Motivating employees through human resources management activities at thang long university = thúc đẩy động lực làm việc của nhân viên thông qua hoạt động quản trị nhân lực tại đại học thăng long
0VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
PHAM THU HA
RETAINING SKILLED EMPLOYEE, CASE STUDY IN MAI DIEM TEXTILE & GARMENT LIMITED COMPANY
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION THESIS
Supervisors: Dr. Nguyen Danh Nguyen
Hanoi – 2012
TABLE OF CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT TÓM TẮT TABLE OF CONTENT LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS INTRODUCTION Necessity of the thesis Problem statement Research objectives The research questions Research methodology: CHAPTER 1: HRM AND MOTIVATION WORKS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 1.1 Human resources management in organization 1.1.1 Concepts and Definition 1.1.2 HRM objectives 1.1.3 Functions of HRM in an organization 1.1.4. HRM in Educational Institutions 1.2 Motivation in organization 1.2.1 Concepts of motivation 1.2.2 Motivation theories 1.2.3. Motivation Works in Educational Institution 1.3 Factors affecting motivation 1.3.1 External factors 1.3.2 Internal factors 1.3.3. Factors in Vietnamese Educational Environment 1.4. The linkage between HRM and Expectancy Theory of Motivation 1.4.1. Job Planning 1.4.3. Training and Development 1.4.4. Performance Appraisal 1.4.5. Compensation System CHAPTER 2. : ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATION WORKS AT TLU 2.1 Thang Long University’s development strategy and orientation 2.2. Human resource management policies of TLU 2.2.1. The University’s growth and its labor force 2.3. An analysis of employees motivation at TLU 2.3.1. Analyzing tasks, duties and job performance standards of employees
2.3.2. Analyzing factors affecting to work performance of employees at TLU 2.3.3. Incentive for employees
2.4. Summary 2.4.1. Organization 2.4.2. HR Plan and Strategy 2.4.3. Job analysis 2.4.4. Recruitment and selection 2.4.5. Training and development 2.4.6. Performance appraisal 2.4.7. Compensation system CHAPTER 3: SOLUTIONS FOR MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES AT TLU 3.1. Recommendation on the general term 3.2. Recommendation on the HRM term 3.2.1. Job analysis 3.2.2. Recruitment and selection process 3.2.3. Training and development 3.2.4. Performance appraisal 3.2.5. Compensation system 3.2.6. Other suggestions CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDIX 1: PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL FORM APPENDIX 2: SURVEY QUESTIONAIRE PREPARED FOR THANG LONG UNIVERSITY EMPLOYEES APPENDIX 3: LIST OF INTERVIEWEES APPENDIX 4: THANG LONG UNIVERSITY’S PROFILE APPENDIX 5: THANG LONG UNIVERSITY’S ORGANIZATION
MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES THROUGH HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ACTIVITES AT THANGLONG UNIVERSITY Prepared by: Nguyen Thi Bich Hien MBA Candidate, 2009 – 20011 School of Business Vietnam National University, Hanoi Supervisor: Dr. Pham Quy Long Mr. Ha Nguyen, MBA
INTRODUCTION Necessity of the thesis Human Resources Management is an important part in any organization administration. However, TLU has no Human Resources Department over its time of operation. There is no actually HRM plan or strategy for the university to manage its staff. The employees, thus, can see no or little motivation for their jobs. This fact may cause not only the inconvenience in management but also result in the ineffectiveness in daily working. For that reason, improving the HRM activities at TLU is an essential step to ensure the development of the institution. Problem statement Under the fierce competition in Vietnamese educational market nowadays, one of the main tasks that TLU has to face with to achieve its goal of maintaining and increasing its market share is how to receive the highest contribution from all the lectures as well as office staffs. The more successful TLU wants to obtain in doing business, the better motivation for intellectual employees it should pay attention to. It raises the questions for the Human Resource Management at TLU. Research objectives The overall objective of this research is to determine what are the causes of low motivation of TLU’s employees and how it should be improved to enhance the motivation f them. As the result, it will find out the solution to encourage them to contribute as much as they can to make TLU stronger. Particularly, the following objectives are targeted to reach: 1. To describe the current situation of motivation of employees at TLU 2. To analyze the factors affecting motivation at TLU 2.1 Job description, job specification and job performance standard 2.2 The process of recruitment and selection 1
2.3 The need and the method of training and development 2.4 The implementation of performance appraisal 2.5 The compensation system 2.6 And the disciplinary policies 3. To propose recommendations for motivating employees at TLU The study will focus on employees with under graduation background. Organization Behavior theories, particularly the Expectancy Model will be applied to analyze the current individual motivation at TLU and find out the causes and solutions accordingly. The research questions Below are the research questions of this thesis. i. What is the nature of motivation in education institution? What are the causes the low motivation at TLU? ii. What are solutions to enhancing motivation of employees at TLU? What is the action plan to enhance the motivation of employees at TLU? Research methodology: To achieve the stated objectives, the project involves gathering of primary and secondary data. The secondary data will be got from the HR Department of TLU. The questionnaire will be a supportive tool to get opinion from most of TLU' employees to check, confirm and deeply understand about the situation and also get the recommendation. Besides that, it is possible the subjective observations. Getting the experience of an insider at TLU, the author has many advantages to see directly what and how the individual motivation is in TLU. A number of interviews will be conducted with both the HR manager and the employees of TLU in order to determine the satisfaction of the employees at TLU.
CHAPTER 1: HRM AND MOTIVATION WORKS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
1.1 Human resources management in organization 1.1.1 Concepts and Definition In general, HRM is concerning to three key points. First of all, people working in an organization are regarded as a valuable source, implying that there is a need to invest time and effort in their development. Secondly, they are human resources, which means that they have their own special characteristics and, thus, cannot be treated like material resources. And thirdly, human resources do not only focus on employees as individuals, but also on other social realities, units and processes in the organization. This means the position each individual obtains in the organization is in relationship with both his supervisor and other colleagues. 1.1.2 HRM objectives Societal Objectives The societal objectives are considered as the requirements and difficulties of society while the organization needs to reduce the adverse impact of such demands on the business. Organizational Objectives The organizational objectives acknowledge the function of human resource management in organizational effectiveness. HRM is not an end in itself; it’s just an effective way to assist the business with its main objectives. Functional Objectives Functional objectives attempt to maintain the department’s contribution at a level appropriate to the organization’s requirements. Human resources need to be adjusted to match the organization’s demands. The department’s level of service should be customized to suit the business as a whole. Personal Objectives Personal objectives help employees in attaining their personal goals, at least since these objectives boost the individual’s contribution to the organization. Personal objectives of employees should be met if they are to be maintained, retained and motivated. Otherwise, staff performance and satisfaction might drop and the employees may leave the organization.
1.1.3 Functions of HRM in an organization HR planning and Job Analysis Human resources planning goals is to determine the supply and demand of labor force within the organization, to ensure that the required number of employees with the required qualifications, skills are available when needed. Job analysis is a process of determining the skills, qualifications and requirements as well as duties and knowledge required for performing jobs. Staffing The aim of staffing is to provide an adequate supply of qualified individuals to fill the jobs in an organization. By studying what the employees do, job analysis is the foundation for the staffing function. From this, job descriptions and job specifications can be prepared to recruit applicants for the vacancies. The selection process is concerned with choosing the most qualified individuals to fill jobs in the organization. HR development Human resources development is an important function of HRM. It is not only the process of training and development but also the individual planning and career development. HR development is a system of providing employees knowledge, skills needed for the job, guiding individuals with long-term focus on their jobs, setting the goals for employees’ career at the organization and the plans to achieve those goals. Performance Management Performance management is the process of evaluating how well the employees perform the tasks. Compensation and benefits This function of HRM provides the employees with rewards for their contributions to the organization. It includes pays, incentives, and benefits in both financial and non-financial terms. Industrial relations The relationships between managers and employees as well as the relationships among the colleagues are so important in HRM. The HR policies and rules must be developed, communicated and updated to the employees to make sure the awareness of their rights and obligations in the organization. Health and safety programs 4
This HRM function concerns on Occupational health and Workplace security matters. It is particularly important in factories and dangerous workplaces, where the safety of employees is threatened. 1.1.4. HRM in Educational Institutions Human resources in higher educational institutions have some particular characteristics. Almost of the employees are educated people. They all graduated from colleges and/or universities at least. Thus, it can be seen that human resources in educational institutions are high qualified. Besides, individuals working at this kind of industry are required a lot of skills and knowledge. As the goods they produce (educational service products) are unique and specified, the employees in educational organizations also have big passion on their jobs. With the specifications of the jobs, employees working in educational organizations receive a respective attitude from the society. However, as the imbalance between demand and supply in education services is higher and higher, there does exist a shortage in both quantity and quality of human resources in those organizations. According to the statistical number from Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) of Vietnam at the site www.moet.gov.vn, in the academic year of 2010-2011, there are 223 higher educational institutions over the nation, with 1,435,887 students. With the number of 23,622 teaching staff, it show a really shortage in human resources in the industry. All organizations including educational institutions are made up of people who chose to work in it primarily because it enables them to satisfy at least some of their personal needs. Besides, working in an educational institution somehow can satisfy the employees much about their spiritual needs. Thus for staff in the HR department of the educational institutions to function efficiently and effectively, specially the administrator must understand the nature of people he is working with and be able to interpret their behavior. Nowadays, HRM is paid attention in educational institutions. Many higher educational organizations have made their efforts on human resources management in order to reach their institution’s overall target. Many of those organizations’ leaders now aware the necessary of HRM in their path of succeed. 1.2 Motivation in organization
1.2.1 Concepts of motivation Although the descriptions of motivation are different, all authors agree that motivation is a process that causes individuals to act. Thus, motivation is so important as the higher level of motivation, the better performance will be contributed. 1.2.2 Motivation theories There are numerous motivation theories that fall into two main categories: content theories and process theories. Both categories are important to managers whose jobs are involved with the motivational process. From the content theories, the managers need to pay attention on the differences in needs, desires and goals, as each individual is unique in many ways. Otherwise, in process theories, managers have to understand the process of motivation and how the individuals make choices based on preferences, rewards and accomplishments. In this thesis, the expectancy theory is chosen as the basic foundation for the case study of motivation of employees at Thang Long University. Expectancy theory is now widely considered as one of the most acceptable explanation of motivation. It appears that there are three elements of motivation in this theory including instrumentality, valence and expectancy. 1.2.3. Motivation Works in Educational Institution As the human resources in educational institutions are specified and unique, motivation works, thus, have to base on the specific needs of the employees working there. We can assume the needs of employees at educational institutions presented in the below chart: A modification of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs implemented in educational institutions
Self-actualization: Master of knowledge, gain and distribution knowledge Esteem: The passion and self-esteem, respect from other colleagues Social: Respect from students and parents, from the society
1.3 Factors affecting motivation 1.3.1 External factors Social-economic issues In general, this factor will guide how to act in order to reach the standard rate of society such as living standard, knowledge and other needs. Under the slowly developed economy, people will slowly act and they see no promising things to develop. Otherwise they will day by day learn and work with their best efforts to get the right positions in society. Employment situation This factor much depends on the social- economic situation of a nation. If there are a plenty of opportunities for employees to find a jobs and get high pay, people will have more opportunities to be challenging and try to get the better ones. This factor is a strong motivation to encourage employees to learn more and perform better to get the well-paid and valuable experiences. Government policies on labor This is legal factor effecting motivation. It is an external factor out of an organization. If the policy of Government is more favor for laborer, they will be more satisfied of developing themselves. In Vietnam, all the relationship between the laborer and labor user is principally
based on the Labor code. However, it is still having a number of articles with unclear and overlapped contents. 1.3.2 Internal factors Company’s policy The policy of company will directly effect the employee motivation. Of course, the policy is involved in Human Resources management such as Selection & Recruitment, Training & Development policies, Performance Appraisal and Compensation system. These policies show that what they have to do by what way and in result what they will receive from their performances. It also states how they will be trained and developed to serve company Internal relationship The better internal relationship they have, the better cooperation among employee they get. Under the cooperative environment, they feel more happy and confident to work. With the challenging tasks, they will be more confident to overcome the difficulties because of receiving their colleagues’ help. Working environment This factor not only involves in the atmosphere at the workplace but also refers to other issues relating directly to productivity such as facilities, tools and way of arranging these facilities, safety workplace, etc., If these things are more favorable and in good condition, they will strongly support to employees in completing the task accurately, on-time and effectively. Other factors Other factors effecting motivation are related to the employees themselves. All the above factors seem to be subjective, the employee has no right to change just find the appropriate way to act. The objective factors, however, play decisive role to show them how to act in pursuing their purposes. If they are so ambitious to reach higher position but they do not find any chance here to be promoted, they may refuse to continuously work here. It also can be referred to their qualification, background, working experience as well as their mature. 1.3.3. Factors in Vietnamese Educational Environment External Factors Social conceptions about educational environment: People working in higher education sector in general or lecturers in specific are always considered with respect from the society. For many years, scholar has stated at the highest 8
position in the hierarchical structure, which are scholar, farmer, worker and trader. This conception, somehow, motivates the new comers to join into the labor force of this industry. Society’s need: Current situation of Vietnam labor market has raised an alarm about the shortage of skilled workers. The fast growth economy required a large number of trained and skillful labor force, thus, there exists a high demand for further educational services. This fact may attract and motivate employees to perform better to fulfill the gap between economy’s need and the quality of the labor force. Technology Advancement: Higher educational institutions are the leading organizations applied new technologies in to their work and study. Moreover, working for a university, the employees have a big chance to improve and upgrade their knowledge by joining into domestic and oversea training courses. This factor is a big motivation of people devoting to the education sector. Political Factor: As politician always put priority on education, there are many supportive policies for educators. The more favor policies set up, the better motivation it brings to the employees Internal Factors Internal Relations: These relationships in each university are different due to the organization’s culture and tradition. If the employees feel comfortable with their daily interaction relations, they will be in a good mood of motivation and vice verse. Freedom of Faculty: The organization’s policy about working time and attendance of the employees is so important to motivation. If the university requires their employees to be present at the faculty even when they have no lecture, sooner or later the teachers will have the feeling of dissatisfied with that rule, which may lead to the low level of motivation. Institution Brand name: Among the educational institutions, the employees have a trend to choose a well reputation school or university. If the organization’s reputation is high, the people working there are so proud and they feel happy to work and this may cause effectiveness of performance. Campus:
The workplace can play an important role in motivating employees. If the campus is nice and well equipped, the people working there can receive a good support to facilitate and smooth their tasks. 1.4. The linkage between HRM and Expectancy Theory of Motivation 1.4.1. Job Planning Job Planning, including Job Analysis is a process of collection about the requirement, duties, responsibility and working conditions of a particular job. The frequent out come of JA is a Job description. Thus, job analysis can provide employees an overall picture of their job. Then, employees have the tendency to perform the tasks to meet the organization’s requires and receive the reward. 1.4.2. Recruitment and Selection This is a process of finding, hiring and initiating the most suitable individual for a particular job. If the individual is put at the right position, he or she can produce the most effective performance and they believe that they can develop their ability and knowledge. This may count for a good impact on the expectancy element of motivation. 1.4.3. Training and Development Training is a field of bettering the performance of individuals or groups in the organization. It may result in a higher preference of employee’s outcome, which is named as the valence in Expectancy theory. Thus, a good training and development policy can lead the employees into a high level of motivation 1.4.4. Performance Appraisal This function reviews individual’s performance of an assigned task or duty based on their work result. An appropriate performance appraisal system not only provides managers a better understanding of each employee’s ability but also motivates the individuals. Good performance appraisal system can satisfy the employees with the evaluation of their contribution and their willingness for further performance as they can see a future of reward and expectancy. This function of HRM has a big effect on employee’s motivation in all of its elements. 1.4.5. Compensation System Including financial and non-financial remuneration, compensation system is the root of motivation in almost organization. To individuals, the compensation is the present of what
they receive in return of what they devote. This factor can affect directly to the satisfaction of employees and their turnover intent. In summary, HRM is a formal system of activities such as HR planning, Recruitment, Training and development, Performance appraisal, and compensation system, etc., to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of using human talents to reach the organization’s goals. Motivation is a set of factors that initiates and directs individuals’ behavior. Thus, through HRM functions, the organization can bring the higher level of motivation to their employees, which leads to a better performance at work. The author is going to examine TLU’s motivation of employees through HRM activities, in term of theories disclosed in chapter 1.
CHAPTER 2. : ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATION WORKS AT TLU 2.1 Thang Long University’s development strategy and orientation To be aware of the high demand of graduate education as well as the trend of popularization and socialization in education sector, TLU has set up an objective of achieving and maintaining the position as the leading private university in Vietnam.
pushing up the quality of teaching and studying, TLU’s leaders also pay attention on building a modern and comfortable studying environment to motivate not only the employees but also the students. 2.2. Human resource management policies of TLU 2.2.1. The University’s growth and its labor force Over nearly 25 years of doing business in providing educational services, the number of students (customers) enrolling into TLU is high-speed expanded. It comes from just only 85 learners at the beginning to over 10,000 ones in 2012. A long with that blooming in student population is the diversity of training majority. There were only 2 majors of mathematics and information technology at first, there are now 15 specialized educational categories divided into 6 main faculties including Mathematics and IT, Social Sciences and Humanities, Economics and Management, Foreign languages, Nursing, and Health Sciences. Thus, there is a huge requirement in the labor force of TLU, not only on the number of employees but also in the quality and qualification of each staff. The number of employees at TLU now is 466 with 114 PhD, 167 Master and 185 Bachelor owners. 2.2.2. TLU’s human resource management activities 220.127.116.11. HR Planning and Job Analysis There is no HR department at TLU, so the HR planning and Analysis has been dome insufficiency. There is no written job description for a certain position, therefore the new employee sometime acts as he thinks. Consequently, it will be difficult for Personnel Section to evaluate the performance of these employees. The evaluation of the employees mostly bases on the suggestion of Director in charge or manager. 18.104.22.168. Recruitment and selection The recruiting process will be carried out in two main channels: opened recruitment from the labor market or selection new graduators from the university. Respectively, there are processes of recruiting and selecting. The public recruitment and selection, however, is not 12
very popular. It can be only seen at English Language Faculty and Economics & Management Faculty when they need more teaching staffs. Other departments and faculties, the new employees almost come from the selection among the new graduations and from private relationships of leaders or managers. 22.214.171.124. Training and Development At TLU, there is no clear training and development system for the employees. There is a little priority for the teacher who wants to have further study. If she or he wants to take a course, he or she still can do it but without any financial support from the university. The only favor for that teacher is that he or she may have half of the compulsory teaching hours free for studying. For an admin staff who wants to take a post-graduate course, he or she cannot receive any favor in both financially or time arrangement. There can be only one choice for them if they want to have further study is that he or she can take a night-course, after working time and finance themselves. 126.96.36.199. Performance appraisal The appraisal management at TLU is also insufficient. The form is so simple and poorly designed that it cannot evaluate anything related to the performance of the employees. Thus, the directors all have the intention of just finish the form. There is no space for them to give detail comment about each of their staffs. 188.8.131.52. Compensation and Benefits Compensation system In comparison with other non-governmental university, TLU’s employees now enjoy a quite low-rate level of compensation. The average salary is VND 3,500,000 for admin staffs and VND 8,000,000 for teaching staff working full time. Almost employees at TLU now are not satisfied with its compensation system. There fore, the university cannot receive the best performance from them, especially the staffs at admin area. Welfare and remuneration policy Like the compensation system, the welfare and remuneration policy at TLU does not make the employees satisfied. These things are included the health care, social insurance, bonus for public and summer holiday, university’s support for private matters such as welding, funeral. 184.108.40.206. Labor relations
In general, TLU follows properly the Labor code of Vietnam. All the employee's right is based on the Labor law. It creates comfortable working environment. Furthermore, the labor relations also refer to the cooperation among employees in performing their tasks. This belongs to the organization's culture. Fortunately, TLU's employee is friendly and willing to help each other if necessary. 2.3. An Analysis of employees’ motivation at TLU 2.3.1. Analyzing tasks, duties and job performance standards of employees 220.127.116.11. Job analysis Without a clear job description at TLU, the new employee cannot know exactly their duties and responsibilities contained in a job. It is included what the employees do, how they do it, and the conditions under which they do it. Mostly, the employees know what to do by getting order or instruction from senior management such as Managers, the Rector, or even the Chairwoman. 32.5% of them know their tasks and duties by verbal talk at the final job interview. And the remaining of 6% thought that they work as they think it should be done by their way. Actually, when they do not know exactly what they have to do, therefore, the expectancy is low. Moreover, they do not have right direction or instruction to perform their task and duty properly. Consequently, they do not believe to receive reward through their performance. The employees also cannot perform their strength to receive a reward, as they do not know the clear requirements of the job; which may lead to the low level of valence. 18.104.22.168. Performance appraisal Without performance data, it cannot be equally evaluated the employee result in inequality reward, no feed back to employee for training and development. Once the regulation issued, but 68% of interviewees said that they do not know clearly. Among those persons who have been taken performance appraisal, 22% of interviewees are not satisfied with the result of evaluation. The remaining of 78% agrees with the result. Once they are dissatisfied they will not extend their effort as strong as before. Furthermore, the performance appraisal applied is not highly agreed by employees. 42% of the interviewees said that they do not agree with the current method. Thus, the method should be changed to guarantee the accurate and equality of evaluation. 2.3.2. Analyzing factors affecting to work performance of employees at TLU 22.214.171.124. Analyzing the working environment and conditions at TLU 14
Working environment and conditions play an important role in every workplace. In general, working environment at TLU is quite good. The university has a modern and well-equipped campus, which encourages both employees and students to create new ideas. 126.96.36.199. Analyzing the recruitment process at TLU The university lacks of a united system of recruitment at both areas of working: admin area and teaching area. The first problem occurs from defining the needs on human power at the university. Normally, the Board of Trustees (or the Board of Managers) will decide if there is a need of additional manpower or not mostly base on the number of new enrollment students. The second problem is that there is no clear and popular recruitment at almost admin positions in the university. The last problem is that there is little chance for promotion in the university, especially with the young employees. 188.8.131.52. Analyzing the job assignment 75% of interviewees thought that their professional was suitable with their ability at the time of recruitment. But only 48% of them said that they are now satisfied with their current position. Job assignment has been not based on their ability, experience, or knowledge just decided by Director in charge. Job assignment has been implemented unequally. It means that one person may take care a lot of works while the other one has nothing to do. This matter leads to low productivity. The point here is the person who takes care more works does not enjoy better pay. Consequently, their valence is low. 2.3.3. Incentive for employees 184.108.40.206. Financial incentives Salary and wages incentives As described above, the salary level applied to TLU’s employees cannot encourage the employees to work with high responsibility and effectiveness. Almost the employees want more valences. However, it is upon employee's personal values, experiences, and needs as well as macro motivational environment. Reward policy
Employees do not expect with their additional contribution to the university will received an additional reward. This means the valence that they hope to receive will not be likely. In general, the reward policy is not highly complimented by employees. The effect of the reward policy is not strong enough to encourage employees to work better. 220.127.116.11. Non-financial incentives Training and development There is a little priority of training and development policy at TLU. There is no training course for newcomer employees. The new comers are required to observe how their colleagues fulfill the tasks and finish themselves when they receive the order from the senior. The university rarely organizes supportive of soft-skills courses either. Thus, the employees mostly take the courses outside the university to improve their qualification and skills. Internal relation The existing internal relation in the university now is quite good. it is strongly supported to employees in
performing their jobs. In this aspect, it shows their expectancy is high.
However, it should be organized more exchange relations for employees in order to deeply understand each other and build good relationships. Organization’s culture The university is fundamentally organized around results and has developed a corporate culture as the foundation on which all members produces consistent and extraordinary results. TLU have invested substantial time and efforts in developing this culture, and it has had a remarkably positive impact on the results that the university hopes to achieve. 2.4. Summary 2.4.1. Organization The currently organization of TLU seems not to strongly support to the improvement of individual staff. It also does not encourage its employees to work better. It affects the Expectancy of the employees and makes difficulties to the performance appraisal that is important factor of the employees’ motivation. 2.4.2. HR Plan and Strategy Currently, TLU does not have a separated HR department as well as HR strategy, which accompanies and supports the operation plans. In order to reach the objective of being number one in university education and training market, it must be worked out the HR 16
strategy for each of stage of development. There is unavailable of HR strategy, therefore, the university does not have plan on human resource activities that involves the employee motivation on training & development, performance appraisal and promotion. 2.4.3. Job analysis The lack of job analysis does not strongly support the job assignment. The employee's strength is not appropriately considered to make them satisfy with their job. Moreover, it is not easy for the employee to receive reward, which is important element of the valence. 2.4.4. Recruitment and selection Because of unavailability of job analysis and job description, the recruitment and selection is not actively supported to the job performance objective. The method of recruitment applied is not strongly supported to the employee's motivation. They may not strongly believe that they can develop and improve here. It negatively impacts on the expectancy element of the motivation. 2.4.5. Training and development The university does not pay attention much on training and development. The employees do not believe to be trained here resulting in the expectancy is low. On the other hand, without training and development, the valence of motivation is low as well. 2.4.6. Performance appraisal The performance appraisal has not yet given the valuable information of employees as well as makes them satisfied with the evaluation result. This leads to low instrumentality of motivation. They do not believe a reward can be received once they complete the task. The valence also is low because the evaluation result is not a key factor to adjust their salary or reward. 2.4.7. Compensation system It is based on the salary table that has set up so far. This system may not suitable with the current situation of university and the country economic development. There are a number of shortcomings in the current compensation system. So, the role of compensation system as a factor of the Instrumentality is restrained.
CHAPTER 3: SOLUTIONS FOR MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES AT TLU 3.1. Recommendation on the general term As mentioned above, TLU's main objective is to achieve and maintain the position of number one non-governmental university in Vietnam. In order to reach this target, human resource management is play an essential role especially for the enhancement the motivation of the employees. Once the employees have high motivation, the organization will get the highest contribution from them, which can result in high achievement of organization. The employees’ motivation becomes more and more important for TLU who is now operating under the fierce competition in education sector in Vietnam. Regarding the enhancement of employee's motivation, the university should concentrate on the following issues: Firstly, it should have HR strategy, which strongly supports to the operation strategy. Of which the HR strategy will focus in detail on the method to motivate employees. Secondly, it should have separated HR department therefore it can be independent to operate. Thirdly, it also is advised that company should have a qualified HR manager either recruiting from outside or promoting from within the university. 3.2. Recommendation on the HRM term 3.2.1. Job analysis 18.104.22.168. Job description The first step that TLU has to do immediately is to make job description to all positions. This task will be carried out as the cooperation between the HR section and all directors of departments and faculties charge to review again and make a clear and adequate job description. Job description must be applied to all positions available in the organization in order to ensure that all employees get overall picture of their job. And it must be designed by both functional directors and director in charge to have detail and clear duties and responsibilities to be performed. 22.214.171.124. Job specification Job specification should be defined before having decision of recruiting new employee. Mainly HR manager and the directors of department or faculty will design job specification 18
because these persons will identify the necessary qualifications, experiences, skills and abilities required for an employee to perform the job properly. It is suggested that the university should strictly follow the job specification when recruiting new employee. In order to ensure the job will be performed well and guarantee their expectancy in completion a task, it must be checked carefully the candidate's information before making decision to recruit. The clearer job specification is, the higher expectancy of employee will be made. 126.96.36.199. Job standard All of the jobs available in TLU now must be standardized. This will help the organization to be easy in recruitment, replacement and evaluation. Job standard also will help TLU to define the need of training and development. Therefore, sooner or later, the organization should regulate the job standard for each position. In general, the job analysis in TLU currently is rather weak and poor. It is not considered as its role in HR management function. The university has not yet seen the uses of job analysis in HR planning, recruiting, selection, evaluation, training and compensation. Regarding the current situation of company to job analysis, it should be applied the combination of observation and interviews method to analyze the job. 3.2.2. Recruitment and selection process 188.8.131.52. Recruitment In order to attract a sufficient number of job candidates who have the abilities and aptitudes needed to help company achieve its objectives, TLU should focus on the following matters: Formulating a recruitment strategy: The HR section should be responsible for most recruiting activities; making procedures for advertising job openings, collecting information from prospective job applicants, and screening this information to form an applicant pool. Searching for job applicants: the purpose of this activity is to attract highly qualified applicants. The way of searching applicant and screening application will give the new employee how they estimate the expectancy. 184.108.40.206. Selection Selection decisions are important to the business strategy of any organization. Success depends on having good people who possess the right skills and motivation to make the company succeed. In order to have successful selection decision and guarantee the employee's motivation, TLU should follow the following principles: The first principle is 19
that past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior. The second principle is that the organization should collect as much reliable and valid data as economically feasible and then use it to select the best applicants. On the other hand, the current selection process applied in TLU now is not effective. Therefore, the university should add the below steps in the selection process so that it can select the best applicants: Step 1: Preliminary screening interview Reject the candidates who are obviously unqualified for the job opening Step 2: Application blanks Prepare application blank in order to get the meaningful employment information that may help the university make the accurate hiring decision Step 3: Interviews Get more information about the candidates through exchanging conversation before making selection decision Step 4: Employment testing Apply to all the positions all the tests that will measure mental abilities, physical abilities, knowledge, skills, personality, interests, temperaments, and other attitudes and behaviors Step 5: Reference checks and background investigation Make an investigation of previous employment, educational credentials, criminal activities, and general characteristics to appear the misrepresent information on the candidate's resumes and applications Step 6: Physical test Confirm the applicant is not suffered from affected diseases Step 7: Final interview Integrate all of the information that has been collected during the selection process and clarify information that is inconsistent or missing Step 8: Selection decision Send a job offer including Job specification to the new employee In conclusion, the recruitment and selection will give the new employee the message that they can estimate their expectancy. Their belief of completion a task or duty will be feasible as this process is effective and adequate.
3.2.3. Training and development Increase employees’ expectancy, in term of training and development TLU should follow the below steps: Step 1: Define the training need Determine what is needed to be trained within the organization, including: New hires: For new employees Promotion: when one employee moves into a position Transfers: when an individual has new responsibilities Appraisals: when a new skill of the present job that is not being done Special assignments: when an employee has a special assignment New policies: when there is a new policy from the government New products: when there is a new educational product such as sharing courses or international students exchange programs Step 2: Define the training contents The university should determine the content of training for each objective in each period of time. The following contents are suggested for TLU: Orientation training, Management skills/development, Skill development, Communication, Computer skills, Sales skills, Professional training Step 3: Develop a training plan The plan will indicate what and how to implement the training. The training plan must be included type of training, who are the trainers, trainees, where and when to deliver the training, what facility used and finally the training evaluation. Step 4: Select relevant training types TLU should choose the appropriate types of training for each content and objective. There are a number of training types, which may be suitable for the university, such as: On-the-job Training, Lectures, Simulations Training, Business Games Step 5: Evaluate the training Two important issues must be addressed. The first issue concerns: What are the important criteria by which training program should be evaluated? Is the objective of training to achieve a change in behavior, a change in attitude, or a change in the university? The second one concerning to the question: When and from whom should data be collected to assess the effects of training? 21
3.2.4. Performance appraisal In order to improve the instrumentality element of the motivation, TLU should improve its performance appraisal. 3.2.5. Compensation system In order to improve the employee's motivation through the valence element, the following recommendations are proposed to TLU: Firstly, the university should adjust the beginning salary level applied to all positions in order to ensure externally equitable relative to employees doing similar work in other private universities in Vietnam. Moreover, it should ensure to attract an adequate supply of labor, to keep present employees reasonably satisfied with the level of their compensation. Secondly, TLU should adjust the salary for present keys managers who do not taking part in teaching activities. The adjustment should be applied to assure equitability, motivation, and appropriate cost.