Novice efl teachers participation in professional development in their community of practice
VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES ***********************
BÙI THỊ KHÁNH HUYỀN
NOVICE EFL TEACHERS’ PARTICIPATION IN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THEIR COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE Sự tham gia vào hoạt động phát triển chuyên môn của giáo viên tiếng Anh mới vào nghề tại cộng đồng thực hành M.A. MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 60140111
HANOI - 2017
VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
FACULTY OF POST-GRADUATE STUDIES
BÙI THỊ KHÁNH HUYỀN
NOVICE EFL TEACHERS’ PARTICIPATION IN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THEIR COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE Sự tham gia vào hoạt động phát triển chuyên môn của giáo viên tiếng Anh mới vào nghề tại cộng đồng thực hành
M.A. MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS Field: English Teaching Methodology Code: 60140111 Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Lê Văn Canh
HANOI - 2017
DECLARATION I hereby declare that this thesis is a presentation of my original research work submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Art degree at the Faculty of Postgraduate Studies, University of Languages and International Studies, VNU. The material in the research has not been submitted anywhere for any formal course assessment or any award.
Wherever contributions of other
researchers are involved, every effort is made to indicate this clearly, with due reference to the literature, and acknowledgement of collaborative research and discussion. The work was done under the guidance of Associated Professor Lê Văn Canh, at the University of Languages and International Studies. In terms of these conditions, I agree that the origin of my paper deposited in the library should be accessible for the purposes of study and research, in accordance with the normal conditions established by the librarian for the care, loan or reproduction of the paper.
Bùi Thị Khánh Huyền
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis would not have been possible without the contributions and supports of many people, to whom I would like to send my heartfelt thanks. My deep gratitude goes first to my beloved lecturer and my supervisor, Dr. Lê Văn Canh for his valuable supports and instructions. I owe a debt gratitude to his constant advices and guidance right from the beginning of this journey. But for his supervision, this thesis would not have been completed. I also wishto take this opportunity to record my thankfulness to my friends and my colleagues for their timely assistance and effective cooperation in collecting data for completing this study. Their enthusiastic participation was indispensable to my research. Above all, I would like to express my heart full indebtedness to my family and especially my husband who have always supported, encouraged and inspired me to move on and finish the work. I‟m strongly in debited to their unconditional love and cares. They have been always my strongest motivation to move on.
ABSTRACT The efficiency of professional development for novice EFL teachers has largely been validated to possess intensive influence on the quality of English teaching so far. In Vietnam, the Decision number 1400/QĐ-TTG approving the National Project 2020 by the Prime Minister Nguyen Thien Nhan (2008) has pointed out vital purposes of teaching English as a foreign language and set a goal to shift the foreign language as the strength of Vietnamese people. This decision has obliquely emphasized the necessity of skillful English teachers and especially the significance of professional development programs to train novice ones. However, the topic is still under-investigated as too little work related to the field could be found in the country. This study employed qualitative research approach to conduct in-depth interviews with six Vietnamese novice EFL teachers, exploring under-surface problems. Collected data revealed that although these teachers were thirsty for professionalizing their major, their professional development faced not a small number of challenges. Indeed, their self-initiated learning appeared to be more beneficial than those training activities held at their community of practice.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
COP: Community of practice EFL: English as a Foreign Language PD: Professional development
TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION ......................................................................................................... i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................ ii ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................... iii LIST OF FIGURES & TABLES .............................................................................. vii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ............................................................................... 1 1.1
Contextual factors inhibiting novice teachers‟ participation in PD within
their COP ............................................................................................................... 34 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION .................................................................................. 38 5.1 Summary of findings and conclusion .............................................................. 38 5.2 Implications and applications .......................................................................... 41 5.3 Limitations of the research and suggestions for further study......................... 41 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................... 43 APPENDIX .................................................................................................................. I APPENDIX 1 - Invitation Email ............................................................................ II APPENDIX 2 - Consent form ............................................................................... IV APPENDIX 3 - List of interview questions ........................................................... V
LIST OF FIGURES& TABLES
Figure 1: Forms of professional development in language teaching .......................... 9 Figure 2: The three elements of COP ........................................................................ 10 Figure 3: Factors affecting teachers' participation in PD in their COP..................... 14
Table 1: Participants‟ backgrounds ........................................................................... 18 Table 2 Teachers' PD activities in their COP ............................................................ 23
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION This chapter provides information about the research problem and the reason why the problems need to be researched. In addition, the aims, research questions together with scope of the study are presented. The chapter concludes with an overview of the chapters that follow in the thesis.
“Master teachers are not born, they become. They become primarily by developing a habit of mind, a way of looking critically at the work they do; by developing the courage to recognize faults, and by struggling to improve.” (Kane, 2004) Recent decades, along with the rapid growth of globalization, has witnessed the dramatic increase in the popularity of English as an International language. As an official language of more than 67 countries and being spoken by over 840 million people around the world, this language is regarded as the third most commonly spoken language on this Earth, besides Mandarin Chinese and Spanish. English words can be heard in every field, from economy, business to technology, entertainment and a great number of cultural and social activities. In Vietnam, due to the high requirements for communicating, studying and working, the importance of studying English has been incredibly considered these days. The Decision number 1400/QĐ-TTG approving the Project2020 by the Prime Minister Nguyen Thien Nhan (2008) has pointed out vital purposes of studying English as a foreign language and set a goal to shift the foreign language as the strength of Vietnamese people. This decision has resulted in the necessity to enhance both the quantity and quality of teaching English, as a student is badly in need of being exposed to qualified teachers to be successful. More seriously, they may geton the verge of “being set back one to three grade levels” in case they are“exposed to an ineffective teacher” (Teacher Induction, 2008).
Therefore, comprehensibly, a large number of professional English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers are needed to fulfill this demand. However, according to Baggini (2005) the term “teacher professionalism” is recognized by not only teachers‟ specialized knowledge but extent they outcome the difficulties and the extent they are able to use their skills and experiences related to their profession as well. This means that ralatively merely well-qualified teachers with long time experiencing and improving in reality teaching can be master in the field. Teachers who have just finished their studying and training in teaching field are the new comers in their community of practice (COP) where they continue learning for their professional development (PD). While there have been a great number of studies on teacher learning in their communities of practice, the issue of how teachers who have just started their career struggle to become full members of their communities of practices in EFL contexts is not yet adequately researched. Answers to this question are much needed in the context of the Project 2020. So far, however, too little attention has been paid to the investigation of this topic. This has inspired the researcher to conduct a study on the participation in PD of Vietnamese novice EFL teachers in their COP, as well as the factors influencing their participation.
Aims and objectives of the study
This study aims to investigate how Vietnamese novice EFL teachers experience and participate in PD in their first years of teaching. Also, the study is proposed to find out the contextual influences on their participation in PD activities.
Research questions To what extent do Vietnamese novice EFL teachers participate in professional development in their community of practice?
What are the motivating factors behind their participation?
What challenges do they encounter in participating in their community of practice? 2
Significance of the Study
Due to the great demand of high quality EFL teachers to fulfill the need of effective English learning in Vietnam these days, theefficiency of PD in novice EFL teachers‟ COP should be put into proper consideration. The answers for the three research questions in this work are supposed to explore the participation degree of Vietnamese novice teachers in PD together with both motivated and inhibited factors influenced the process. It can be seen as a reference for graduated pedagogical students as well as those who are beginning initial years of teaching career or are involved in PD. Additionally, this study is expected toassist headmasters, principals and educationalists to propose applicable policies and PD programs to facilitate novice EFL teachers to develop their profession right at their COP, from which teaching output can be enhanced by converging sufficient conditions. Besides, the research outcomes are hoped to benefit the authorities in education and training by providing an authentic overview about the real situation of Vietnamese novice teacher‟s PD and especially recommendations for appropriate guidelines for teachers – to be and curriculum in teacher training institutions.
Scope of the study
This study is carried out with a purpose to have an insight on the PD that EFL teachers experienced when they begin their new career life in COPand together with how they perceive it. Thence, factors affecting their participation will also be explored. Various aspects of these novice teachers‟ individual and career lives will be investigated to find out whether they have influence on the process.
The thesis is organized into five chapters which are respectively named: Introduction, Literature Review, Methodology, Findings & Discussions and Conclusion. 3
First of all, an overview of the whole study including rationale, the objectives, the settings and the scope of the study is presented in the very first chapter: Introduction. The next chapter offers definitions of key terms together with a critical review of theoretical literature and related studies. How the study is carried out can be found in the following Methodology chapter with a detailed description of participants, data collection and analysis instruments. The next section is subsequently used to analyze the collected data, discuss the findings and propose answers to the three research questions. Finally, the Conclusion chapter gives an overview of the main discussed issues and draws a conclusion; points out some limitations of the research and gives suggestions for further studies.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW An overview of literature for the whole research is presented in this chapter, including the explanation of the three key concepts “Novice teachers”, “PD” and “COP”. Together with it, a thorough analytical review of related studies is also provided throughout the chapter in order to identify the research gap where this study can fit in.
Definition of terminologies
2.1.1 Novice teachers Novice teachers can be considered certificated teachers possessing about less than five years of teaching experience. To be more specific, Farrell (2009) provided a definition to the term as teachers who have finished their pre-service teacher education and have just initiated their pedagogical career in an educational institution. Comprehensibly, the professional experiences of those teachers “are mediated by their previous schooling experiences, the nature of the pre-service teacher education programs from which they have graduated, and their experiences of socialization into the educational and institutional culture”. Thus, the first years of teaching, as stated by Kang & Cheng(2014) in their work, is doubtlessly an essential period when “teachers test their beliefs and ideas, expand their teaching strategies, acquire practical knowledge, and formulate their professional identity”. Definitely, this stage is badly in need of being investigated into. Regarding specific features of novice teachers, Bradley (2010) argued that they are also in developmental stages, just as students are learners. The initials years of teaching life have been recorded to emerge countless problems as well as difficulties. A research from the Project on the Next Generation of Teachers (Johnson, 2002)reported that new teachers “feel that they have no access to clear answers, feel that their sense of professional competence is challenged, and 5
ultimately question their choice of teaching as a career”. Besides those pessimistic sensation, novice teachers still lack profound understanding about “what typical classroom activities and expected problems and solutions are like” (Berliner, 1987, p. 72). Tsui(2003, p. 245) was successful in identifying professional limitations of those neophytes by asserting that the main dissimilarities between novice and experienced language teachers “seem to lie in the different ways in which they relate to their contexts of work, and hence their conceptions and understanding of teaching, which is developed in these contexts”. He offered a list of attributes new teachers generally hold when beginning their job: -
An elaborate knowledge base
Ability to integrate and uses different kinds of knowledge
Ability to make sound intuitive judgments based on past experience
A desire to investigate and solve a wide range of teaching problems
Understanding on students and students learning
Awareness of instructional objectives to support teaching
Understanding and use of language learning strategies
Awareness of the learning context
Fluidity and automaticity in teaching
Consequently, novice teachers, with a massive volume of challenges, their deficiency and lack of experience, repeatedly notice the considerable distance between themselves and experience teachers and realize their shortcomings in this stage, which is a double-edged sword. It can either motivate them make efforts to learn and improve or discourage them to engage in the chosen career. This association of features cannot be left out as a noticeable factor influencing their later teaching life in particular, especially their participation in PD and the quality of education in general. In this thesis, novice teachers are defined as those who are in their initial years of their teaching life at a specific educational institution. To be more specific, those teachers have 1-5 years‟ teaching experience. 6
2.1.2 Professional development (PD) It cannot be denied that in recent decades, the subject matter of professional development has raised great concerns in educational community and has been clarified by various researchers. In the context that the root of poor student achievement in many schools has been believed to be blamed on inadequate ongoing teacher professional development, and as a result of changes in national curriculum and tests as well as student needs, teachers are supposed to take “regular opportunities to update their professional knowledge and skills, that is, their favorable circumstances for PD”(Richards & Farrell, 2005, p. 7). When defining the term PD. These two authors remind that teachers need to be able to take part in a series of activities to develop their profession in specific goals as follows: -
Engaging in self-reflection and evaluation
Developing specialized knowledge and skills about many aspects of teaching
Expanding their knowledge base about research, theory and issues in
Taking on new roles and responsibilities, such as supervisor or mentor
teacher, teacher-researcher, or materials writer -
Developing collaborative with other teachers.”
In another report, a different concept of PD was referred as "opportunities to develop new knowledge, skills, approaches, and dispositions to improve their effectiveness in their classrooms" ((Loucks-Horsley, 1998, p. xiv). Also, Horn (2004) shared the same viewpoint like the authors above by bringing out a further discussion to the term as “a broad range of processes and activities that contribute to the learning of educators”. To make it more specific, Killion (2002) identified PD as centralized systems supporting the development of knowledge, skills, attitudes, aspirations, and behaviors leading to the improvement of student accomplishment. This identification is supported by the synthesis written two years before by Guskey 7
who recognized PD as a systematic process “enhancing teacher effectiveness by focusing on teacher knowledge, skills, and attitudes”. It is apparent to see that no matter which way these researchers offer their definitions of “PD”, their arguments stood on the same side. The noticeable importance of PD was admitted and emphasized by all of them, especially the influence of it on students‟ improvement. PD “should be about shaping teachers‟ knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, and success should be determined by student outcomes” (Kubitsky & Fishman, 2007).PD generally serves “activities for teacher to achieve a longer-term goal and seeks to facilitate growth of teacher‟s understanding and of themselves as teachers.” (Horn, 2004). In terms of PD specific activities, investigations into traditional PD have pointed out several ways to formalize the process such as such as professional meetings, conferences, seminars, presentations, workshops, and mentoring(Porter, 2002).Later on, the reading of professional publications and discussions of professional issues with colleagues within formal and informal structures were asserted by Knight(2002). Additionally, Glatthorn(1995) recognized the value of teacher discussions and interactions as fundamental to the improvement of teacher quality. DuFour, Eaker, & DuFour (2005) impressed the necessary of collaborative interactions within quality professional development structures. Also in that year, a series of tasks aggregated from results of previous studies was provided by Richards and Farrell in their work Professional Development for Language Teachers. In short, advantageous schemes to assist the progress of PD are listed in the following figure:
Figure 1: Forms of professional development in language teaching
Forms of professional development in language teaching -
- Journal writing
- Self – reflection
- Peer observation
- Team teaching
Teacher support groups
- Teaching portfolios
- Action research
the reading of
- Peer coaching
professional materials -
Analysis & discussion of
- Case analysis
critical incidents -
(Richards & Farrell, 2005, p. 4)
2.1.3 Community of Practice (COP) As proposed by DuFour(2004), the term “COP” is used to describe every imaginable combination of individuals with an interest in education including grade level teams, school committees, departments, school districts, state departments of education, and national professional organizations. In other words, it is a group of practitioners "who share a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic, and who deepen their knowledge and expertise in this area by interacting on an ongoing basis" (Wenger, McDermott, & Snyder, Cultivating communities of practice, 2002, p. 4). The concept is analyzed by those three scientists to consist of three basic components, which are described in the following figure:
Figure 2: The three elements of COP
(Wenger, McDermott, & Snyder, 2002, p. 4) • The domain creates common ground and a sense of common identity. “A welldefined domain legitimizes the community by affirming its purpose and value to members and other stakeholders”. It brings inspiration to people to “contribute and participate, guides their learning, and gives meaning to their actions”. Thus, it is always advisable for teachers in COP to deeply understand the domain. Perceiving the boundaries and the leading edge of the domain empower “members to decide exactly what is worth sharing, how to present their ideas, and which activities to pursue. It allows them to recognize the potential in tentative or half-baked ideas”. • The community creates “the social fabric of learning”. It is an essential element because “learning is a matter of belonging as well as an intellectual process, involving the heart as well as the head”. Interactions “based on mutual respects and trust” can be fostered in a strong community. An eagerness to share ideas, expose one's ignorance, ask difficult questions or listen carefully is encouraged in this place as well. • The practice is a set of frameworks, ideas, tools, information, styles, language, stories, and documents that community members share. (pp. 27-29)
Role of community of practice in professional development
Wenger‟s(1998) perspective in his work pointed out that “learning as social participation' where one is an "active participant in the practices of social communities and constructing identities in relation to these communities" which "shapes not only what we do, but also who we are and how we interpret what we do" (p. 4). This means that learning involves participation in a COP. It is impossible for a successful PD to neglect the contribution of COP, especially PD programs for novice teacher. In a study on teachers‟ first-year experiences, Richards & Pennington (1998) proved this importance by finding that the teaching context have played an influential role in determining novice teachers‟ classroom practices. The explanation for the indispensable roles of COP is that most conventional explanations of learning have failed to view its social character. Learning should be regarded as a process by which a learner internalizes knowledge, whether 'discovered,' 'transmitted' from others, or 'experienced in interaction' with others" (Lave & Wenger, 1991, p. 47)Professional learning is a story of participation in communities rather than “the reception of factual knowledge information”. That expounds why COP is absolutely necessary in the learning of novice teachers, those who acquire a great deal of pedagogical learning theories but meet few opportunities to practice in real classroom. Concerning the assistance of COP, Wood (2007) highlighted that attendance in COP enables teachers to “accept primary responsibility for their growth in expertise by equipping them with fundamental strategies to build on their own knowledge”. This professional development allows teachers to “respond effectively to student needs” (2007, p. 710). Results of a survey in his investigation suggested that there was “increased trust among professional colleagues, a better understanding of how to meet student needs, a district climate more conducive to risk taking and innovation, and a greater sense of professional efficacy to improve student learning” (Wood, 11
2007, p. 717). A COP can be definitely used as a framework for understanding and promoting teacher learning and as a particular theoretical approach to professional development, where teacher learning is promoted, supported and sustained. It could be a hidden invaluable structure in schools if cultivated actively and systematically. However, is COP beneficial for novice teacher‟s participation in PD in the context of education in Vietnam indeed? In this study, the thoughtful awareness of COP will be used as a theoretical framework for understanding novice teacher‟s participation degree in PD and influential factors hiding behind it.
2.3 Factors affecting teachers’ participation in PD in their COP As a vital element creating successful PD, teachers‟ participation in PD in their COP has been greatly concerned by researchers all around the world. Long time ago, in the work of Theory of Reasoned Action, Fishbein & Ajzen (1975) mentioned the influence of psychological and sociological perspective on teachers‟ attendance. Becker & Gibson (1998) later on re-categorized those factors into individual and societal determinants respectively including personal attitudes and social pressures. “Both the individual and the desires of others are important to the individual and play a part in motivating individuals” (p.7) Rubenson (1977) gave further clarification of the two influential groups by adding the interactions of a variety of personal variables such as previous experience, personal attributes, and needs and environmental variables. In his paper, a hierarchical structure, norms and values of significant others, and available educational possibilities were mentioned as environmental elements affecting the participation of adults. In the year of 1982, Darkenwald & Merriam who focused on sociological perspective shown out that of all the factors, socioeconomic status factors are the most powerful one for adult participatory behavior. Besides, learning press was suggested in their report as an encouragement or requirement for further learning in teachers‟ environment.
Recently, in the 21st century, influential factors founded in those theories were reorganized and generalized by modern researchers. Seven founded factors were redivided into two groups, the internal (individual) and external (environmental) ones. Teachers’ attitudes toward professional development activities and teachers’ selfefficacy were listed in the first group while time including: work-time, personal, leisure-time, and family-time, funding (supplementary salary for instance), principal influence (principal’s support, encouragement and facilitation), colleague influence, and school culture (working environment) were proposed to be in external teams by many researchers like Bayindir (2009), Fullan (1995) and Torff & Sessions (2008). In addition to these factors, the third set of influential elements called “personal characteristics of teachers” has been identified and adjoined by some research. Ozer & Beycioglu (2010) after several experiments has concluded that female teachers have more positive attitudes toward PD activities than male teachers and experienced teachers generally have negative attitudes about PD activities. According to the authors, teachers’ age, years of teaching experience, the level of educational attainment and the grade level in which they teach influence their participation degree PD activities. In the circumstance that there exists no single model reasoning teachers‟ participation in PD(Becker & Gibson, 1998), this study adapts a theoretical framework which synthesizes all previous theories about determinants of teachers‟ attendance in PD relatively sufficiently by Bayar (2013). The theoretical framework is illustrated in the figure bellow.
Figure 3 Factors affecting teachers' participation in PD in their COP
(Bayar, 2013, p. 39)
Related studies on novice teachers’ PD in their COP
Needless to say, massive investigations in the area of EFL novice teachers‟ issue have been found in literature from everywhere around this world. Most of them concerns about the working lives, experiences, motivations, believes, difficulties and the autonomy of the subjects. Several works of Farrokhi, Rahimpour, & Papi (2011) in Iran,Kang & Cheng (2014) in China, Kumazawa (2011) in Japan, Pineda & Frodden (2008) in Colombia, Dellar (1990) in Morocco, and Akbulut (2007) in Turkishcould be listed out as successful instances. Most of them employ qualitative approach, in-depth interview or case studies to be more specific, to explore the targeted affair. It is not a complicated work to realize that this appropiate selection 14
of researching method has made great contribution to the success of those projects in the field. In addition, due to the popularity of it in education, professional development has become an interest of various researchers. Besides some efforts to conceptualize PD, a large amount of aspects around PD have been focused on. Not only did several researchers as Vail, (2011), Brown (2010),Alozie (2010), and Hinds(2007) concern about both influential factors and, efficiency and values of a quality PD but some other studies also paid attention to specifically analyze the relationship between PD and teachers‟ feature, COP, the principal, educational policies such asBayar (2013)and Gray (2011). These works were conducted with a purpose to provides benificial suggestions and reccomendations to make progress and enhance the effectiveness of PD in their targeted pedagogical context. Nevertheless, little have known about how novice teachers perceive PD in their COP as well as the extent they participate in it, especially in Vietnam. Those papers, both about novice teacher and PD, only concentrate on their specific local area. Distictive analyzation of teacher‟s participation in PD in Vietnam is still under– investigation. As a results, studies on influential factors of the effectiveness of PD for novice teachers in specific COP have not been deeply concerned, although the importance of it has been perceived by Vietnamese educationalists for a long time. Moreover, reccomendations and guidelines for novice EFL teachers when initating their career are rarely put into consideration. In fact, there are some Vietnamese studies in this area. However, they just focused on the quality of PD or merely the individuals motivation in developing their profession like in Huyền‟s paper (2014), environmental influences on individuals‟ attendence in PD are nearly neglected. Therefore, this study is expected to fill in this research gap when paying attention to all possible influential factors of EFL novice teachers‟ participation in PD in typical COP in Vietnam. Learning from the success of several mentioned previous studies inthe areas, qualitative approach together, specifically in-depth face to face interview,was employed again in this study. 15
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY The chapter presents the methods used for the data collection and data analysis in the study. It starts with an explanation of the participant recruitment criteria and a description of the participants. Also, data collection instruments and procedure together with data analysis method are described.
As the research aim to investigate how Vietnamese EFL teachers participate in PD in their COP as well as under-surfaced factors influencing their grade of participation, qualitative methodology is adopted in this study with the hope to collect the most reliable data. This choice can be explained by the effectiveness in obtaining culturally specific information about the values, opinions, emotions, behaviors, and social contexts and especially in identifying intangible factors of particular populations of qualitative research (Qualitative Research Methods Overview). According to Willig(2001), qualitative research is usually concerned with meaning, and “in particular how people make sense of the world and how participants experience events from their perspectives” (p.26). Griffin (1986) additionally explained that the methodology had power to enable researchers to make connections between different aspects of people‟s life including domestic sphere, employment and leisure time, which is considerably beneficial in this work. Moreover, research results reported from recent related studies by scientists all around the world such as “The development of novice teacher‟s autonomy” by Pineda & Frodden (2008) in Colombia, “A comparison between expert and novice teachers” by Farrokhi, Rahimpour, & Papi (2011) in Iran,“Working lives and motivation of secondary school teachers” by Kumazawa (2011) in Japanor “Teacher learning in the workplace” by Kang & Cheng (2014) in China has proved this undeniable efficiency of qualitative approach in the field. Thus, it was decided that