Tải bản đầy đủ

Văn hóa giao tiếp của lực lượng công an nhân dân tt tiếng anh

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION& TRAINING

MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

LÊ ĐỨC HÙNG

DOCTORAL DISSERTATION
ON

COMMUNICATIVE CULTURE PRACTICED BY
THE PEOPLE’S PUBLIC SECURITY

Major: PUBLIC MANAGEMENT
Code: 9.34.34.03

HA NOI – 2019
The dissertation is accomplished at the



National Academy of Public Administration

Supervisors:

1. Ass. Prof., Dr. Nguyễn Văn Hậu
2. Dr. Nguyễn Bùi Nam

Reviewer 1:

Reviewer 2:

Reviewer 3:

The dissertation is upheld in the presence of NAPA Doctoral Assessment
Board, at the National Academy of Public Administration
Time: ................., date...................... 2019

The dissertation can be found at the National Library of Vietnam or the Library
of the National Academy of Public Administration.


LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

“Some issues on the communicative culture by the people’s public
1.

security”, People’s Public Security Magazine of Political Theory, No.
29-03/2018;
“Building the communicative culture and code of conduct for cadres

2.

and officers of the Capital’s Public Security in the new context”, State
Management Magazine, No. 271 (8/2018).



INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
Communications by the people’s public security, including the public security


force in the capital, are one of the core issues in the public administration reform
towards democratic values and citizen-friendly public administration.
In recent time, economic development has given rise to major social changes,
involving a lot more burden on the public security force and complicatedness in their
mission, with new circumstances arising. Given such a situation, communications by
the public security force have changed accordingly. Practical experience shows that
several scandals have resulted from inappropriate communicative behaviours exhibited
by the public security force, not only causing them to fail to fulfil their job but also
compounding the problem. In response to that issue, the state is now proceeding with a
study to find ways to build a modern culture in the civil service to meet the practical
demand for sustainable development.
To respond to the new context characterized by socio-economic changes,
technological advance, and imported cultural elements, it is urgent to study, in a
systematic manner, the building of new communicative values and skills to be
acquired by the public security force. In the context of international integration,
promoting the political strength must take precedence over the building of the armed
forces so as to ensure the special power that is built into the people’s public security.
In order to build a people-friendly communicative culture, special emphasis must be
placed on communicative activities as a strategic task and an underlying foundation for
developing the armed forces. Communicative culture is expected to work as a means
to win the people’s trust. Therefore, it is necessary to study the communicative
practice of the public security force and to define determinants thereof, with aims to
establish a specific communicative culture as a way to ensure the effective
communications.
Given such a rationale, the author takes up the topic “Communicative culture
practiced by the people’s public security” for the doctoral dissertation.
2. Research questions and methodology
2.1. Research questions
The dissertation is expected to find answers to the following research questions:
- What is the communicative culture by the Vietnamese people’s public security
defined?
- How is the communicative culture currently practiced by the Vietnamese
people’s public security?
- What should be done to improve the communicative culture to be practiced by
the Vietnamese people’s public security?

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The communicative culture practiced by the people’s public security is defined
as rational and equitable conducts and behaviours exhibited by them in their dealing
with the people and the colleague while performing official duty. That communicative
culture will help to build the people’s public security as a sharp tool to protect the
Party, the regime, the revolutionary fruits, and the people. Practical experience shows
that the currently practiced communicative culture by the people’s public security sees
too many inadequacies for them to fulfil their role as the real public security force in
the people’s eye. Therefore, solutions to these problems will help improve the
communicative culture expected of this contingent.
3. Research objectives and missions
3.1. Research objectives
By establishing scientific and practical bases for the communicative culture by
the people’s public security, the dissertation is aimed to find solutions so as to improve
the said culture.
3.2. Research missions
In order to achieve the objectives, the dissertation is expected to conduct the
following missions:
- To analyze and elucidate the system of theoretical bases for culture,
communicative culture, and communicative culture by the people’s public security so
as to form the theoretical bases for the research.
- To analyze and assess legal regulations and the practice of communicative
culture by the Vietnamese people’s public security so as to point out inadequacies to
be resolved.
- Upon study of theoretical and practical issues relevant to communicative
culture by the people’s public security, the dissertation raises scientific arguments and
recommends theories and solutions to improving the said culture.
4. Research object and scope
4.1. Research object
The research object in the dissertation is the communicative culture by the
Vietnamese people’s public security.
4.2. Research scope
Scope of research issue is limited within the communicative culture practiced by the
Vietnamese people’s public security in their performance of official duty.
Temporal scope: The communicative culture practiced by the Vietnamese people’s
public security between 2016 and now.
Spatial scope: The communicative culture practiced by the Vietnamese people’s
public security from the central to local levels, including all types of public security force.
5. Research methodology and methods
5.1. Methodology
The dissertation adopts the methodology of dialectical materialism and
dialectical interpretation of history.
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5.2. Research methods
Analysis of secondary documents and data
Survey by questionnaire
In-depth interview
Expert consultation and conference
6. New contributions
6.1. In theoretical terms
The dissertation helps to systematize, improve and develop some theories
relevant to the culture, conduct and communicative culture by the people’s public
security, which should be further improved in legal regulations, or which have not
been studied by other research works, or which need further refinement.
In theoretical terms, the dissertation has not only systematized the theoretical
basis for the general communications like other previous research works, but also
sought to improve such communications towards forming communicative culture for a
system, specifically the people’s public security:
- The dissertation has defined the improvement of the communicative culture as
the top strategic mission of the people’s public security in order to fulfil the duties
entrusted by the Party and the people.
- Given such a research direction, the dissertation has built a set of evaluation
criteria and a set of methods for organizing communications as a basis on which the
communicative culture is built. This will direct communicative activities towards
sustainable values.
- The dissertation has built theoretical issues to point out how to ensure effective
communicative culture.
- The dissertation has recommended some solutions to improving the
communicative culture to be practiced by the Vietnamese people’s public security.
6.2. In practical terms
The dissertation has analyzed the communicative culture by the people’s public
security and its characteristics, whereby contrasting the communicative culture
exhibited by this contingent against that exhibited by other types of state officials.
The dissertation has assessed the communicative culture currently practiced by
the people’s public security so as to provide a more panoramic view of this matter.
Based on scientific demonstration both theoretically and practically, the
dissertation has raised solutions to improving the communicative culture by the
people’s public security in the coming time.
New contributions in theoretical terms are made in the following three aspects.
First, the dissertation has, based on the set of evaluation criteria, produced survey
findings on which general assessment of the communicative culture by the people’s
public security is made, and analyzed the aspects in which culture is practiced: types
of public security force, types of operation, regions. The dissertation has also assessed
the findings based on constituent values of culture such as truth, kindness, and
beauty…

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Secondly, the dissertation has defined conditions and the extent to which
effective communicative culture is ensured for the public security force, whereby
recommending solutions in response to the practical demand.
Thirdly, to put solutions into practice, the dissertation has been focused on
refining the set of evaluation criteria against which the communicative culture by type
of operation is assessed. The dissertation has raised specific proposals for revising
operational regulations and policies applied to this force as well as penalties. The
dissertation has also recommended how to apply the set of evaluation criteria:
integrating into specific activities of this force such as movement building, typical
exemplary model, control and assessment.
7. Theoretical and practical significance
7.1. In theoretical terms
The dissertation has contributed scientific arguments to communicative culture
and that of the Vietnamese people’s public security.
7.2. In practical terms
Research findings in the dissertation have practical meanings in the research and
improvement of legal regulations relevant to the communicative culture and conduct
of the people’s public security.
The dissertation can be used as a monograph or the research and teaching of
communication, conduct and regulations for the people’s public security.
Following the dissertation, other studies may be undertaken on the
communicative culture in general and the communicative culture by the people’s
public security in particular.
8. Structure of the dissertation
The dissertation is structured as follows:
Introduction
Chapter 1: Literature review
Chapter 2: Theoretical basis for the communicative culture by the people’s
public security
Chapter 3: Reality in the communicative culture by the people’s public security
Chapter 4: Guidelines and solutions to improving the communicative culture
by the people’s public security
Conclusion
List of research works by the author
List of references
Appendices

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CHAPTER 1
LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1. The extent to which relevant research works have been conducted
General judgment of relevant research: The extent to which research has been
undertaken: International and domestic research into the communicative culture
among the people’s public security includes doctoral and master dissertations,
ministerial-level scientific research or higher, monographs, research articles,
magazines, seminars, articles on the web forum... There are doctoral theses on
communicative skills by civil servants. Most others are seminar articles, monographs,
and scientific articles.
With respect to the communicative culture in the people’s public security, some
documents are relevant to the following contents: The concept, content, characteristics,
requirements, methods of performing communication activities; structure of the
communicative culture and the method of constructing the communicative culture.
Regarding the extent to which research is undertaken: Major state-level projects
have only discussed the culture in the civil service in general or one part of the
communicative culture such as the code of conduct of the public security force. Other
research papers on the communicative culture of the public security force are limited
within training materials and scientific articles.
1.2. General issues on communication and communication in the civil service
Relevant documents have virtually introduced the method of performing
communication skills in some general situations in civil service practice. However,
there exist many other situations and types of communication relevant to decisionmaking, instruction, conflict resolution, individual and collective disputes specific to
the performance of security that have not been analyzed or demonstrated thoroughly.
In general, there have not been specific policies and regulations about the system of
principles and guidelines, or the rules of conduct relevant for communication based on
which agencies and organizations can adapt them to their contexts....
1.3. With respect to the communicative culture and organizing for
performing communication in the civil service.
Relevant documents have virtually introduced the method of performing
communication skills in some general situations in civil service practice. However,
there exist many other situations and types of communication relevant to decisionmaking, instruction, conflict resolution, individual and collective disputes specific to
the performance of security that have not been analyzed or demonstrated thoroughly.
Thus, in terms of communication in the civil service, relevant documents have
discussed the characteristics and principles of communication in consistence with the
nature, requirements and objectives of communication in the civil service. Especially,
although the characteristics and principles are analyzed against criteria of aesthetics,
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behaviour and influence level, such documents have not built a system of criteria
related to cultural factors in official communication. Neither have they built a system
of cultural communication criteria for a specific sector.
Documents on organizing and judging communication activities are limited to
providing general evaluation criteria, without profoundly studying the specific
communicative culture of particular sector and area.
With respect to communication practice in particular sectors and areas
The relevant document has introduced the nature and concept of communication,
the nature of official communication, methods and ways to perform communicative
skills, methods of understanding and analyzing the audience being communicated with
so as to adopt an appropriate communicative method. In particular, this document
highlights the preparation and procedure for conducting presentation activities.
* Regarding the communicative culture by the public security force: Relevant
research works have generalized common perceptions about the communication
practiced by the administrative police for social order, in which they have provided
clear analysis on the nature of the said communication and its characteristics. The
research works have made theoretical contributions relevant to the conduct of the
public security force in the following aspects: Defining the significance for improving
the conduct of the public security force; introducing the conditions, contexts, and
determinants that affect the performance of conduct; analyzing both domestic and
foreign factors.
* With respect to international practice of the communicative culture by the
public security force: scientific presentations by experts in the police force of England,
Japan, France, Australia, Laos and China have pointed out the necessity, both
theoretically and practically, to dispose specialized forces to ensure security and order
in rural areas. Typical publications of foreign authors relevant to communicative
culture have made new contributions by linking cultural values with the manifestations
of communication activities. However, the limitations of these works are that they
have not built a system of cultural values in communication. Neither have they showed
how to manage and build a uniform and consistent communicative culture in the
organization. On the other hand, these works have not discussed the communicative
culture in specific forces.
1.4. Assessment of research work relevant to the dissertation
As such, such research works have contributed certain theoretical and practical
values relevant to the conduct of the public security force. However, such works are
only limited to theories and solutions to improving the conduct, without fully
addressing other types of communication. They have not studied profoundly the
content and skills of official communication in various forms and cases, such as
reports, conference statements, interviews, presentation activities, guest receptions and
transaction with citizens. Regarding communicative culture in the civil service,
6


relevant documents have discussed the characteristics and principles of
communication in consistence with the nature, requirements and objectives of
communication in the civil service. Especially, although the characteristics and
principles are analyzed against criteria of aesthetics, behaviour and influence level,
such documents have not built a system of criteria related to cultural factors in official
communication. Neither have they built a system of cultural communication criteria
for a specific sector.
Unresolved issues
Firstly, regarding the theory of official communication in particular sectors and
areas, the theory of official communicative culture among the public security force has
not been developed or elucidated. There has not been specific research on situations
and types of communication or communicative culture, which takes into account the
characteristics of the capital's public security force so as to form a basis for official
communication, whereby enforcing relations of state power and fulfilling the mission
of the civil service.
Secondly, determinants that influence the communicative culture of the people’s
public security have not been systematized or analyzed to form a basis to account for
the positive and negative aspects of official communication practiced by the people’s
public security.
Thirdly, the practice of communicative culture by the people’s public security
force has not been thoroughly or systematically assessed in a study with an
interdisciplinary approach, combining quantitative and qualitative approaches.
Fourthly, a system of criteria for evaluating and developing official
communicative culture has not been built. There exist no measures for developing the
communicative culture for the people’s public security with a comprehensive and
systematic approach.
Upon review of relevant research, it is seen that practical demand has given rise
to the necessity for a more comprehensive study of the communicative culture by the
people’s public security. It is necessary to identify the implication and characteristics
of the communicative culture by the people’s public security and define the role of the
multi-dimensional approach. Such a study should point out the determinants that
influence the communicative culture, highlight positive values and irrelevant factors,
propose solutions to developing and improving the communicative culture of the
people’s public security, build a "professional, accountable, dynamic, transparent and
effective civil service" while ensuring that they deserve the title: the public security
force of the people, by the people, and for the people.

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CHAPTER 2
THEORETICAL BASIS FOR THE COMMUNICATIVE CULTURE
BY THE PEOPLE’S PUBLIC SECURITY
2.1. Theory on culture and communicative culture
2.1.1. Theory on communication
Communication is defined as the practice of establishing and performing social
relationships between man, or between man and social elements so as to satisfy certain
needs. Communication is the process of exchanging information between a speaker
and a listener to serve a certain purpose. Communication is the transmission of what
one wants to say to others so that the audience can understand the messages
transmitted.
Communication performs psychological and social functions such as
information, coordination, control, motivation and stimulation.
Communication is also an important tool that enables organizational managers to
function. Communication is an important opportunity for managers to influence and
exhibit their superiority over other officials, civil servants or managers.
Communication is a very important skill in the daily life of a person in general and
particularly in the performance of civil service.
2.1.2. Concept of communicative culture
Communicative culture is a part of the overall culture, referring to the cultured
communications between people in the society (polite communication, friendly
attitude, openness, sincerity, with respect to each other). It is the combination of
various elements: words, gestures, behaviours, attitudes, conduct... Communicative
culture is the behaviours opted for when people communicate with each other so as to
achieve the communication purpose to a certain extent on one hand, while satisfying
other party on the other, in accordance with specific circumstances and conditions.
Culture works to organize and regulate the society, helping people communicate
and disseminate information. Culture educates and socializes people. Culture is both
the spiritual foundation of society and the goal and driving force for the society to
develop throughout time and space. Culture is the glue that binds people together.
Culture is characterized by systematism, value, humanity, and historicity.
Functions of culture: First, culture has the function of organizing. Second is the
function of regulating. Thirdly, culture has the function of communication. Fourthly,
culture has the function of educating. In addition to the four basic functions, culture
assumes other functions such as cognitive function, aesthetic function, recreational
function... However, they are all constituent or derivative elements of the four basic
functions as stated (for example, the aesthetic function and the recreational function
can only be found in art, which is a component of culture; the cognitive function is one
part of the function of educating).
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The combination of the two terms of culture and communication results in the
perception of communicative culture as follows: Firstly, culture means good values
that has influential effects on the thinking, ways of action and the conduct of every
member of an organization; at the same time, it helps to create beautiful images and
"brands" for the members; Secondly, the “culture” element in the term of
communicative culture is seen as an adjective. Therefore, communicative culture is
understood as the ways, the criteria and standards for communication to be performed
by members of the organization in accordance with the cultural foundations of the
organization and of the nation embracing that organization; Thirdly, the
communication by the organization members itself assumes certain cultural values,
which are characterized by historical values of that organization and of the nation.
The relation between communicative culture, conduct and official culture
Progressive countries all desire a professional, clean, democratic and objective
civil service to ensure an effective and efficient state apparatus in order to better serve
the people. Official culture, therefore, is considered as a system of values, behaviours,
symbols and standards formed during the construction and development of the civil
service. It is capable of transmitting to and influencing the psychology and behaviour
of the personnel performing official duty. The structure of official culture, if seen as a
system of values, is a combination of the following factors: knowledge, beliefs, ideals,
traditions, standards, organizational methods...
2.2. Theory on the communicative culture by the people’s public security
2.2.1. Duty and management of the people’s public security
This is a special force, holding special responsibilities and duties which have been
associated with the slogan from the early days of its establishment: Safeguarding
Homeland Security. Therefore, it can be ascertained that the culture of this organization is
also very special as compared with that of other institutions in society: That is the culture
in safeguarding homeland security and safety for the people. The people’s public security
force includes various types of people's security force and people’s police force; the
people’s police force includes mobile police, traffic police, environmental police, and fire
prevention police.
2.2.2. Characteristics and roles of the communicative culture assumed by the
people’s public security
The communicative culture of the People's Public Security is a system of values
which is manifested through the attitudes and behaviours of individual and collective
body of public security cadres and officers, in order to establish effective relations
between the public security force and organizations and individuals inside and outside
the public security sector, with the natural environment and with themselves,
complying with legal, ethical and cultural standards, in accordance with Vietnamese
political institutions. Given the special operation performed by the people’s public
security, its communication has the following characteristics: Firstly, the audience to
9


which and the environment and circumstances in which the people’s public security
communicate are very diverse and complicated; Secondly, the people’s public security
perform communication with high frequency and intensity; Thirdly, communication by
the people’s public security aims to do many complicated and tough jobs; Fourthly,
communication by people's public security is conflict-arising and psychologically
stressful; Fifthly, communication by the people’s public security is politically oriented;
Sixthly, communication by the people's public security is of high standards; Seventhly,
communication by the people's public security is specialist.
Basic and essential characteristics of the communication culture of the people's
public security: The first is systematism and unity; The second is scientism and
modernity; The third is standardization; The fourth is class-consciousness,
nationalism, and inheritability; The fifth is flexibility and creativity; And the sixth is
sociality - historicity
The role assumed by the culture of the People's Public Security: Communication
changes the awareness, attitudes and behaviours, acting to form the revolutionary
ethics for the people's public security officers. The communicative culture helps the
people's public security build and strengthen good relationships with other social
forces, facilitating the mutual respect, understanding, sympathy, sharing and
assistance. The communicative culture is an important factor that facilitates effective
operation of the people's public security in all aspects of job. The culture of
communication also acts as an educational measure.
2.2.3. Contents of communicative culture by the Vietnamese people’s public security
The culture of communication in the people's public security force is a system of
values that governs the awareness, attitudes and behaviours of police individuals and
police organizations (agencies) in the relation between man with the nature, with
society and with themselves. It reflects the extent to which the revolutionary people's
public security develops in response to the requirements for development of the
society. The cultured communication exhibited by the people's police demonstrates
their level, capacity, and style of law enforcement, earning them credibility and
winning trust from the people. It is an important condition for the successful fulfilment
of assigned tasks.
Given its internal and external contents, daily communicative culture of the
Vietnamese people’s public security is viewed on the following perspectives:
- Adopting standards in daily communication
- Posture of communication, ceremony, manner, greeting, name addressing,
gestures and behaviours.
- Using costumes in communication
- Communicative culture in speech, information and reporting
- Reception and conference communication
- The communicative culture in handling administrative procedures
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The contents of communicative culture of the people's public security are
expressed through internal and external components to ensure social values and norms,
and regulations of the public security sector.
Improving the communicative culture for the people's public security is a
continuous and particularly important task in order to raise the awareness towards strict
observance of regulations and for training in terms of communication, behaviour and
lifestyle for every officer, whereby building an increasingly clean and strong public
security force in response to country’s requirements for sustainable development today.
Improving the communicative culture in the people's public security is aimed to raise
officers’ awareness of their working style and humanity in the operational activities, to
build a strong political spirit, to raise revolutionary ethics, and to avert moral, ideology,
and lifestyle decline… Doing so, cadres and officers can put it into practice in their daily
activities in order to achieve the highest goal of serving the people better and better.
2.2.4. Constituents and criteria to evaluate the communicative culture
Citeria for evaluating communicative culture can be listed in terms of: structure
of communicative culture as a system of values. In that sense, the communicative
culture is the combination of various elements. The fine combination between
decisiveness and compromise, between rigidity and flexibility, and between cold and
hot is the art of communication by the people's public security officers. .
When building and practicing communicative culture for the people's public
security, we must perceive that culture in a broad sense, i.e. the value system of the
culture specific to the public security sector. Especially it must serve as a basis for
building a set of rules for communication and conduct as applied to officers in the
entire people's public security force.
2.2.5. Determinants and guarantees for the communicative culture by the
people’s public security
The culture of communication is influenced by many factors, both formal and
informal. Defining these determinants will partially help to overcome shortcomings,
working to enhance effective operation. Based on findings integrated from
communicative culture studies, from survey of cadres and officers’ opinions, and from
the leadership of the sector, it is observed that guarantees for effective communicative
culture and capacity of officers include both subjective and objective factors.
2.3. International practice relevant to the communicative culture in the
public security force
Police in countries in the region, in Asia and Europe are trained win access not
only to criminals but also to victims. The conduct manifested by the police in such
circumstances must be appropriate, sharing and sympathetic. In communication, the
police have demonstrated an image of professionalism, swiftness and timelines but
with patience, gentleness, and even with friendliness, openness and readiness to help
people in their daily lives,. In addition, they are supported by modern technology and
11


facilities in the revolution 4.0. Countries pay high regard to the communication by the
police force and recommend a lot of experience in drilling, training, testing, evaluating
and modeling in the communicative culture of the force as applied to particular targets
or the disadvantaged while still upholding the operational principle.
CHAPTER 3
REALITY IN THE COMMUNICATIVE CULTURE BY THE PEOPLE’S
PUBLIC SECURITY
3.1. Overview of the people’s public security
On August 6th, 2018, Decree 01/2018/ND-CP was issued and became effective,
defining the functions, tasks, powers and organizational structure of the Ministry of
Public Security. Accordingly, the Ministry of Public Security no longer has the
General Department level. The Ministry apparatus is streamlined by 6 departments and
nearly 60 departmental-level units, and 300 sub-departmental units. The apparatus of
local public security is streamlined by more than 500 sub-departmental units and 1,000
team-level units. Police Departments of Fire Prevention in 20 provinces and cities
including Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Can Tho, Thai Nguyen,
Vinh Phuc, Bac Ninh, Quang Ninh, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Thua Thien Hue, Quang
Ngai, Binh Dinh, Khanh Hoa, Dak Lak, Lam Dong, Binh Duong, Dong Nai, and Ba
Ria - Vung Tau are incorporated into the respective provincial Public Security. The
Investigation Police Department of Corruption and Economic Crimes is merged with
the Investigation Police Department of Smuggling Crime to form the Investigation
Police Department of Corruption, Economic, and Smuggling Crimes. The Department
of Cyber Security under the Minister of Public Security is merged with the Police
Department of High-tech Crime under the General Police Department to form the
Department of Cyber Security and High-tech Crime under the Ministry of Public
Security. The Department of Information and Communications Security is
incorporated into the Department of Internal Political Security.
3.2. Reality in the organizing for building communicative culture for the
people’s public security
3.2.1. Building and application of criteria and standards on communicative culture
Leaders of the Ministry of Public Security over various periods have seriously
linked the criteria and standards of communicative culture with the image of a model
public security officer, a nucleus that forms the consistent common characteristics of
the whole public security force. The formulation and implementation of criteria and
standards are relatively coherent, carried out in a serious and consistent manner.
However, the formulation and application of such criteria and standards reveal some
inadequacies. It is due to the Ministry of Public Security have, for a long time, adopted
old criteria and standards, with virtually unchanged methods and measures.
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Meanwhile, social practices have changed greatly and quickly, resulting in many
outdated criteria and models of the people’s public security not being able to change to
be compatible with the advanced technology.
3.2.2. Reality in the building of political and ideological movement on
performing communicative culture
The movement building is carried out in conformity with a strict procedure, at
appropriate time with appropriate timing. It is widely launched at all levels and
localities in the force. The movement-building activities are carried out through
planning, assignment of responsibilities for monitoring, urging and implementing, and
through evaluating and reviewing.
However, the movement building also reveals certain shortcomings such as
poorly renewed and unrealistic measures for implementation, and superficial and
untimely evaluation and review somewhere. The same measures are duplicated and
applied in different localities, regions and levels, without taking into account the local
context, causing these measures to be rigid and stereotyped.
3.2.3. Equipment, facilities and means of communication
Investment in facilities and conditions for communication appeals to the great
interest of the leadership of the Ministry of Public Security. Specifically, public security
leaders at all levels have facilities and equipment in headquarters and working rooms
upgraded, and allocated funding for communication, reception, and uniform. The
investment in facilities is geared towards shaping appropriate style in lines with the
building of a communicative culture.
3.2.4. Communicating and reporting in the communicative culture
Regulations on the status and principle of communication by the public
security emphasize the legitimacy, representation and reporting function to ensure
the unity in direction and coordination, the information work, the authority
assigned to central and local police leaders, to ministry leaders and unit leaders
through representation. Arbitrariness that allows representatives to act with undue
competence in project formulation should be avoided.
Limitations relevant to speech can be found at many levels, in many localities
and forces. The most observable shortcomings are in form of: reactive speech
delivery; delayed and untimely speech in response to circumstances. Speech
delivery in some agencies has been carried improperly, with no spokespersons on
duty sometimes. Contents of speech are also one limitation: standardized speech
contents are inadequate.
3.3. Reality in the daily communicative culture in the people’s public
security.
Due to its specific job, the people's public security force has frequent contact and
transaction with citizens. Therefore, cultured communication and conduct in dealing
with citizens always appeal to the police’ interest. In recent years, public security
13


officers have performed very well their political tasks and demands in compliance with
legal and operational requirements. They have studied to propose reform of
administrative procedures to reduce harassment.
3.3.1. Reality in the implementation of standardized communication with
particular audience
Cadres and officers at all levels, in all localities have virtually followed the key
contents in the code of conduct as applied to the people's public security. They define
general principles in performing communication and exhibiting behaviour: To respect
and protect the rights and interests of the state; the legitimate rights and interests of
individuals, agencies and organizations in accordance with the national ethics, culture,
traditions and customs, and the traditions of the People's Public Security.
However, in some particular cases, officers have not complied with operational
regulations, orders and procedures. They fail to demonstrate flexible and mild attitudes
and behaviours. Some behaviours are irrelevant according to the tradition, ethics and
custom of the nation and the police force.
3.3.2. Exhibiting communication posture, ceremony, manner, greeting, name
addressing, gestures and behaviours
Regulations and performance of ceremonial manners have long been shaped into
order. However, there have emerged manifestations of easy-going and formalistic
performance in recent times, mainly at the local grassroots level. Survey shows that
officers in northern localities perform standardized manners better than in southern
provinces. However, cadres and officers in the south are judged as friendlier and more
intimate than in the north. The contents of operational regulations are basically in
conformity with international standards, in consistence with customs and practical
circumstances.
3.3.3. The people’s public security wearing uniforms in communication
In addition to positive aspects such as friendliness, seriousness, neatness, the
wearing of uniforms by the public security force also reveals some limitations such as:
inconsistent uniforms with wrong positions and features, at the wrong moment.
Officers have virtually abode by strict procedures in the wearing and
management of uniforms. However, in particular cases, violations still occur that stains
the image and style of the people's public security officers, showing disrespect of the
people and ill solemnity.
3.3.4. Communicative culture in speech, information and reporting
Speech and reporting regulations in the public security force are prescribed in
writing. The regulations have been strictly observed by officers at all levels, in all
localities in terms of content, method and authority.
Characterized by specific functions and duties to protect the law and social order
and security, the public security force must always be held responsible for timely
speech delivery in accordance with regulations to handle hot and pressing issues that
appeal to the public interest.
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However, the speech delivery is a complicated issue, with new and modern
circumstances. In fact, consultation of officers and civilians reveals findings that this
activity has not been carried out professionally. The contents of speech by cadres and
officerss in the force are sometimes inconsistent and incoherent. They even get around
the matter or perform unauthorized speech. In many cases, refusal to deliver speech also
means shirking responsibility to the people and the public.
3.3.5. Communication in reception and conference
Meetings are organized at all levels in the force adequately and seriously, which
have facilitated smooth operations of units. However, the issues of confidentiality in a
meeting or organizing a confidential meeting are sometimes carried out improperly,
causing negative judgment from the public that they are not transparent and tend to
cover up the scandals.
3.3.6. Modality and method of communication by public security officers in
handling administrative procedures
The communicative culture in guest reception and transaction with citizens
The reception of guests is performed with attentiveness by all levels according to
the public security ordinance and the Working Regulations of the Ministry of Public
Security. Visitors are attentively welcomed. The head of the unit will base on the
contents of transaction to organize guest reception accordingly. The unit must create
favourable conditions for cadres and officers to receive guests who are their relatives
or friends. Guest receptions must be performed in a considerate manner in compliance
with regulations.
When organizing for reception of foreign guests, the public security force
ensures the diplomatic status in compliance with the people’s public security
ordinance, according to the customs and traditions of guests and Vietnam. According
to the working regulations of the people’s public security, the reception of foreign
guests must meet the following requirements and principles: detailed and specific
planning, coordination and caution.
Guest reception is performed by agencies and officers in the force according in
compliance with due procedures and requirements. Some shortcomings in guest
reception revealed by survey findings are described as follows: Guest reception agenda
is sometimes unreasonable and ineffective; the meeting for consultation of the
grassroots is not attentive or adequate; the review of guest reception is done in a
formalistic manner.
Transactions with citizens at the citizen reception in the police office, units and
localities are basically performed in accordance with principles set out such as the
principle of publicity, democracy, timeliness and straightforward procedures;
confidentiality and safety for denouncers are ensured in accordance with law;
objectivity and equality and non-discrimination are ensure while receiving citizens.

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citizens are respected and enabled to lodge complaints, denunciations, petitions and
comments according to the law.
Communication and conduct exhibited by public security officers in emigration control
In recent time, the border public security has done a good job and satisfied the
requirements for communicative culture, following regulations and standards for
communication. Some unresolved shortcomings to be listed include some cadres and
officers not yet being aware of the customs and traditions of foreign visitors, causing them
fail to show sympathy and sharing. Some exhibit impoliteness and ill solemnity in
performing official duty. Although such scandals are uncommon, they are thoroughly
reviewed and communicated to the entire force as lessons.
The communicative culture by the zone police in transacting administrative
procedures
In response to requirements for reform of administrative procedures, the public
security force has issued regulations on communication in transacting administrative
procedures at the central and local levels, at the same time thoroughly communicated the
tasks, organized for plan development, supervised the performance and promoted
creativity to complete the tasks.
In addition to the positive aspects in the communication by the zone police, there
exist many zone police officers who have not taken initiative to approach the people. Even
in some cases where people visit the local police headquarters, many police officers have
failed to give detailed guidance and information, or exhibited improper communication.
Unfortunately, these manifestations not only occur in the provinces but also in Hanoi.
3.4. Reality in the provisions for communicative culture and determinants of
communicative culture
The provisions for and determinants affecting communication are considered
from the perspective of the legal environment, staff training, inspection, handling and
directing communication activities.
The general physical and legal provisions have been taken seriously and allowed
for. However, due to inappropriate appreciation of this job, it has not been carried out
in a systematic, scientific and synchronous manner, failing to meet the requirements in
the current context.
Among the above factors, the basic provisions are allowed for the training
activities, followed by inspection and supervision. These activities are seen differently in
different regions. Specifically, the training activities are performed more strongly at
central and provincial units than at the grassroots level; the instruction and supervision
in the north are carried out more frequently than in the south. However, the inspection
modalities in the southern are considered to be richer and more practical than those in
the north and the central region.
3.4.1. Reality in the issuance of regulations on communicative culture by the
people’s public security
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In fact, the State and the public security sector have taken it seriously to build a
system of legal documents to ensure the performance of communicative culture among
the people's public security force. However, this system also manifests limitations such
as poorly detailed and incomplete regulations on communication techniques in official
activities; absence of regulations on communication involving international
circumstances... That practice calls for consideration and review of the system of
documents in order to propose suggestions and solutions for improvement.
3.4.2. Training and management of officers relevant to behaviours and
communicative culture
Training of officials in the sector is emphasized at all levels. According to
preliminary reports, all provinces have fulfilled annual training plan. The training
contents and organizational and professional requirements are emphasized. Regarding
training contents, training of ceremonies and orders are introduced.
Limitations in the training and retraining of communication are that the thematic
training on communication for police officers at grassroots level is inadequate, with
short duration which is not enough for practice. The teaching staff is still in short
supply, most of whom are hired from outside, causing them to fail to develop relevant
training content in response to the requirements of the force. The application of the
training skills into the daily job falls short of expectations.
3.4.3. Inspection, assessment and discipline on the performance of
communicative culture
The inspection, assessment and discipline relevant to communications are
conducted in accordance with regulations on handling violations. The inspection
activities are conducted regularly according to plans. All levels of localities have fully
reported on handling violations as prescribed.
The inspection is carried out regularly and seriously. Many cases are handled
promptly with due responsibility. This helps to maintain and improve the
communicative culture in the force. However, through surveys on officers in the force,
it can be seen that the current inspection job is sometimes formalistic and perfunctory.
The modality of inspection has not been renewed, which results in impracticability and
therefore, falls short of the purpose of effective inspection. The inspection issues
centre around wearing costumes and daily life activities, without specialized
inspection into the communication culture such as contents and process of speech and
interviews, meetings, communicating with people and foreigners...
3.5. General statements
Public poll about the communicative culture exhibited by public security force
shows that: - aggregated rating by the people is quite good (67.5%); By comparing
between various levels, the rating as “quite good” for communicative culture in the
central people's public security is higher than for this force at the local level (74.2% as
compared to 60.8%); By comparing between various region, the rating as “all right and
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good“ for communicative culture of the people's public security in the south is the
highest (73.7%), followed by the north (64%) and the central region (31.3%). The
communicative culture in the locality is rated against 2 contents: transactions with
citizens at headquarters and handling administrative procedures, and daily
communication while performing official duties in the area under respective
administration. In these two contents, the content of “daily communication” is
assessed as worse than “transactions with citizens at headquarters“. By comparing the
assessment results by the people with the internal assessment, it is seen that assessment
by the people is compatible with the internal assessment level.
Upon analysis of the construction and performance of communicative culture, it is
seen that generally the construction and performance of communicative culture in the
people's public security are all right, with some criteria being rated as the highest, such as
wearing uniform in communication; performing ceremonies, mannerisms, gestures and
behaviours; organizing for the performance of communicative culture; communicating,
speech delivery, and reporting on communicative culture. The people's judgment is used
to cross-examine the internal assessment. People's judgement equivalent to the internal
assessment indicates the public confidence in the public security force's ability to
communicate and to perform official duties.
Analysis of the survey findings shows that the aggregated rating as “all right” and
“good” in communicative culture at the central level is higher than the local level;
comparing by region, the rating as “all right” and “good” in the south is the highest while
the north and central region are lower but the difference between these two regions is not
much (5%); comparing by type, the rating as “all right” and “good” is higher for the
security force than the police force and the difference between these two forces is not
much (5.4%). From these combined results, the solution that we propose is an overall
improvement at each level, in each region, in and each force. However more emphasis
should be placed on the local level, on the north region, and on the police force.
Analysis of rating results according to constituents of the communicative culture:
Truth is reflected in the seriousness, accuracy, standards and modernity in the
management and performance of communicative culture. Kindness manifests itself in
the performance of communicative culture in a humanistic and democratic manner, in
a relevant way to the situation and the national traditions. Beauty is expressed by
meeting aesthetic requirements towards the beauty in specific communicative
behaviours and activities of officers in the people's public security force. These
qualities are analyzed in the integrated tables of survey findings. The rating results are
calculated by the ratio of the number of “all right” and “good” votes to the total
number of votes. Upon analysis of survey findings from Table 3.1 to Table 3.6 by
constituent of communication culture, it can be seen that rating results according to the
factors of Truth, Kindness, and Beauty are only moderate, in which Kindness and
Beauty are rated higher than Truth. This analysis serves as a basis for proposing
18


adjustments to the organizing activity for communicative culture, which needs more
emphasis on standards, accuracy and responsibility.
Analysis of causes and guarantees for the communicative culture by the
people’s public security:
The table that integrates guarantees for effective communicative culture shows
that the determinants are basically rated at moderate level. This is the reason why the
construction and implementation of communicative culture of the force are rated at
moderate level. Considering the relation between guarantees and the performance of
communicative culture, we can see that the level of guarantees is directly proportional
to the performance of communicative culture. In particular, factors of assessment and
training of forces are two factors that are underestimated.
CHAPTER 4
GUIDELINES AND SOLUTIONS TO IMPROVING THE
COMMUNICATIVE CULTURE BY THE PEOPLE’S PUBLIC SECURITY
4.1. Guidelines on the improvement of the communicative culture by the
people’s public security
Driven by objective circumstances and strategic goals of the Party and the State,
based on the status of the organizational structure of the people's public security, it is
necessary to build a guiding viewpoint on improving the communicative culture
according to the following goals:
Predicting the objective determinants on the communicative culture of the
people's public security, properly and fully aware of the role of communicative culture
in the building of the people's public security.
Defining the task of building and developing communicative culture for the
people's public security as a strategic, important and regular task.
Ensure the rule of law state in the building of communicative culture in the
people's public security
4.2. Refining regulation on communicative culture, associating organizational
structure for implementation with the implementation of official culture project
4.2.1. Refining regulation on communicative culture
Upon review of the legal document system, it is necessary to supplement the
contents on communicative culture into the regulations.
The formulation of regulations on communicative activities should be agreed
upon throughout the agency. Regulations and policies on communicative activities
within the agency may be formulated into a separate document, covering all aspects of
the agency's communication activities with different audience or with a particular
target. In addition, agencies can also integrate regulations relevant to communication
into the agency's operational regulations.
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Regulations on communication within agencies and units should be consistent with
general provisions of the state, sector and locality. In addition, each unit can build its own
communication rules to ensure the specificity in performing its functions and tasks.
4.2.2. Improving the organizational structure and responsibility for
enforcement of regulations and policies on communication in the unit
In order to organize the apparatus in charge of building the communicative
culture, the public security force should better define the responsibilities for building
and implementing a culture of communication at all levels, localities and in each unit,
especially the responsibilities held by managerial levels. Specifically, it is necessary to
make sure and better define how to ensure responsibility as prescribed in the legal
document on the responsibility for building communicative culture.
Individual cadres, civil servants and public employees shall fully implement the
contents prescribed in the Code of Conduct by public officials. Cadres, civil servants
and public employees who participate in social activities must exhibit civilized and
polite communication, conduct, and uniform in order to win people’s respect.
Agencies and units' leaders are held responsible for implementing and inspecting the
enforcement of the Code of Conduct and communication regulations in the agencies
and units.
4.2.3. Study for implementing Project on the construction and implementation
of official culture in the people’s public security
It is necessary to define communicative culture in the people's public security as
part of the official culture. Therefore, the building of communicative culture is integral
to the building and implementing of the official culture. The Office of the Ministry of
Public Security should think and advise the Ministry's leaders on measures to
implement contents as specified in the Project on the construction and implementation
of official culture issued together with Decision No. 1847/QD-TTg dated 27/12/2018
by the Prime Minister.
4.3. Strengthening the training of personnel for communicative culture
4.3.1. Formulating and implementing plans and movements for enforcement
of communicative culture
Strengthening the political and ideological education, promoting propaganda,
forming a unity in awareness and actions for cadres and officers. Adhering to and
effectively implementing the Ministry of Public Security's programs and plans on
political and ideological work.
Based on their tasks and specific requirements, the local public security shall
specify Uncle Ho’s 6 Commandments into standards and qualities to be held by
officers and enact them into emulation standards. The performance of Uncle Ho’s 6
Commandments and the movement to follow Ho Chi Minh's moral example are
important criteria for annual assessment and rating for individuals and collectives’
emulation; especially for assessing, appointing, dismissing, planning, rotation and
secondment of officials.
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4.3.2. Study and training of communicative methods and skills for officers
Contents of the training methodology are developed in the following directions:
Method of vertical relationship with superiors, colleagues and subordinates: At
work, communicative activities to serve the job are mandatory. However, cadres and
officers always need to show sincerity in this relationship to ensure effective work.
Resolving dissent from superiors: It is necessary to build the image of a serious and
hard-working person who is not affected by emotions. For subordinates: It is
necessary to be able to motivate soldiers and to adopt appropriate confident attitude;
listening to subordinates' opinions
Promoting self-training to improve personal communicative capacity: One of the
positive values in the communication with officials at the same level is to have a positive
attitude towards the development and progress of the co-workers and team-mates.
Enhancing skills of communicating with people and foreigners: The
communicative style brings about modern values, with receptive listening which is
"modest and receptive of the right feedback"; Communicative style towards work
efficiency and responsibility.
4.3.3. Building the image of an exemplary leader in the communicative culture
The leader of the force can only perform effective management of his unit's
communication activities when he himself sets a good example of communication and
builds a due and close relationship with his peers, superiors and subordinates
Building credibility and image in communication: Special emphasis is on the first
impression. Sometimes, people are affected by their subjective emotions through observing or
listening to a few words to define a person's image. With bad first impression, people will
steer clear from that person. Therefore, attention should be paid to appearance, speech, and
uniform. The appearance should be compatible with the intrinsic values.
4.4. Strengthening information, monitoring, evaluation and discipline relevant to
the performance of communicative culture
4.4.1. Promoting the acquisition of, dealing with and reporting information on the
ideology, ethics, lifestyle and manner of soldiers
The task of grasping, dealing with and reporting information on the ideology,
ethics, lifestyle and manner of soldiers is one of the core issues for leaders and
managers to maintain close understanding of the reality of communicative culture by
the people's public security, thereby devising and adopting appropriate methods to
improve the communicative culture. Issues to be grasped relevant to the ideology of
cadres and soldiers: Regarding ethics and lifestyle: building a cultured lifestyle and
polite behaviours exhibited by the people's public security officers and soldiers, a
sense of serviceableness, mutual assistance within the unit, criticism and self-criticism.
Grasping and judging the ideology, manner and actions of officials and soldiers upon
complaints and feedback on the mass media or press agencies related to the people’s
public security. Measures for grasping, dealing with and reporting on the ideology
and behaviours of officers and soldiers of the people's public security: Direct, indirect
and typical investigation.
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