vietnam today [103]: on the
basis of overviewing the human resource situation of public security forces
in terms of internationally economic integration, the author has drawn the
causes and limitations in promoting this human resource.
A number of theoretical and practical issues on protecting the
National Security [6]. On the basis of the requirements to thoroughly grasp
and apply Ho Chi Minh ideology in the protection of the National Security,
the author has conducted researches on the practices of protecting the
National Security.
The role of dialectical methodology for the activities of public
security forces [45].
Non-traditional security: theoretical and practical issues [94]: The
study has mentioned the theory and approaches to the non-traditional
security issues.
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Political and ideological education in the people's public security
forces today - Proceedings of scientific workshops [11]: In this study, the
authors assert that political and ideological education is one of the public
security forces’ important and regular activities to successfully complete
their assigned tasks.
Ho Chi Minh's ideology on the people’s public security forces,
theoretical and practical values [60]: The author emphasizes the need to
research and study Ho Chi Minh's ideology on the people's public security
forces.
Building public security officers’ qualities of bravery and humanity
and dedication to the people [77]: The author addresses the issue of the task
of protecting the National Security, ensuring social security and order in the
new situation that may deal with very heavy demands, requiring the public
security forces to be truly a revolutionary, regular and modern army.
In addition to the above studies, with regard to this issue, there are a
number of ministerial-level scientific topics managed by the Ministry of
Public Security.
Thus, in general, through the survey of researches related to the
thesis, it can be seen that the number of researches related to the issue of
promoting the subjective factors of public security forces in ensuring
national security is huge. Especially with regard to the subjective factors,
promoting the role of subjective factors has had many valuable studies and
assessments. The scope and object of research in the above studies are
mainly in the following directions: researching basic theoretical problems,
solving conceptual and academic problems; The majority of research
content takes into consideration the role of subjective factors in each field
and specific aspects applied to social life.
1.4. Summary of research results and issues proposed for the
dissertation topic to be addressed
1.4.1. Summary of research results of related works
First, domestic and foreign scientific works have studied various
aspects of subjective factors and the promotion of the role of subjective
factors.
Second, the works mentioned the basic issues of national security
and subjective factors of public security forces in ensuring national security.

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Third, a number of works have proposed solutions to promote the
role of subjective factors of the public security force in ensuring national
security.
1.4.2. Major issues addressed in the dissertation
First, clarifying the basic characteristics of the subjective factor.
Second, further disserting and clarifying the subjective factor of the
public security force in ensuring national security and the nature of
promoting the role of the subjective factor of the public security force in
ensuring national security.
Third, analyzing the situation, clarifying the causes of advantages
and limitations, promoting the role of the subjective factors of the public
security force in ensuring national security, the dissertation proposes a
system of basic, synchronized and feasible solutions to overcome
limitations and promote the strengths of the subjective factors of the public
security force in ensuring national security.
Chapter 1 Conclusion
In the process of researching and gathering data, we have had the
opportunity to approach and explore many research works of different
authors discussing issues related to subjective factors and promoting the
role of the subjective factors of the public security force in ensuring
national security.
Studying the aforesaid works has suggested many important ideas
for us. We recognize that there is a need for further research on promoting
the role of the subjective factors of the public security force in ensuring
national security. Theoretically, it is necessary to identify the subject of the
task of ensuring national security so as to determine its subjective factors in
ensecuring national security. Practically, when studying the situation of
promoting the role of the subjective factor of the public security force in
ensuring national security, clarifying the causes of achievements and
limitations, the requirements to promote the role of the subjective factors of
the public security force from which lays grounds for proposing reasonable
solutions, promoting the role of the subjective factors of the public security
force in ensuring national security.

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Chapter 2
THEORICAL ISSUES ON PROMOTION OF ROLES OF
SUBJECTIVE FACTORS OF THE PUBLIC SECURITY FORCE IN
ENSURING NATIONAL SECURITY IN VIETNAM
2.1. Subjective factors and roles of the subjective factors of the
public security force in ensuring national security in Vietnam
2.1.1. Definition of the subjective factors and roles of the
subjective factors of the Public Security Force in ensuring national
security
2.1.1.1. Definition of subjective factors
The term “subjective factors” refers to the factors, characteristics of
an agentive subject while participating in its own activities which create the
pro-active, creative abilities of the subject and its activities in order to
transform the object.
Subjective factor is the common definition used to denote a
subject’s factors and characteristics constituting the subject’s quality,
which are utilized by the subject and directly create the subject’s abilities,
motivations to conceptualize and transform certain objects.
2.1.1.2. Subjective factors of the Public Security Force in ensuring
national security
The Encyclopedia of Vietnamese Public Security Force defines:
“Public Security Force is an armed force of Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Its mission is to: manage the State on national security and social order,
prevent and fight against conspiracies, activities that are detrimental to
national security, social order and safety with a view to protecting the
socialist regime and free, happy and peaceful life of the People [8, p.131].
The subjective factors of the Public Security Force in ensuring
national security are composed of the factors and characteristics
constituting qualities of Public Security Force which are utilized in their
activities to ensure national security under certain circumstances.
2.1.2. Definition of National security and ensuring national
security in Vietnam.
2.1.2.1. National security and infringement of national security
In fact, every nation has its own understanding and definition of
national security, which depends on that nation’s internal and external affair
policies, especially its economic and military power.
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Article 3 of Law on National Security states: “National security is
the stability and sustainable development of the socialist regime and the
State of Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the inviolability of Vietnam’s
independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity” [70, p.8].
Clause 3, Article 3 of Law on National Security state the legal
definition of infringement of national security: “Infringement on national
security is the actions that infringe on the political regime, economic
regime, culture, security, national defense, independence, sovereignty and
territorial integrity of Vietnam” [70, p.8]
2.1.2.2. Protection of national security
Protection of the National Security is a specific form of social
activity; therefore, the manifestation of objective conditions and subjective
role of this type of activities also have distinct features. Based on the
definition of the National Security and infringement of the National
Security, Clause 2, Article 3 of the Law of the National Security provides
the legal definition of of National Security: "Protection of National Security
is the prevention, detection, suppression and negation of activities that
infringe upon the National Security” [70, p. 8].
Essentially, protection of national security is protecting national
interests in the fields of politics, economy, culture, ideology, defense and
security... All activities of agencies, organizations, individuals in all areas
of social life must ensure the national interests, prioritizing the national
interests. At the same time, the subjects must have awareness to proactively
detect and to prevent infringement of the national interests. Protecting of
National Security is not only a task of Public Security force but also a
common cause of the society, the people and the socio-political system
under the leadership of the Party. The Public Security force is the key and
specialized task of ensuring the national security.
2.1.3. Roles of subjective factors of the Public Security Force in
ensuring national security in Vietnam
2.1.3.1. Roles of subjective factors in human’s activities.
Social history is the history of human, by human. In order to meet
their needs, human affect and transform nature: “The world does not satisfy
human, and human decides to transform the world by his actions” [65, Tr.
229]. It is in this process that human establishes an objective relationship
between human beings, which is the social relationship in society: What is
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society regardless of its form? … is a product of the interaction between
people ...” [28, p. 657].
In essence, the role of subjective factors is the discovery of the
objective capacity, based on the material means of the objective situation to
affect and transform following certain laws. Thus, the subjective factor is
the creative activeness of the subject in the process of recognizing and
transforming the object.
2.1.3.2. The roles of subjective factors of the Public Security Force
in ensuring national security
“The role of subjective factors of the Public Security Force in
ensuring national security” is the term used to refer to the function, effect
and power of the subjective role of the Public Security Force in close
relationship with objective conditions in their activities to fulfill the task of
ensuring national security.
Therefore, the role of subjective factors of the Public Security Force
in ensuring national security is reflected in the understanding, evaluation
and reflection of the nature and rules of the conditions in ensuring national
security, with that as a basis, recommending solutions and organization
activities to protect national security.
2.2. Promoting roles of subjective factors of the Public Security
Force in ensuring national security: Definition and characteristics
2.2.1 Definition of promoting the subjective role of the Public
Security Force in ensuring national security
Promoting the role of subjective factors of the Public Security Force
is the process of enhancing the strength and efficiency of their work. The
performance of their task of ensuring the security of national security by
Public Security force is the process where Public Security Force uses
different forces and means to achieve the set goals. Therefore, like human
activities in general, the protection of national security by Public Security
force is the unity between the objective and subjective aspects.
Promoting the role of subjective factors of People's Public Security
Forces in ensuring national security is the process of fostering, developing
and perfecting their subjective factors, at the same time, using the
subjective factors effectively in their performance of the task of ensuring
national security under certain circumstances.

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2.2.2. Characteristics of promoting the role of subjective factors of
the Public Security Force in ensuring national security
Applying viewpoints of dialectical materialism to studying the
practical security work of security forces of the police force, it is possible to
generalize the key characteristics of promoting the role of subjective factors
of the Public Security Force in ensuring national security
Firstly, the role of subjective factors of the Public Security Force in
ensuring national security is promoted in association with the process of
improving the quality, capacity, strengthening the sense of discipline,
solidarity of public security officers.
Secondly, the role of subjective factors of the Public Security Force
in ensuring national security is best promoted only when the leaders and
commanders of Public Security Force the are able to perform their roles
well.
Thirdly, the subjective role of the Public Security Force is promoted
when public security officers’ material and spiritual life are cared and
improved.
Chapter 2 Conclusion
The role of subjective factors of the Public Security Force in
ensuring national security is the entire knowledge, will and practical
capacity of the Public Security Force which are mobilized into their
activities in order to perform their task of ensuring national security in
certain conditions.
In essence, promoting the role of subjective factors of the Public
Security Force in ensuring national security is the process of constantly
improving the personality of public security officers, creating necessary
conditions and motivations to motivate them to work actively, proactively
and creatively.
Promoting the role of subjective factors of the Public Security
Force is a purposeful and oriented process with a variety of contents based
on actual practice. Therefore, serious and scientific research is required to
find out its basic characteristics. On that basis, it is possible to recommend
appropriate solutions for this act of promotion.

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Chapter 3
PROMOTING THE ROLE OF THE SUBJECTIVE FACTORS OF
THE PEOPLE'S PUBLIC SECURITY FORCES IN ENSURING
NATIONAL SECURITY IN VIETNAM TODAY:
SITUATION AND CAUSES
3.1. The current situation of promoting the role of the
subjective factors of the People's Public Security Forces in ensuring
national security
3.1.1. Regarding the discovery of elements and issues of
normality, raising the spirit of initiative and creativity in leading and
directing the task of ensuring national security, then to orient, shape,
guide, motivate and encourage police officers to enhance proactiveness,
dynamism and creativity in performing duties
Over the past years, the Party, the State, the Ministry of Public
Security, and leaders at all levels in the People's Public Security have
proposed many viewpoints, guidelines, policies and measures in directing,
innovating the mission of raising awareness of ensuring national security,
force building and strengthening the coordination among forces in the
performance of tasks.
Protecting the national security is the mission of the entire Party,
the entire people, all sectors, levels and forces to proactively prevent, repel
and fight to defeat all schemes and related activities against Vietnam of
hostile forces. The strength of the political system is reflected in the
collaborating mechanism to protect the national security among branches
and levels under the leadership of the Party and the consistent management
and administration of the State, with the People's Public Security being the
core force.
The role of the subjective factors of the People's Public Security
Forces in ensuring national security
has been promoted when the Party, the State, the party committees
and leaders at all levels concern and well perform the leadership and
direction.
3.1.2. Regarding researching, finding appropriate methods and
measures to proactively innovate working fields constantly to ensure
national security, stimulate, develop, enhance self-awareness, initiative

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and creativity of people's public security forces under certain
circumstances and conditions.
* Innovating the struggle to prevent and suppress activities
infringing upon the National Security
Amid complicated and diverse changes, unpredictable fluctuations
and potentially risky factors threatening internal political stability in the
country, the region and the world, hostile and reactionary forces promptly
deploy the strategy of "peaceful evolution" and overthrowing riot, intensify
several activities of intelligence, espionage and sabotage with a view to
abolishing the leading role of the Communist Party and the socialist regime
in our country.
Facing the above situation, the people’s public security force has
been proactive in grasping, analyzing, accurately forecasting the situation,
timely proposing to the Party and the State to effectively direct and deal
with many basic and strategic issues in the fight against reactionary forces;
thoroughly grasping, flexibly and creatively applying the viewpoint
"Destroying the reactionary organization in the bud", organizing the remote
fighting against the enemy from their origin, promptly detecting, striking
hard, hitting right, besieging and neutralizing hundreds of reactionary
groups, thousands of reactionary bases inland.
* Innovating the mission of ensuring internal security
There has been a groundbreaking innovation in thoughts, which
regards the mission of internal security as a reconnaissance task, including
many contents, with a focus on protecting internal political security,
economic security, cultural security, ideology and information security.
Theoretical awareness of internal security protection is constantly being
supplemented, perfected and becoming clearer day by day.
To promote the role of the subjective factor of the People's Public
Security Forces in ensuring national security, the police officers have
attempted to overcome difficulties and made efforts, initiative, creativity
from grasping the situation, advising leaders to devising plans and
organizing the implementation of the working aspects to ensure national
security. Following the initiative in innovating the professional fields to
ensure national security, the public security force has continued to show the
effective performance in other specific fields.

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3.1.3. Regarding the enhancement of activeness, initiative, energy
and creativity of subjects in carrying out the missions of ensuring
national security: constructing forces, logistics, and techniques to ensure
national security; proposing advices and conducting scientific and
legislative researches, launching the all-people campaign to protect the
national security, bolstering the external relations of the People's Public
Security and other fields
* Proactively and actively innovate the mission of constructing
forces, logistics and techniques to ensure the national security
* Proactively innovate the task of counsellor, conducting scientific
and legislative researches, launching the all-people campaign to protect the
national security, bolstering the external relations of the People's Public
Security and other fields
3.2. Assessing the situation of promoting the role of the
subjective factors of the People's Public Security Forces in ensuring
national security
3.2.1. Advantages and limitations in promoting the role of the
subjective factor of the People's Public Security Forces
In general, over the past years, the role of the subjective factor of
the People's Public Security Forces has been promoted and brought about
many positive changes contributing to bettering the results of the mission of
ensuring national security. These positive changes can be generalized at the
following points:
First: The tasks of education, training and cultivation in the
people's public security force have seen remarkable changes, contributing to
fostering the virtue and capacity of police officers to meet the requirements
of new duties.
Second: Staff assessment, utilization and management.
Third: The implementation of the staff policy.
Fourth: The quality of the role of the subjective factor of the
People's Public Security Forces has been constantly enhanced, contributing
to promoting the quality of public security work and meeting the increasing
requirements of the mission of ensuring national security.
However, in addition to the achievements in promoting the role of
the subjective factors of the People's Public Security Forces, some
inevitable limitations still remain, specifically as follow:
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First, the task of staff training, cultivation, management and
utilization still has some limitations and shortcomings.
Second, some regulations and policies have been slowly or
thoroughly, asynchronously implemented.
Third, the environment and working conditions of the police
officers have not really paved the way for them to strive and cultivate to
perfect the virtue, capacity and result of their tasks.
Fourth, weaknesses in the virtue and capacity of certain groups of
public security officers still exist.
3.2.2. The causes of the advantages and limitations in promoting
the role of the subjective factor of the People's Public Security Forces
* Causes of advantages
(1) Thoroughly grasping the renewal viewpoint of the Party and
the State.
(2) The Public Security Force has made fundamental changes in
awareness and mindset of national security and ensuring it; regarding
objects - partners; innovating many guidelines, policies and solutions to
ensure national security...
(3) Reforming and organizing the implementation of many
appropriate policies and measures to ensure national security
(4) Focus on making creative use of the Party's viewpoints and
guidelines, innovating methods of preventing and suppressing crimes,
firmly defending the National Security
(5) Promoting the reform of judiciary, administration, working
manner, serving spirit and operational mechanism to adapt to the
development and change of the situation.
(6) Persistently innovating the mission of constructing forces,
police officers are generally aware of their roles and responsibilities, own
the right motive to strive properly, actively cultivate and train in virtue,
capacity, always keep enhancing work results, well-done completing their
duties.
* Causes of limitations
(1) The police officer of some units and localities have not utilized
the synergy of the entire People's Public Security Forces and other social
resources into the innovating process of their missions.

19


(2) The reforming process of the mission to ensure national
security is not systematic, regular and continuous
(3) Political and ideological education in some places are
sometimes not sharp, not attaching political and ideological education to the
official policy.
(4) The logistic - technical aspect has many innovations, but the
process of state management is somewhere, sometimes loosened;
investments in many projects are still scattered, not really effective, and not
focused on offering priority to key units.
(5) The advisory work on the development of some legal
documents is still slow, failing to keep up with the growth and requirements
of ensuring national security mission.
(6) Some public security officers themselves lack a sense of selfawareness in studying, practicing and cultivating, lack of will to strive, fear
of hardship and suffering.
Chapter 3 Conclusion
The promotion of the role of the subjective factors of the People's
Public Security Forces still has some limitations. However, regarding the
causes of advantages and limitations in promoting the role of the subjective
factor of the People's Public Security Forces in ensuring the national security,
we can absolutely believe to overcome the limitations in promoting the role of
the subjective factor of the People's Public Security Forces, certainly the quality
of the role of the subjective factors of the People's Public Security Forces will
be enhanced and fostered to meet the increasing requirements of ensuring
national security in the new situation.
Chapter 4
REQUIREMENTS AND FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTIONS TO
PROMOTE SUBJECTIVE FACTORS IN ENSURING NATIONAL
SECURITY IN VIET NAM IN PRESENT TIME
4.1. Requirements for promoting roles of subjective factors of
public security force in ensuring national security in Việt Nam in
present time
On the theoretical and practical basis of promoting the role of the
subjective factors of the public security force in ensuring the national
security as well as the requirements of the task of building a clean, elite and
modern public security force, the promotion of the role of the the subjective
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factors of the public security force in ensuring the national security must
thoroughly grasp and implement the following requirements:
Firstly, upholding the role of the police force role of the police
force in ensuring the national security must be based on the reality, attached
to the revolutionary task and the task of the public security branch.
Secondly, the party committees, leaders and commanders at all
levels must have the righteous views, attitudes, responsibilities and
measures in promoting the role of the subjective factors of the officers and
soldiers.
Thirdly, thoroughly grasp the comprehensive viewpoints associated
with the synchronous implementation of measures, as well as uphold the
responsibilities of organizations and forces in promoting the role of the
subjective factors of the public security force.
4.2. Fundamental solutions to promote roles of subjective
factors of public security force in ensuring national security in Việt
Nam in present time
4.2.1. Enhancing Party's leadership, State's management,
Ministry of Public Security's role in performing the task of ensuring
national security in Vietnam today
The changing face of the world is beneficial for capitalism, along
with the cruelty of the imperialist strategy of peaceful evolution against
socialism, which has been adversely affecting the national security. This
makes a number of the public as well as party members forfeit trust in the
Party's leadership, the path of building socialism. Facing this situation, the
Party, the State, the people and the police force more than ever before
should be more deeply, fully and comprehensively aware of the task of
protecting the national security, the guidelines and measures of building
people's security disposition, consolidating the great national unity bloc.
This is a crucial stage to enhance the role of subjective factors in ensuring
national security at the macroscopic level.
4.2.2. Promoting proactive and creative roles of the masses in
building Homeland security protection movement
In Vietnam, in every era and situation, the role of the masses
always emerges as a decisive factor for the success or failure of the national
building and defence.

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The role of the people considered a crucial factor has made due
contribution to such successes. President Ho Chi Minh taught the people's
public security: “How much manpower is it? Even if there are thousands or
tens of thousands, the force is still very few in comparison with the people.
Fifty thousand people have only five thousand pairs of eyes and pairs of
hands. How can there be tens of millions of hands, tens of millions of eyes?
To that end, we must rely on people but abandon them, or else failure will
come. The more the people help us, the more successes we will achieve”
[75, p. 366].
Imbued with Ho Chi Minh's thought, thoroughly grasping the
direction of the Party and the State, the People's Public Security Forces
always attaches great importance to the work of mass mobilization and
promotion of people's mastership. The Party Central Committee's of the
Public Security and the Ministry of Public Security's leaders have issued
guiding documents on building a movement of the entire people to protect
national security.
4.2.3. Improving ability and fighting capacity of people’s public
security in ensuring national security
* Proactively improving and renewing the quality and performance
of Party organizations in parallel with raising the level, leadership and
commanding capacity of the People's Public Security Forces at all levels
* Clearly defining the consciousness, responsibility, discipline for
public security officers and soldiers in their work, fight against hostile
forces to firmly protect national security.
* Strengthening education, training and retraining to improve the
quality of cadres in the People's Public Security Forces.
In order to promote the role of subjective factors in ensuring
national security, it is required to improve the level of knowledge, wills,
affection and leadership capacity of the leadership. In order to showcase the
important role of this human resource, we should train, develop and
improve the thinking capacity, especially their theoretical and dialectical
thinking.
Chapter 4 conclusion
In order to perform the task of ensuring the national security in the
new situation, the practice requires promoting the role of subjective factors
of the public security force - the core force in the cause of protecting the
22


national security. The reality of the task of ensuring the national security
force of the public security force has shown that the quality of the
subjective factors of the public security force is increasingly meeting the
task requirements of the force in the new situation. However, besides the
achievements, the subjective factors of the public security force have
limitations that need to be overcome in some areas.
However, we believe that if the requirements and solutions given
are thoroughly and strictly implemented, the subjective factors of the public
security force will bring into play its existing strengths; successfully
performing the assigned tasks.
CONCLUSION
Our country has undergone over 30 years of renovation with great
historic achievements, marking the maturity in all aspects of our Party,
State and people.
However, given international and regional complicated, swift and
unpredictable developments, international economic integration is an
indispensable trend, full of complicated and contradictory issues, requiring
both cooperation and struggle..., which has a direct impact on national
security, putting national security of the people at fresh risk, and also
creates new opportunities for the successful implementation of the task of
ensuring the national security.
The aforesaid context has shown that the world is witnessing three
major trends: (1) Globalization and revolution of science and technology
have strongly developed, promoting the process of forming an informationimbued society and knowledge-based economy. (2) The trend of forming a
multi-polar world influences the world's politics. (3) The trend of social
democratization is influenced, intervened and supported by the US and
Western countries, leading to the development and spread of “street
revolutions” and “color revolutions”. These trends have a strong impact on
all countries, including Vietnam.
Protection of the national security is the prevention, detection,
check, and struggle in a bid to defeat activities of infringing upon the
national security. Protection of the National Security is the cause of the
entire people and is the task of the whole socio-political system in which
the People's Public Security Force is a specialized force to protect the
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