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Motivating employees through human resources management activities at thang long university = thúc đẩy động lực làm việc của nhân viên thông qua hoạt động quản trị nhân lực tại đại học thăng long





Business Administration




Supervisors: Dr. Nguyen Danh Nguyen

Hanoi – 2012

Necessity of the thesis
Problem statement
Research objectives
The research questions
Research methodology:
1.1 Human resources management in organization
1.1.1 Concepts and Definition
1.1.2 HRM objectives
1.1.3 Functions of HRM in an organization
1.1.4. HRM in Educational Institutions
1.2 Motivation in organization
1.2.1 Concepts of motivation
1.2.2 Motivation theories
1.2.3. Motivation Works in Educational Institution
1.3 Factors affecting motivation
1.3.1 External factors
1.3.2 Internal factors
1.3.3. Factors in Vietnamese Educational Environment
1.4. The linkage between HRM and Expectancy Theory of Motivation
1.4.1. Job Planning
1.4.3. Training and Development
1.4.4. Performance Appraisal
1.4.5. Compensation System
2.1 Thang Long University’s development strategy and orientation
2.2. Human resource management policies of TLU
2.2.1. The University’s growth and its labor force
2.3. An analysis of employees motivation at TLU
2.3.1. Analyzing tasks, duties and job performance standards of employees

2.3.2. Analyzing factors affecting to work performance of employees at TLU
2.3.3. Incentive for employees

2.4. Summary
2.4.1. Organization
2.4.2. HR Plan and Strategy
2.4.3. Job analysis
2.4.4. Recruitment and selection
2.4.5. Training and development
2.4.6. Performance appraisal
2.4.7. Compensation system
3.1. Recommendation on the general term
3.2. Recommendation on the HRM term
3.2.1. Job analysis
3.2.2. Recruitment and selection process
3.2.3. Training and development
3.2.4. Performance appraisal
3.2.5. Compensation system
3.2.6. Other suggestions

Prepared by: Nguyen Thi Bich Hien
MBA Candidate, 2009 – 20011
School of Business Vietnam National University, Hanoi
Supervisor: Dr. Pham Quy Long
Mr. Ha Nguyen, MBA

Necessity of the thesis
Human Resources Management is an important part in any organization administration.
However, TLU has no Human Resources Department over its time of operation. There is no
actually HRM plan or strategy for the university to manage its staff. The employees, thus,
can see no or little motivation for their jobs. This fact may cause not only the inconvenience
in management but also result in the ineffectiveness in daily working. For that reason,
improving the HRM activities at TLU is an essential step to ensure the development of the
Problem statement
Under the fierce competition in Vietnamese educational market nowadays, one of the main
tasks that TLU has to face with to achieve its goal of maintaining and increasing its market
share is how to receive the highest contribution from all the lectures as well as office staffs.
The more successful TLU wants to obtain in doing business, the better motivation for
intellectual employees it should pay attention to. It raises the questions for the Human
Resource Management at TLU.
Research objectives
The overall objective of this research is to determine what are the causes of low motivation
of TLU’s employees and how it should be improved to enhance the motivation f them.
As the result, it will find out the solution to encourage them to contribute as much as they
can to make TLU stronger. Particularly, the following objectives are targeted to reach:
1. To describe the current situation of motivation of employees at TLU
2. To analyze the factors affecting motivation at TLU
2.1 Job description, job specification and job performance standard
2.2 The process of recruitment and selection

2.3 The need and the method of training and development
2.4 The implementation of performance appraisal
2.5 The compensation system
2.6 And the disciplinary policies
3. To propose recommendations for motivating employees at TLU
The study will focus on employees with under graduation background.
Organization Behavior theories, particularly the Expectancy Model will be applied to
analyze the current individual motivation at TLU and find out the causes and solutions
The research questions
Below are the research questions of this thesis.
i. What is the nature of motivation in education institution? What are the causes the low
motivation at TLU?
ii. What are solutions to enhancing motivation of employees at TLU? What is the action
plan to enhance the motivation of employees at TLU?
Research methodology:
To achieve the stated objectives, the project involves gathering of primary and secondary
data. The secondary data will be got from the HR Department of TLU.
The questionnaire will be a supportive tool to get opinion from most of TLU' employees to
check, confirm and deeply understand about the situation and also get the recommendation.
Besides that, it is possible the subjective observations. Getting the experience of an insider
at TLU, the author has many advantages to see directly what and how the individual
motivation is in TLU.
A number of interviews will be conducted with both the HR manager and the employees of
TLU in order to determine the satisfaction of the employees at TLU.



1.1 Human resources management in organization
1.1.1 Concepts and Definition
In general, HRM is concerning to three key points. First of all, people working in an
organization are regarded as a valuable source, implying that there is a need to invest time
and effort in their development. Secondly, they are human resources, which means that they
have their own special characteristics and, thus, cannot be treated like material resources.
And thirdly, human resources do not only focus on employees as individuals, but also on
other social realities, units and processes in the organization. This means the position each
individual obtains in the organization is in relationship with both his supervisor and other
1.1.2 HRM objectives
Societal Objectives
The societal objectives are considered as the requirements and difficulties of society while
the organization needs to reduce the adverse impact of such demands on the business.
Organizational Objectives
The organizational objectives acknowledge the function of human resource management in
organizational effectiveness. HRM is not an end in itself; it’s just an effective way to assist
the business with its main objectives.
Functional Objectives
Functional objectives attempt to maintain the department’s contribution at a level
appropriate to the organization’s requirements. Human resources need to be adjusted to
match the organization’s demands. The department’s level of service should be customized
to suit the business as a whole.
Personal Objectives
Personal objectives help employees in attaining their personal goals, at least since these
objectives boost the individual’s contribution to the organization. Personal objectives of
employees should be met if they are to be maintained, retained and motivated. Otherwise,
staff performance and satisfaction might drop and the employees may leave the


1.1.3 Functions of HRM in an organization
HR planning and Job Analysis
Human resources planning goals is to determine the supply and demand of labor force
within the organization, to ensure that the required number of employees with the required
qualifications, skills are available when needed.
Job analysis is a process of determining the skills, qualifications and requirements as well as
duties and knowledge required for performing jobs.
The aim of staffing is to provide an adequate supply of qualified individuals to fill the jobs
in an organization. By studying what the employees do, job analysis is the foundation for
the staffing function. From this, job descriptions and job specifications can be prepared to
recruit applicants for the vacancies. The selection process is concerned with choosing the
most qualified individuals to fill jobs in the organization.
HR development
Human resources development is an important function of HRM. It is not only the process
of training and development but also the individual planning and career development. HR
development is a system of providing employees knowledge, skills needed for the job,
guiding individuals with long-term focus on their jobs, setting the goals for employees’
career at the organization and the plans to achieve those goals.
Performance Management
Performance management is the process of evaluating how well the employees perform the
Compensation and benefits
This function of HRM provides the employees with rewards for their contributions to the
organization. It includes pays, incentives, and benefits in both financial and non-financial
Industrial relations
The relationships between managers and employees as well as the relationships among the
colleagues are so important in HRM. The HR policies and rules must be developed,
communicated and updated to the employees to make sure the awareness of their rights and
obligations in the organization.
Health and safety programs

This HRM function concerns on Occupational health and Workplace security matters. It is
particularly important in factories and dangerous workplaces, where the safety of employees
is threatened.
1.1.4. HRM in Educational Institutions
Human resources in higher educational institutions have some particular characteristics.
Almost of the employees are educated people. They all graduated from colleges and/or
universities at least. Thus, it can be seen that human resources in educational institutions are
high qualified. Besides, individuals working at this kind of industry are required a lot of
skills and knowledge. As the goods they produce (educational service products) are unique
and specified, the employees in educational organizations also have big passion on their
With the specifications of the jobs, employees working in educational organizations receive
a respective attitude from the society. However, as the imbalance between demand and
supply in education services is higher and higher, there does exist a shortage in both
quantity and quality of human resources in those organizations.
According to the statistical number from Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) of
Vietnam at the site www.moet.gov.vn, in the academic year of 2010-2011, there are 223
higher educational institutions over the nation, with 1,435,887 students. With the number of
23,622 teaching staff, it show a really shortage in human resources in the industry.
All organizations including educational institutions are made up of people who chose to
work in it primarily because it enables them to satisfy at least some of their personal needs.
Besides, working in an educational institution somehow can satisfy the employees much
about their spiritual needs. Thus for staff in the HR department of the educational
institutions to function efficiently and effectively, specially the administrator must
understand the nature of people he is working with and be able to interpret their behavior.
Nowadays, HRM is paid attention in educational institutions. Many higher educational
organizations have made their efforts on human resources management in order to reach
their institution’s overall target. Many of those organizations’ leaders now aware the
necessary of HRM in their path of succeed.
1.2 Motivation in organization


1.2.1 Concepts of motivation
Although the descriptions of motivation are different, all authors agree that motivation is a
process that causes individuals to act. Thus, motivation is so important as the higher level of
motivation, the better performance will be contributed.
1.2.2 Motivation theories
There are numerous motivation theories that fall into two main categories: content theories
and process theories. Both categories are important to managers whose jobs are involved
with the motivational process. From the content theories, the managers need to pay attention
on the differences in needs, desires and goals, as each individual is unique in many ways.
Otherwise, in process theories, managers have to understand the process of motivation and
how the individuals make choices based on preferences, rewards and accomplishments.
In this thesis, the expectancy theory is chosen as the basic foundation for the case study of
motivation of employees at Thang Long University.
Expectancy theory is now widely considered as one of the most acceptable explanation of
motivation. It appears that there are three elements of motivation in this theory including
instrumentality, valence and expectancy.
1.2.3. Motivation Works in Educational Institution
As the human resources in educational institutions are specified and unique, motivation works,
thus, have to base on the specific needs of the employees working there. We can assume the
needs of employees at educational institutions presented in the below chart:
A modification of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs implemented in educational institutions


Master of knowledge, gain and
distribution knowledge
The passion and self-esteem, respect from
other colleagues
Respect from students and parents, from the society

University campus, technology, laboratory, facilities, institution’s brand
name, freedom
Food, drinks, air, sleep...

1.3 Factors affecting motivation
1.3.1 External factors
Social-economic issues
In general, this factor will guide how to act in order to reach the standard rate of society
such as living standard, knowledge and other needs. Under the slowly developed economy,
people will slowly act and they see no promising things to develop. Otherwise they will day
by day learn and work with their best efforts to get the right positions in society.
Employment situation
This factor much depends on the social- economic situation of a nation. If there are a plenty
of opportunities for employees to find a jobs and get high pay, people will have more
opportunities to be challenging and try to get the better ones. This factor is a strong
motivation to encourage employees to learn more and perform better to get the well-paid
and valuable experiences.
Government policies on labor
This is legal factor effecting motivation. It is an external factor out of an organization. If the
policy of Government is more favor for laborer, they will be more satisfied of developing
themselves. In Vietnam, all the relationship between the laborer and labor user is principally


based on the Labor code. However, it is still having a number of articles with unclear and
overlapped contents.
1.3.2 Internal factors
Company’s policy
The policy of company will directly effect the employee motivation. Of course, the policy is
involved in Human Resources management such as Selection & Recruitment, Training &
Development policies, Performance Appraisal and Compensation system. These policies
show that what they have to do by what way and in result what they will receive from their
performances. It also states how they will be trained and developed to serve company
Internal relationship
The better internal relationship they have, the better cooperation among employee they get.
Under the cooperative environment, they feel more happy and confident to work. With the
challenging tasks, they will be more confident to overcome the difficulties because of
receiving their colleagues’ help.
Working environment
This factor not only involves in the atmosphere at the workplace but also refers to other
issues relating directly to productivity such as facilities, tools and way of arranging these
facilities, safety workplace, etc., If these things are more favorable and in good condition,
they will strongly support to employees in completing the task accurately, on-time and
Other factors
Other factors effecting motivation are related to the employees themselves. All the above
factors seem to be subjective, the employee has no right to change just find the appropriate
way to act. The objective factors, however, play decisive role to show them how to act in
pursuing their purposes. If they are so ambitious to reach higher position but they do not
find any chance here to be promoted, they may refuse to continuously work here. It also can
be referred to their qualification, background, working experience as well as their mature.
1.3.3. Factors in Vietnamese Educational Environment
External Factors
Social conceptions about educational environment:
People working in higher education sector in general or lecturers in specific are always
considered with respect from the society. For many years, scholar has stated at the highest

position in the hierarchical structure, which are scholar, farmer, worker and trader. This
conception, somehow, motivates the new comers to join into the labor force of this industry.
Society’s need:
Current situation of Vietnam labor market has raised an alarm about the shortage of skilled
workers. The fast growth economy required a large number of trained and skillful labor
force, thus, there exists a high demand for further educational services. This fact may attract
and motivate employees to perform better to fulfill the gap between economy’s need and the
quality of the labor force.
Technology Advancement:
Higher educational institutions are the leading organizations applied new technologies in to
their work and study. Moreover, working for a university, the employees have a big chance
to improve and upgrade their knowledge by joining into domestic and oversea training
courses. This factor is a big motivation of people devoting to the education sector.
Political Factor:
As politician always put priority on education, there are many supportive policies for
educators. The more favor policies set up, the better motivation it brings to the employees
Internal Factors
Internal Relations:
These relationships in each university are different due to the organization’s culture and
tradition. If the employees feel comfortable with their daily interaction relations, they will
be in a good mood of motivation and vice verse.
Freedom of Faculty:
The organization’s policy about working time and attendance of the employees is so
important to motivation. If the university requires their employees to be present at the
faculty even when they have no lecture, sooner or later the teachers will have the feeling of
dissatisfied with that rule, which may lead to the low level of motivation.
Institution Brand name:
Among the educational institutions, the employees have a trend to choose a well reputation
school or university. If the organization’s reputation is high, the people working there are so
proud and they feel happy to work and this may cause effectiveness of performance.


The workplace can play an important role in motivating employees. If the campus is nice
and well equipped, the people working there can receive a good support to facilitate and
smooth their tasks.
1.4. The linkage between HRM and Expectancy Theory of Motivation
1.4.1. Job Planning
Job Planning, including Job Analysis is a process of collection about the requirement,
duties, responsibility and working conditions of a particular job. The frequent out come of
JA is a Job description. Thus, job analysis can provide employees an overall picture of their
job. Then, employees have the tendency to perform the tasks to meet the organization’s
requires and receive the reward.
1.4.2. Recruitment and Selection
This is a process of finding, hiring and initiating the most suitable individual for a particular
job. If the individual is put at the right position, he or she can produce the most effective
performance and they believe that they can develop their ability and knowledge. This may
count for a good impact on the expectancy element of motivation.
1.4.3. Training and Development
Training is a field of bettering the performance of individuals or groups in the organization.
It may result in a higher preference of employee’s outcome, which is named as the valence
in Expectancy theory. Thus, a good training and development policy can lead the employees
into a high level of motivation
1.4.4. Performance Appraisal
This function reviews individual’s performance of an assigned task or duty based on their
work result. An appropriate performance appraisal system not only provides managers a
better understanding of each employee’s ability but also motivates the individuals. Good
performance appraisal system can satisfy the employees with the evaluation of their
contribution and their willingness for further performance as they can see a future of reward
and expectancy. This function of HRM has a big effect on employee’s motivation in all of
its elements.
1.4.5. Compensation System
Including financial and non-financial remuneration, compensation system is the root of
motivation in almost organization. To individuals, the compensation is the present of what


they receive in return of what they devote. This factor can affect directly to the satisfaction
of employees and their turnover intent.
In summary, HRM is a formal system of activities such as HR planning, Recruitment,
Training and development, Performance appraisal, and compensation system, etc., to ensure
the effectiveness and efficiency of using human talents to reach the organization’s goals.
Motivation is a set of factors that initiates and directs individuals’ behavior. Thus, through
HRM functions, the organization can bring the higher level of motivation to their
employees, which leads to a better performance at work. The author is going to examine
TLU’s motivation of employees through HRM activities, in term of theories disclosed in
chapter 1.


2.1 Thang Long University’s development strategy and orientation
To be aware of the high demand of graduate education as well as the trend of popularization
and socialization in education sector, TLU has set up an objective of achieving and
maintaining the position as the leading private university in Vietnam.

Thus, besides

pushing up the quality of teaching and studying, TLU’s leaders also pay attention on
building a modern and comfortable studying environment to motivate not only the
employees but also the students.
2.2. Human resource management policies of TLU
2.2.1. The University’s growth and its labor force
Over nearly 25 years of doing business in providing educational services, the number of
students (customers) enrolling into TLU is high-speed expanded. It comes from just only 85
learners at the beginning to over 10,000 ones in 2012. A long with that blooming in student
population is the diversity of training majority. There were only 2 majors of mathematics and
information technology at first, there are now 15 specialized educational categories divided
into 6 main faculties including Mathematics and IT, Social Sciences and Humanities,
Economics and Management, Foreign languages, Nursing, and Health Sciences. Thus, there is
a huge requirement in the labor force of TLU, not only on the number of employees but also
in the quality and qualification of each staff. The number of employees at TLU now is 466
with 114 PhD, 167 Master and 185 Bachelor owners.
2.2.2. TLU’s human resource management activities HR Planning and Job Analysis
There is no HR department at TLU, so the HR planning and Analysis has been dome
insufficiency. There is no written job description for a certain position, therefore the new
employee sometime acts as he thinks. Consequently, it will be difficult for Personnel
Section to evaluate the performance of these employees. The evaluation of the employees
mostly bases on the suggestion of Director in charge or manager. Recruitment and selection
The recruiting process will be carried out in two main channels: opened recruitment from
the labor market or selection new graduators from the university. Respectively, there are
processes of recruiting and selecting. The public recruitment and selection, however, is not

very popular. It can be only seen at English Language Faculty and Economics &
Management Faculty when they need more teaching staffs. Other departments and faculties,
the new employees almost come from the selection among the new graduations and from
private relationships of leaders or managers. Training and Development
At TLU, there is no clear training and development system for the employees. There is a
little priority for the teacher who wants to have further study. If she or he wants to take a
course, he or she still can do it but without any financial support from the university. The
only favor for that teacher is that he or she may have half of the compulsory teaching hours
free for studying. For an admin staff who wants to take a post-graduate course, he or she
cannot receive any favor in both financially or time arrangement. There can be only one
choice for them if they want to have further study is that he or she can take a night-course,
after working time and finance themselves. Performance appraisal
The appraisal management at TLU is also insufficient. The form is so simple and poorly
designed that it cannot evaluate anything related to the performance of the employees. Thus,
the directors all have the intention of just finish the form. There is no space for them to give
detail comment about each of their staffs. Compensation and Benefits
Compensation system
In comparison with other non-governmental university, TLU’s employees now enjoy a quite
low-rate level of compensation. The average salary is VND 3,500,000 for admin staffs and
VND 8,000,000 for teaching staff working full time. Almost employees at TLU now are not
satisfied with its compensation system. There fore, the university cannot receive the best
performance from them, especially the staffs at admin area.
Welfare and remuneration policy
Like the compensation system, the welfare and remuneration policy at TLU does not make
the employees satisfied. These things are included the health care, social insurance, bonus
for public and summer holiday, university’s support for private matters such as welding,
funeral. Labor relations


In general, TLU follows properly the Labor code of Vietnam. All the employee's right is
based on the Labor law. It creates comfortable working environment. Furthermore, the labor
relations also refer to the cooperation among employees in performing their tasks. This
belongs to the organization's culture. Fortunately, TLU's employee is friendly and willing to
help each other if necessary.
2.3. An Analysis of employees’ motivation at TLU
2.3.1. Analyzing tasks, duties and job performance standards of employees Job analysis
Without a clear job description at TLU, the new employee cannot know exactly their duties
and responsibilities contained in a job. It is included what the employees do, how they do it,
and the conditions under which they do it.
Mostly, the employees know what to do by getting order or instruction from senior
management such as Managers, the Rector, or even the Chairwoman. 32.5% of them know
their tasks and duties by verbal talk at the final job interview. And the remaining of 6%
thought that they work as they think it should be done by their way.
Actually, when they do not know exactly what they have to do, therefore, the expectancy is
low. Moreover, they do not have right direction or instruction to perform their task and duty
properly. Consequently, they do not believe to receive reward through their performance.
The employees also cannot perform their strength to receive a reward, as they do not know
the clear requirements of the job; which may lead to the low level of valence. Performance appraisal
Without performance data, it cannot be equally evaluated the employee result in inequality
reward, no feed back to employee for training and development.
Once the regulation issued, but 68% of interviewees said that they do not know clearly.
Among those persons who have been taken performance appraisal, 22% of interviewees are
not satisfied with the result of evaluation. The remaining of 78% agrees with the result.
Once they are dissatisfied they will not extend their effort as strong as before. Furthermore,
the performance appraisal applied is not highly agreed by employees. 42% of the
interviewees said that they do not agree with the current method. Thus, the method should
be changed to guarantee the accurate and equality of evaluation.
2.3.2. Analyzing factors affecting to work performance of employees at TLU Analyzing the working environment and conditions at TLU

Working environment and conditions play an important role in every workplace. In general,
working environment at TLU is quite good.
The university has a modern and well-equipped campus, which encourages both employees
and students to create new ideas. Analyzing the recruitment process at TLU
The university lacks of a united system of recruitment at both areas of working: admin area
and teaching area.
The first problem occurs from defining the needs on human power at the university.
Normally, the Board of Trustees (or the Board of Managers) will decide if there is a need of
additional manpower or not mostly base on the number of new enrollment students. The
second problem is that there is no clear and popular recruitment at almost admin positions in
the university. The last problem is that there is little chance for promotion in the university,
especially with the young employees. Analyzing the job assignment
75% of interviewees thought that their professional was suitable with their ability at the time
of recruitment. But only 48% of them said that they are now satisfied with their current
Job assignment has been not based on their ability, experience, or knowledge just decided
by Director in charge. Job assignment has been implemented unequally. It means that one
person may take care a lot of works while the other one has nothing to do. This matter leads
to low productivity. The point here is the person who takes care more works does not enjoy
better pay. Consequently, their valence is low.
2.3.3. Incentive for employees Financial incentives
Salary and wages incentives
As described above, the salary level applied to TLU’s employees cannot encourage the
employees to work with high responsibility and effectiveness. Almost the employees want
more valences. However, it is upon employee's personal values, experiences, and needs as
well as macro motivational environment.
Reward policy


Employees do not expect with their additional contribution to the university will received an
additional reward. This means the valence that they hope to receive will not be likely. In
general, the reward policy is not highly complimented by employees.
The effect of the reward policy is not strong enough to encourage employees to work better. Non-financial incentives
Training and development
There is a little priority of training and development policy at TLU. There is no training
course for newcomer employees. The new comers are required to observe how their
colleagues fulfill the tasks and finish themselves when they receive the order from the
senior. The university rarely organizes supportive of soft-skills courses either. Thus, the
employees mostly take the courses outside the university to improve their qualification and
Internal relation
The existing internal relation in the university now is quite good. it is strongly supported to
employees in

performing their jobs. In this aspect, it shows their expectancy is high.

However, it should be organized more exchange relations for employees in order to deeply
understand each other and build good relationships.
Organization’s culture
The university is fundamentally organized around results and has developed a corporate
culture as the foundation on which all members produces consistent and extraordinary
results. TLU have invested substantial time and efforts in developing this culture, and it has
had a remarkably positive impact on the results that the university hopes to achieve.
2.4. Summary
2.4.1. Organization
The currently organization of TLU seems not to strongly support to the improvement of
individual staff. It also does not encourage its employees to work better. It affects the
Expectancy of the employees and makes difficulties to the performance appraisal that is
important factor of the employees’ motivation.
2.4.2. HR Plan and Strategy
Currently, TLU does not have a separated HR department as well as HR strategy, which
accompanies and supports the operation plans. In order to reach the objective of being
number one in university education and training market, it must be worked out the HR

strategy for each of stage of development. There is unavailable of HR strategy, therefore,
the university does not have plan on human resource activities that involves the employee
motivation on training & development, performance appraisal and promotion.
2.4.3. Job analysis
The lack of job analysis does not strongly support the job assignment. The employee's
strength is not appropriately considered to make them satisfy with their job. Moreover, it is
not easy for the employee to receive reward, which is important element of the valence.
2.4.4. Recruitment and selection
Because of unavailability of job analysis and job description, the recruitment and selection
is not actively supported to the job performance objective. The method of recruitment
applied is not strongly supported to the employee's motivation. They may not strongly
believe that they can develop and improve here. It negatively impacts on the expectancy
element of the motivation.
2.4.5. Training and development
The university does not pay attention much on training and development. The employees do
not believe to be trained here resulting in the expectancy is low. On the other hand, without
training and development, the valence of motivation is low as well.
2.4.6. Performance appraisal
The performance appraisal has not yet given the valuable information of employees as well
as makes them satisfied with the evaluation result. This leads to low instrumentality of
motivation. They do not believe a reward can be received once they complete the task. The
valence also is low because the evaluation result is not a key factor to adjust their salary or
2.4.7. Compensation system
It is based on the salary table that has set up so far. This system may not suitable with the
current situation of university and the country economic development. There are a number
of shortcomings in the current compensation system. So, the role of compensation system as
a factor of the Instrumentality is restrained.


3.1. Recommendation on the general term
As mentioned above, TLU's main objective is to achieve and maintain the position of
number one non-governmental university in Vietnam. In order to reach this target, human
resource management is play an essential role especially for the enhancement the motivation
of the employees. Once the employees have high motivation, the organization will get the
highest contribution from them, which can result in high achievement of organization. The
employees’ motivation becomes more and more important for TLU who is now operating
under the fierce competition in education sector in Vietnam.
Regarding the enhancement of employee's motivation, the university should concentrate on
the following issues:
Firstly, it should have HR strategy, which strongly supports to the operation strategy. Of
which the HR strategy will focus in detail on the method to motivate employees.
Secondly, it should have separated HR department therefore it can be independent to
Thirdly, it also is advised that company should have a qualified HR manager either
recruiting from outside or promoting from within the university.
3.2. Recommendation on the HRM term
3.2.1. Job analysis Job description
The first step that TLU has to do immediately is to make job description to all positions.
This task will be carried out as the cooperation between the HR section and all directors of
departments and faculties charge to review again and make a clear and adequate job
Job description must be applied to all positions available in the organization in order to
ensure that all employees get overall picture of their job. And it must be designed by both
functional directors and director in charge to have detail and clear duties and responsibilities
to be performed. Job specification
Job specification should be defined before having decision of recruiting new employee.
Mainly HR manager and the directors of department or faculty will design job specification

because these persons will identify the necessary qualifications, experiences, skills and
abilities required for an employee to perform the job properly.
It is suggested that the university should strictly follow the job specification when recruiting
new employee. In order to ensure the job will be performed well and guarantee their
expectancy in completion a task, it must be checked carefully the candidate's information
before making decision to recruit.
The clearer job specification is, the higher expectancy of employee will be made.
Job standard
All of the jobs available in TLU now must be standardized. This will help the organization
to be easy in recruitment, replacement and evaluation. Job standard also will help TLU to
define the need of training and development. Therefore, sooner or later, the organization
should regulate the job standard for each position.
In general, the job analysis in TLU currently is rather weak and poor. It is not considered as
its role in HR management function. The university has not yet seen the uses of job analysis
in HR planning, recruiting, selection, evaluation, training and compensation. Regarding the
current situation of company to job analysis, it should be applied the combination of
observation and interviews method to analyze the job.
3.2.2. Recruitment and selection process Recruitment
In order to attract a sufficient number of job candidates who have the abilities and aptitudes
needed to help company achieve its objectives, TLU should focus on the following matters:
Formulating a recruitment strategy: The HR section should be responsible for most
recruiting activities; making procedures for advertising job openings, collecting information
from prospective job applicants, and screening this information to form an applicant pool.
Searching for job applicants: the purpose of this activity is to attract highly qualified
applicants. The way of searching applicant and screening application will give the new
employee how they estimate the expectancy. Selection
Selection decisions are important to the business strategy of any organization. Success
depends on having good people who possess the right skills and motivation to make the
company succeed. In order to have successful selection decision and guarantee the
employee's motivation, TLU should follow the following principles: The first principle is

that past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior. The second principle is that the
organization should collect as much reliable and valid data as economically feasible and
then use it to select the best applicants.
On the other hand, the current selection process applied in TLU now is not effective.
Therefore, the university should add the below steps in the selection process so that it can
select the best applicants:
Step 1: Preliminary screening interview
Reject the candidates who are obviously unqualified for the job opening
Step 2: Application blanks
Prepare application blank in order to get the meaningful employment information that may
help the university make the accurate hiring decision
Step 3: Interviews
Get more information about the candidates through exchanging conversation before making
selection decision
Step 4: Employment testing
Apply to all the positions all the tests that will measure mental abilities, physical abilities,
knowledge, skills, personality, interests, temperaments, and other attitudes and behaviors
Step 5: Reference checks and background investigation
Make an investigation of previous employment, educational credentials, criminal activities,
and general characteristics to appear the misrepresent information on the candidate's
resumes and applications
Step 6: Physical test
Confirm the applicant is not suffered from affected diseases
Step 7: Final interview
Integrate all of the information that has been collected during the selection process and
clarify information that is inconsistent or missing
Step 8: Selection decision
Send a job offer including Job specification to the new employee
In conclusion, the recruitment and selection will give the new employee the message that
they can estimate their expectancy. Their belief of completion a task or duty will be feasible
as this process is effective and adequate.


3.2.3. Training and development
Increase employees’ expectancy, in term of training and development TLU should follow
the below steps:
Step 1: Define the training need
Determine what is needed to be trained within the organization, including:
New hires: For new employees
Promotion: when one employee moves into a position
Transfers: when an individual has new responsibilities
Appraisals: when a new skill of the present job that is not being done
Special assignments: when an employee has a special assignment
New policies: when there is a new policy from the government
New products: when there is a new educational product such as sharing courses or
international students exchange programs
Step 2: Define the training contents
The university should determine the content of training for each objective in each period of
time. The following contents are suggested for TLU: Orientation training, Management
skills/development, Skill development, Communication, Computer skills, Sales skills,
Professional training
Step 3: Develop a training plan
The plan will indicate what and how to implement the training. The training plan must be
included type of training, who are the trainers, trainees, where and when to deliver the
training, what facility used and finally the training evaluation.
Step 4: Select relevant training types
TLU should choose the appropriate types of training for each content and objective. There
are a number of training types, which may be suitable for the university, such as: On-the-job
Training, Lectures, Simulations Training, Business Games
Step 5: Evaluate the training
Two important issues must be addressed. The first issue concerns: What are the important
criteria by which training program should be evaluated? Is the objective of training to
achieve a change in behavior, a change in attitude, or a change in the university? The second
one concerning to the question: When and from whom should data be collected to assess the
effects of training?

3.2.4. Performance appraisal
In order to improve the instrumentality element of the motivation, TLU should improve its
performance appraisal.
3.2.5. Compensation system
In order to improve the employee's motivation through the valence element, the following
recommendations are proposed to TLU:
Firstly, the university should adjust the beginning salary level applied to all positions in
order to ensure externally equitable relative to employees doing similar work in other
private universities in Vietnam. Moreover, it should ensure to attract an adequate supply of
labor, to keep present employees reasonably satisfied with the level of their compensation.
Secondly, TLU should adjust the salary for present keys managers who do not taking part in
teaching activities. The adjustment should be applied to assure equitability, motivation, and
appropriate cost.


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