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Nghiên cứu về hoạt động dạy phát âm tiếng anh cho học sinh lớp 5 tại một số trường tiểu học ở bắc ninh

THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES
----------------------------------------------------------

NGO THI TRANG

A Study on Teaching English Pronunciation for the Fifth-grade Students in
some Primary Schools in Bac Ninh
(Nghiên cứu về hoạt động dạy phát âm Tiếng Anh cho học sinh lớp 5 tại một số
trường tiểu học ở Bắc Ninh)

Thai Nguyen, July 2019

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THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES
----------------------------------------------------------


A Study on Teaching English Pronunciation for the Fifth-grade Students in
some Primary Schools in Bac Ninh

Full Name: Ngo Thi Trang
ID: ThSK2TA4.17.016
Class: K2A
Supervisor:Prof. Dr. Hoang Van Van

Thai Nguyen, July 2019

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DECLARATION
This paper is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree
of Master of English Linguistics at Department of Post Graduate studies – School of
Foreign Languages - Thai Nguyen University. I certify that this thesis is the result of
my own research, and it has not been submitted for any other degrees.

Thai Nguyen, July 8, 2019

Student’s signature

Ngô Thị Trang

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


First of all, I am much thankful to all lecturers of Post Graduate Faculty
at Thai Nguyen University for giving us useful and precious lectures.
I would also like to express my sincerest gratitude to Prof. Dr. Hoang
Van Van, my respected supervisor for her precious guidance, critical
comments and constructive supervision throughout my research.
I am also indebted to the field workers who were kind enough to
tolerate the painstaking task of collecting the data. Then my thanks also sent
to my classmates at the Master Course Class who have taken time and trouble
to alert me to errors in my thesis and provided me with useful data on which
this thesis is based.
I also wish to send my sincere thanks to the teachers and students at
three Primary schools in Bac Ninh city , where I taught in order to gather
information for my servey questionnaires. Without their help, this study could
not have been successful.
Finally, I would like to express special thanks to my husband and
family for their support and encouragement while the study was being carried
out. For my little experience and knowledge, I would like to receive more
useful comments from lectures and others.

ABSTRACT
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It is undeniable that English has become one of the most popular foreign
languages in Vietnam. However, though Vietnamese learners can speak English, not
many of them have intelligible English pronunciation, especially young learners. Thus,
the research is conducted with the aim of investigating current English pronunciation
for young learners, in particular, the fifth-grade students in three primary schools in Bac
Ninh Province, namely Thi Cau, Dai Phuc and Vo Cuong.
For the purpose of finding out current English pronunciation for fifth-grade
students of such three primary schools, the author delivered questionnaires to 15
teachers, interviewed three Heads of English division and observed 10 English classes
taught by 10 teachers of three primary schools. After collecting data, the researcher
found out that most of the teachers in such primary schools still applied traditional
English pronunciation methods during English lessons for fifth-grade students, which
made the students not really motivated, interested and active in the lessons. Also, most
of the teachers dealt with difficulties in stress and intonation when teaching English
pronunciation for such students. Based on findings and limitations in English
pronunciation teaching for fifth-grade students, the author proposed some possible
recommendations for teachers, students and administrations of three primary schools
with the hope of helping them improve English pronunciation effectiveness in the
coming times.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION……………………………………………………………………i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………...…ii
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………..…iii
TABLE

OF

CONTENTS…………………………………………………………..Error!
Bookmark not defined.v
LIST

OF

TABLES…………………………………………………………………Error!
Bookmark not defined.ii
LIST

OF

FIGURES……………………………………………………………….Error!
Bookmark not defined.iii
PART 1: INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................1
1. Rationale .............................................................................................................1
2. Aims of the study ................................................................................................2
3. Research question................................................................................................2
4. Scope of the study ...............................................................................................2
5. Structure of the research......................................................................................3
PART 2: DEVELOPMENT ........................................................................................4
CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................4
1.1. Theoretical background ....................................................................................4
1.1.1. Definitions of pronunciation .....................................................................4
1.1.2. Approaches to teaching pronunciation ......................................................5
1.1.3. Techniques to teach pronunciation ...........................................................7
1.1.4. Elements of teaching pronunciation ..........................................................9


1.1.5. The teacher’s roles in teaching pronunciation ........................................10
1.1.6. Definitions of young learners ..................................................................12
1.1.7. Characteristics of young learners ............................................................13
1.2. Previous studies ..............................................................................................15
CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY ............................................................................18
2.1. Research design ..............................................................................................18
2.2. Research participants .....................................................................................19
2.3. Research instruments .....................................................................................21
2.3.1 Questionnaires ..........................................................................................21
2.3.2. Interview .................................................................................................22
2.3.3. Classroom observation ............................................................................23
2.4. Procedure ........................................................................................................24
2.4.1. Piloting questionnaires ............................................................................24
2.4.2. Data collection process ...........................................................................24
2.4.3. Procedure of data analysis .......................................................................25
CHAPTER 3: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ......................................................26
3.1. Introduction ....................................................................................................26
3.2. Current pronunciation teaching in some primary schools in Bac Ninh .........26
3.2.1. Activities mainly used to enhance student’s pronunciation ....................26
3.2.2. Teacher’s guidance for students to practice pronunciation at home .......28
3.2.3. Teachers’ difficulties in teaching English pronunciation to the students
...........................................................................................................................31
3.3. Discussions .....................................................................................................33
3.3.1. Activities used to enhance students’ pronunciation ................................33
3.3.2. Teacher’s guiding activities for home practice ......................................33


3.3.3. Teacher’s difficulties ...............................................................................35
3.4. Teachers’ suggestions on improving the teaching of English pronunciation 36
PART 3: CONCLUSION ..........................................................................................38
1. Main findings ....................................................................................................38
2. Implications .......................................................................................................39
2.1. Implications for the teachers ......................................................................39
2.2. Implications for the students ......................................................................40
2.3. Implications for the administrators ............................................................41
3. Limitations and suggestions for further research ..............................................41
3.1. Limitations .....................................................................................................41
3.2. Suggesstions ...................................................................................................42
LIST OF REFERENCES ..........................................................................................43
APPENDICES ............................................................................................................. I


LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: The frequency of activities mainly used to enhance student’s pronunciation
by teachers .................................................................................................................26
Table 3.2: The frequency of the teachers’ guidance for students to practice
pronunciation at home ...............................................................................................29
Table 3.3: The teachers’ difficulties in teaching English pronunciation to the students
...................................................................................................................................31


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1.: Age and gender of the teachers .............................................................20
Figure 2.2: Schools and seniority of the teachers .....................................................21


PART 1: INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
English has presently been commonly used in Vietnam. It's a mandatory
subject at all levels of school. Primary schools are the government's objects
concerned with teaching English. The age of 6 to 13 is the correct age for the learners
to learn a second language along with the mother tongue because at that era the kids
have a strong memory to receive the new stuff. In particular, the fifth-grade is the
final phase in primary education in which students are instructed to ask a
straightforward question and enhance their pronunciation by concentrating on stress
and intonation.
On the contrary, in some cases, some teachers don’t have a proper
methodology to inspire their students for speaking English correctly and
comprehensively, which makes students not excited in studying pronunciation. It is
easy to understand because it is hard and challenging, and takes time. There are
differences between Vietnamese and English so that the students commonly struggle
to speak English naturally. The reasons for these problems are the incorrect stress
position and the unusual intonation when making sound. Initially, not many people
take much care on these problems, but these mistakes will become barriers to prevent
the pupils from communicating and understanding native speakers because of the
differences in sounds made.
Moreover, in teaching practice at some primary schools in Bac Ninh, teachers
tend to face to unintelligible pronunciation by some students. It is necessary to have
exact and clear pronunciation during the listening process because this will make
great contributions to English teaching of teachers.
In addition, primary education is a basic foundation for many subjects in
general, and in English in particular. If teachers do not have the appropriate teaching
methodology, which leads to students’ erroneous pronunciation, in the future these
problems will become students’ habit and might be impossible to change or improve.
As a result, the thesis mainly focuses on current pronunciation teaching; thereby

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helping teachers improve their teaching skills when teaching pronunciation for
students.
All of these motivated me to conduct this research with the topic “A study on
teaching English pronunciation for the 5th grade in some primary schools in Bac
Ninh”, which would go into details of pronunciation teaching methodology at the 5th
grade and suggest some other effective techniques in order to improve pronunciation
teaching for teachers.
2. Aims of the study
The research is carried out with the aim of clarifying the current situation of
teaching and learning English pronunciation of both teachers and students in some
primary schools in Bac Ninh, namely Thi Cau Primary School, Dai Phuc Primary
School and Vo Cuong Primary School. The research finds out activities often used
by the teachers to guide students to practice pronunciation at home. Accordingly, the
author recommends some possible solutions with the aim of helping English teachers
at such three primary schools improve their teaching way how to apply effective
methods in teaching English for the 5th grade students.
3. Research question
Based on the above objectives, this thesis was designed to answer the
following questions:
1. What are the activities currently employed by the teachers to teach
pronunciation to the fifth-grade students at some primary schools in Bac Ninh?
2. How many activities which often used by the teachers at some primary
schools in Bac Ninh to practice pronunciation to their fifth-grade students?
3. What are the teachers’ suggestions for the better use of activities to improve
the fifth-grade students’ pronunciation?
4. Scope of the study
The research is conducted on the English teachers in some primary schools in
Bac Ninh. Regarding its scope, the research would emphasize finding out the current
situations of teaching pronunciation for the fifth-grade students in some primary
schools in Bac Ninh and the teacher’s recommendations for better pronunciation
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teaching. Hence, the research’s result cannot be adequate to all Vietnamese students
and English teachers. It means the research works well only for teachers and learners
who are teaching and learning at such schools with similar English syllabus for the
ones who are concerned.
5. Structure of the research
The research includes three parts. The first part is Introduction, in which the
rationale, aims, research question, scope and design are identified.
The second one is Development which consists of three chapters. Chapter 1 –
Literature review gives an overview of the theories relating to teaching and learning
English pronunciation for young learners in Vietnam. In Chapter 2 - Methodology,
the researcher describes the background to the study; how to carry out and the process
of conducting the research methods such as questionnaire, interview and class
observation. The last chapter - Chapter 3 – Findings and discussion describes the
results of the research.
Part 3 – Conclusion, gives the summary of the study, the suggestions for
teaching/learning more effectively and the recommendations for further study.

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PART 2: DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW
This section gives some definitions, pronunciation characteristics to clarify
obviously what pronunciation is consistent with the opinions of many scientists and
the views of the author. In addition, it also introduces other elements such as the
advantages of excellent pronunciation and variables influencing its teaching. The past
studies listed and discussed in this section also provide the author's research with
knowledge and useful information.
1.1. Theoretical background
1.1.1. Definitions of pronunciation
There are various definitions of pronunciation depending on the views of
different scientists. Before mentioning its significance, however, the first significant
thing to be concerned is to identify that pronunciation is distinct from phonology.
Zielinski (2009, p. 205) stated that when we talk, pronunciation relates to how we
create the noise we use to create significance. Indeed, as John Burgess and Sheila
Spencer (2000, p.195) argued, "the phonology of a target language consists of theory
and knowledge about how the sound system of the target language works, including
both segmental and supra-segmental features. Pronunciation in language learning, on
the other hand, is the practice and meaningful use of the target language phonological
features in speaking, supported by practice in interpreting those phonological features
in a target language discourse that one hears" (Burgess and Spencer, 2000).
According to Yates (2002), sounds that generate pronunciation make meaning.
Cook (1996) said pronunciation is English-language sound production. When sounds
are correctly generated, pronunciation is learned by repeating and correcting them.
A smart individual may have many good thoughts in his mind, but if his
pronunciation is not evident in this context, no one will comprehend him because
"pronunciation is an essential component of oral interaction" (Fraser, 2001, p.1). If a
term is wrongly pronounced, the listener may misunderstand the speaker and
sometimes it breaks the relationship or leads to adverse ideas. Hence, pronunciation

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plays an important role in a discussion that transmits a message between speaker and
listener to achieve its objective.
English pronunciation is the way a word is spoken. The way in which many
English words are pronounced is distinct from the way in which they are spelt for
several purposes. There are some sounds represented by more than one letter
combination.
In conclusion, the following definition is accepted in this research because the
significance of pronunciation is fully described. According to Lynda Yates and Beth
Zielinski (2009, p.205), pronunciation is the way a word or language can be spoken
or read based on the place of birth, habitat, ethnic group, social class and education
of people. Besides demonstrating how a term is spoken, pronunciation impacts
inspirational thoughts, thinking about the speakers, it says if the listeners know the
speakers
1.1.2. Approaches to teaching pronunciation
The field of modern language teaching has created two particular approaches
to pronunciation learning, according to Celce-Murcia's evaluation (1996): intuitiveimitative approach and analytic-linguistic approach.
+ Intuitive-imitative Approach
Intuitive-imitative approach depends on the ability of the learner to listen and
imitate the rhythms and sounds of the target language without the intervention of any
explicit information; it also presupposes the availability of good models to listen to,
a possibility that has been enhanced by the availability of phonograph records first,
then tape recorders and language labs in the mid-twentieth century.
At the start of the teaching pronunciation, Jones and Evans (1995) suggests
that educators should adopt this strategy. First of all, this represents a more holistic
strategy in which distinct components of speech are viewed as incorporated from the
start. Secondly, it provides learners the opportunity to experience intuitive and
communication pronunciation before proceeding to a more analytical exploration of
particular phonology components. In the end, speech quality research can assist
learners enhance their picture and thus boost trust when they talk English.
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+ Analytic-linguistic Approach
Analytic-linguistic approach uses data and instruments for complementing
listening, imitation and manufacturing, such as the phonetic alphabet, articulational
descriptions of vocals, chart of vocal apparats and contrast data. It tells the learner
explicitly and concentrates on segments such as the sounds and rhythms of the target
language. This strategy has been created to complement the intuitive strategy rather
than to replace it.
Approaches to Bottom-up and Top-Down are two common approaches to the
pronunciation of the teaching mentioned by Tench (1984), Pennington (1989), Jones
and Evans (1995), Dalton and Seidlhofer (1994).
+ Approach of Bottom-up
A bottom-up approach is closely related to precision, which should be
concentrated from the start of a course. Teachers educate students in pronunciation
with the components of lowest and most concrete units. The teacher passes through
more abstract sections like intonation and the thought group from single consonants
to vowels..
+ Approach of Top-down
A Top-down approach takes in connected speech the concept of
contextualized sounds. The instructor runs from the most important components to
the smallest of the pronunciation: from intonation or group of thoughts, or contexts
to individual sounds.
+ Approach of integrating pronunciation
Hewings (2004) indicates an approach to integrate pronunciation in certain
classes when pronunciation has less priority than other language elements such as
grammar and vocabulary. The teacher plays a more important role in education by
incorporating it into other fields of linguistic job, such as linking vocabulary and
pronunciation or linking grammar with pronunciation.
In language teaching the approaches to pronunciation were used globally.
However, determining which strategy is a priority relies on the certain situations, the
official curricula and the teacher.
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1.1.3. Techniques to teach pronunciation
The Communicative Approaches, which presently dominate linguistic
teaching, state that since language is mainly communicable, linguistic use in all
linguistic courses should be essential. Langue as communications is a renewed
urgency for pronunciation learning, as there is a threshold for non-English-speakers;
if they are lower than this threshold stage, verbal difficulties are encountered
regardless of how outstanding and comprehensive their control over english grammar
and vocabulary may be (Celce-Murcia, Brinton, Goodwin, 1996).
Celce-Murcia, Brinton and Goodwin lists 10 traditional methods for the
teaching of pronunciation as part of the communication approach:
+ Listen and imitate: A technique used in the Direct Method in which students
listen to a teacher-provided model and repeat or imitate it. The use of tape recorder,
linguistic laboratories and video grapher has improved this technique.
+ Phonetic training: use of articulatory descriptions, articulatory charts,
phonetic alphabets (a reform movement method that may include phonetic
transcription and phonetic text reading).
+ Minimal pair drills: A method implemented during the Audiolingual age to
assist learners to differentiate comparable and problematic sounds through listening
discrimination and speech exercise in the target language. Minimal couple exercises
typically start with word-level exercise and then proceed to sentence-level exercise.
+ Contextualized minimal pairs: In this technique, the teacher sets out the
settings and provides important vocabulary in this method; learners are then taught
to react with the suitable meaningful reaction to a phrase.
+ Visual aids: Improvement of the teacher’s description of how audio visual
aids such as sound charts, faithful wall charts, rods, photos, mirrors, props, and so on
produce sounds. These equipment are also used to indicate target sound
manufacturing.
+ Tongue twisters: A technique from speech correction strategies for native
speakers (e.g., “She sells seashells by the seashore.”)

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+ Developmental approximation drills: A technique recommended by
acquisition research in the first language by teaching second-language language
speakers to follow the measures many English speaking kids take to learn certain
sounds in their first language. As children learning English often acquire /w/ before
/r/ or /j/ before /l/, adults who have difficulty producing /l/ or /r/ can be encouraged
to begin by pronouncing words with initial /w/ or /j/, and then shift to /r/ or /l/,
respectively:
/w/





/r/

/j/

/l/

wed

red

yet

let

wag

rag

young

lung

+ A method based on laws of generative phonology (Chomsky and Halle
1968), used for intermediary or developed students: the practice of vowel changes
and stress changes linked to applied science. The teacher points out the rule-based
quality of vowels and stress changes to sensitization in phrases linked to etymology;
phrases and brief texts containing both members of a couple can be given as oral
practice documents:
Vowel shift: mime /ai/

mimic /i/

Sentence context: Street mimes often mimic the gestures of passersby.
Stress shift: PHOtograph

phoTOgraphy

Sentence context: I can tell from these photographs that you are very good at
photography.
+ Reading aloud/recitation: Scripts or passages for students to exercise, then
read aloud, concentrating on stress and timing. This method can include or may not
include memorizing the wording and is generally used in genres designed for
speaking, such as speeches, poems, plays and dialogues.
+ Recordings of learners’ production: Tapes of rehearsed and spontaneous
speeches, free discussions, and roles in both audio and video. The following playback
provides possibilities for teacher, peer and self-evaluation feedback.
Except for the two last methods mentioned above, we can see that the focus of
training on pronunciation was mainly to get the sound correct at word level–to deal
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with words in isolation or with words in very regulated and well-constructing
sentence levels. The last two methods enable students to exercise at speech level.
However, the material for exercise is often fully written and sometimes very
elaborated.
1.1.4. Elements of teaching pronunciation
According to Kelly (2000), vowels, consonants, word and phrase stress,
entonation, other elements of linked velocity and orthodoxy conclude teaching
pronunciation. Colin Mortimer (1985) claims however that weak forms, clusters,
links, contractions and times are components in the doctrinal pronunciation. A more
detailed and genuine element of education is offered by Linda Grant (1993). She
arranged the components for the learning of sounds, speeches, phrases and lastly the
sections of discourse. The pronunciation elements to be taught are:
+ Sound and Spelling Patterns
The aspects of the English pronunciation and spelling patterns are confusing.
The sound and spelling of English correspondences are irregular because English has
borrowed a lot of other words from ancient Greek and Latin to Eskimo and Farsi.
Two typical instances of unequivalence between sound and orthography are
homographs and homophones. For efficient pronunciation teaching sounds and
spelling patterns, each sound (vowels and consonant), the phonetic transcription,
syllable and ending sounds shall also be considered.
+ Word Stress
Word stress should be extremely concentrated in helping students to have
understandable pronunciation at the start of any speech course. Two or more syllables
are stressed with every word, and one is stronger, louder and longer than the other.
This stressed syllable is extremely essential because English speakers depend on
stress patterns to recognize the words and sentences they hear (Linda Grant, 1993).
The more often the presenter has misused stress, the more effort he must make to
comprehend what he/she says.
+ Rhythm

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+ “Rhythm is characterized by the alternation of strong and weak syllables”
(Kenworthy, 1992:30). Rhythm is a result of word stress and how significant
elements have a powerful beat as a result of their occurrence, and unimportant objects
have a weak beat.
+ Sentence focus and Intonation
In spoken English, the presenter provides the listener with data on the relative
significance of multiple components of the massage in multiple respects. One way is
to emphasize the phrases with the most data. The primary phrase stress generally was
called (Kenworthy, 1992:32). The focus and intonation of the sentence relate to the
speaker's purpose and emotions. She / he emphasizes the most significant phrases
when she / he talks. Teaching the focus of language and intonation will succeed more
if the teacher chooses a context that obliges students to grasp this idea of
“importance”.
+ Thought group
Words are called thought group, organized by the speaker in brief meaningful
sentences. The pronunciation factor is super-segmented and appears to be
inexpressible. However, by offering friendly explanations and genuine training, if
educators simplify this abstract concept, it becomes teachable. The group of thought
learning is a key component of pronunciation learning. If a presenter does not divide
the voice flow into suitable think tanks, the language may be difficult to comprehend,
regardless of how obviously pronounced each word is. Thus, one helpful way to assist
students speak is to assist them learn of the think group, the word' talking obviously'
in the great phonology book (Rogerson and Gilbert, 1984). Rogerson and Gilbert
State describe the “thought group”: “When we speak, we need to divide speech into
small chunks to help the listener understand the messages. These chunks or thought
groups are groups of words which go together to express an idea or thought. In
English, we pause and low pitch to mark the end of thought groups”.
1.1.5. The teacher’s roles in teaching pronunciation
In the globe of language education, the usefulness of pronunciation is a
commonly discussed topic. Some of the research suggests that the improvement of
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pronunciation of teachers can make little or no difference (Suter 1976, Purcell and
Suter, 1980). In other words, it goes beyond the control of teachers to achieve a
precise pronunciation in a second language. Nevertheless, study suggests that if
certain criteria such as supra-segmental learning and connecting speech with hearing
practices are complied with, the teacher can make a distinct distinction. "Teachers
with formal education can make a difference in pronunciation and supersegmental
education" thinks Pennington (1989). Even though their education is formal,
educators play an important part in the pronunciation of teaching and learning. A few
roles (by Kenworthy 1996) are stated as follows a typical teacher of the
pronunciation:
+ Helping learners hear
It is part of the job of the teacher to help students to perceive sounds. Learners
are often very inclined to hear the English sounds in terms of their mother tongue.
Every language has its own sound categories. Teachers must inspect that their
students hear sounds according to their categories and assist them if needed to create
fresh categories.
+ Helping learners make sounds
It is apparent that some English sounds do not appear in the mother tongues of
learners. Sometimes students can imitate the new sound, but if they can, the professor
must offer them a few clues to create the new sounds.
+ Providing feedback
The teacher must inform the students how they do both the above duties.
Students themselves often cannot say whether they have done it; the professor must
give them data on their results. In other instances, pupils can overdo something–they
can assume inaccurately how English is pronounced, maybe because of the manner
it is written. This brings the professor to another assignment:
+ Pointing out what’s going on
Learners should understand what to do and what to do. Since students speak
unconsciously with most uncontrolled people, something significant may be missing.
For example, if a specific word is stressed or said differently, it may not have an
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effect on the message sent to the listener. Teachers must make students conscious of
the sound potential –the resources to send spoken messages.
+ Establishing priorities
Apprentices need the teacher's assistance in setting up an action plan and in
deciding on how and when to go well. Learners can be aware of some characteristics
of their pronunciation which are ‘different’, but can't tell whether or not it's essential.
You may note that something about your pronunciation is not the way English
individuals do it and may attempt to alter it automatically but your attempts are not
placed because it is a refined characteristic or acceptable in English.
+ Devising activities
The teacher must consider what kinds of exercises and events are useful in
learning pronunciation. What are the most practical, experimental and explorative
activities? When designing teaching activities, educators should also remember that
some activities better match some students' styles and methods than others.
+ Assessing progress
This is some sort of remark or feedback about their treatment of pronunciation.
Learners discover it hard to achieve their own development, so if the professor gives
this type of data it will be important. This is particularly hard for creating sounds, but
progress data is often a key motivational factor.
1.1.6. Definitions of young learners
Young learners are defined in many ways. They are the pupils who, at the age
of nine and ten, are studying at elementary school. Young learners, in other words,
are primary school learners. According to Cameron, young learners are defined as
learners between the ages of five and twelve, so the age of the young learner is in
primary school. Young learners are also the students at Elementary School who learn
English within 4 years and are from grade 4 to grade 6. Young students can be said
to be students aged 7-15. At Senior High School, they study English as their second
language.
For students who are not yet adults, young learners are "a catch-all term for
students who are not yet adults. The term swept into fashion at the beginning of the
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nineties reflecting the trend to lower the starting age and broaden the access to
English language learning to younger people in many countries all over the world"
(Carolread 2015). As Phillips' declaration, there are many variables that affect the
maturity of young learners, such as culture, environment, gender, friends, and parent
expectations. The author also indicates that teachers need to recognize these
distinctions and offer young learners the appropriate types of operations.
1.1.7. Characteristics of young learners
Young learners or children have their own distinct characters from adults.
Some features include lack of experience and understanding, a lot of energy, and
always need to be physically active, get bored quickly, study more slowly and quickly
forget stuff, be passionate, imitate very nice stuff, continue to improve literacy in
their mother tongue, etc. In addition, according to Slattery and Willis (2001), in many
areas young learners need to learn, like doing something, seeing, listening, and
imitating. They can hear the sounds very accurately and mimic the methods that
adults or others talk. These individuals like to play and use their imagination to do
stuff, young learners are naturally curious as well.
As for Brumfit (1997), young learners have many features as below:
- Most of them go to college. This is a excellent opportunity for teachers to
shape classroom life expectations.
- Young learners tend to be patient and learning passionate-young students
like taking part in operations or physical motion. Stimulating their thinking and
making them closer in the schools is best.
It may be suggested that the required technique to practice pronunciation for
young learners is to obtain the steady input in the language. In addition, the kids do
the activities of imitating and repeating. Young students need to create their learning
strategies, comprehend learning significance, and know how to plan, oversee,
regulate, and reflect learning. As Johnstone's concept to offer the right teaching and
learning circumstances, the young learners have some benefits as follows when
compared to the older beginners when learning the second language:

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- They are less concerned about language than the elderly learners. Therefore,
absorbing language is simple for them.
- Young learners will also have excellent control over individual sounds and
intonation patterns.
- It is not hard for young learners to establish a productive link between the
first and second languages with the required benefits for their language knowledge.
The development of young learners' schooling, from consciousness, emotion
to culture and the formation of multilingual and intercultural identities may have a
beneficial effect.
According to Slattery and Willis, English teachers need to make the English
pronunciation class more enjoyable in order to deliver the great circumstances for
young learners. Importantly, English teachers should acknowledge that the attitude
of the student to learn the language is affected by them.
- Express what they mean by using pictures, gestures, taking the actions, etc.
- Sing a song, play games in English with students
- Help the learners feel comfortable and confident, not worry about the
mistakes when participating in English class.
- Talk with learners in English
- Prepare lessons with the different activities that create some noisy, standing,
moving, sitting, sometimes quiet.
- Sometimes use the new words or things that young learners do not know
- Tell the simple stories in English, using pictures and action in the different
voices for each situation.
In addition, Edelenbos and Kubanek have given many following principles
that are most suitable for learning:
- A positive motivation for learning
- Training and practice pronunciation
- Explain the relationship between graphemes and phonemes of the other
language when comparing to the mother tongue
- Training the ear.
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