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Metaphors used in food and drink advertising slogans in english (with reference to vietnamese) a study from cognitive perspective

VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI
UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
FACULTY OF POST–GRADUATE STUDIES
----------

LÊ THỊ KIM NHUNG

METAPHORS USED IN FOOD AND DRINK ADVERTISING SLOGANS IN
ENGLISH (WITH REFERENCE TO VIETNAMESE): A STUDY FROM
COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
ẨN DỤ ĐƯỢC SỬ DỤNG TRONG CÁC KHẨU HIỆU QUẢNG CÁO ĐỒ ĂN
VÀ ĐỒ UỐNG BẰNG TIẾNG ANH (CÓ QUY CHIẾU VỚI TIẾNG VIỆT):
NGHIÊN CỨU THEO GÓC ĐỘ TRI NHẬN

M.A. MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS

Field: English Linguistics
Code: 60220201

HANOI – 2017



VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI
UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
FACULTY OF POST–GRADUATE STUDIES
----------

LÊ THỊ KIM NHUNG

METAPHORS USED IN FOOD AND DRINK ADVERTISING SLOGANS IN
ENGLISH (WITH REFERENCE TO VIETNAMESE): A STUDY FROM
COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
ẨN DỤ ĐƯỢC SỬ DỤNG TRONG CÁC KHẨU HIỆU QUẢNG CÁO ĐỒ ĂN
VÀ ĐỒ UỐNG BẰNG TIẾNG ANH (CÓ QUY CHIẾU VỚI TIẾNG VIỆT):
NGHIÊN CỨU THEO GÓC ĐỘ TRI NHẬN

M.A. MINOR PROGRAMME THESIS

Field: English Linguistics
Code: 60220201
Supervisor: Trần Thị Thu Hiền, Ph.D.

HANOI – 2017


DECLARATION
I hereby certify my authority of the Minor Programme Thesis submitted
entitled “Metaphors used in food and drink advertising slogans in English (with
reference to Vietnamese): A study from cognitive perspective” in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts and this thesis has not been
submitted for any degree at any other university or institution.

Hanoi, 2017
Signature

Lê Thị Kim Nhung

i


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


This thesis would have been far from accomplishment without my
supervisor, my lecturers, my family, and friends. Therefore, it is time for me to send
my sincerity to them all.
First of all, I would like to express the deepest gratitude to my supervisor,
Tran Thi Thu Hien, Ph.D., for her invaluable guide and advice on my thesis since
the day I revealed my ideas. I absolutely appreciate the support and knowledge that
she has invested in my work.
My sincere thanks also go to the lecturers at the Faculty of Post-Graduate
Studies for their deep explanations and useful lectures.
My profound thanks and deep gratitude go to my family and my friends for
their valuable support and encouragement.

ii


ABSTRACT
The thesis focuses on analyzing metaphors used in food and drink
advertising slogans in English with reference to those in Vietnamese from cognitive
perspective. The research also reflects some previous studies of metaphors used in
advertising context. The major theoretical basis of the study is Lakoff and Johnson‟s
theory of metaphor, which lays a foundation for a specific classification of 50
advertising

slogans

entity/substance”,

divided

into

four

“Feeling/Desire

“Locations/Characteristics

are

different
is

locations”,

groups:
an

and

“The

“Life

is

an

entity/substance”,
product

is

an

entity/substance”. When the classification is done, the slogans are described and
main findings are presented: From cognitive perspective, metaphor is central to our
thought, structures our thought, and is the process of embodied cross-domain
mapping. Abstract target domains, such as “life”, “feeling”, and “state”, can be
understood by more concrete source domains, such as “entity” or “substance”. The
“life” and “feeling/desire” metaphors contribute to a large portion of metaphors
used in food and drink advertising slogans. Conceptual metaphor is used widely to
help people understand an abstract concept by referring to a concrete one.
Ontological metaphor is one of the most common subtypes of conceptual metaphor
in both slogans in English and those in Vietnamese. However, differences in beliefs,
values, and culture, especially culinary culture, between Vietnam and Englishspeaking countries may result in differences in advertised items, the frequency of
target domains, and types and subtypes of metaphor used in slogans.

iii


TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ........................................................................................................ i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................................................................................................... ii
ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................. iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................... iv
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS ....................vi
LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................... vii
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................1
1.1. Rationale ............................................................................................................. 1
1.2. Aim and objectives of the study .......................................................................... 2
1.3. Research questions ..............................................................................................2
1.4. Research methods................................................................................................ 2
1.5. Scope of the study ...............................................................................................2
1.6. Significance of the study .....................................................................................3
1.7. Organization of the study .................................................................................... 4
CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE
REVIEW …………………………………………………………………………...5
2.1. Definitions of metaphor ....................................................................................... 5
2.2. Classification of metaphor ................................................................................... 7
2.2.1. Conceptual/Conventional metaphor ............................................................. 7
2.2.2. Mixed metaphor .......................................................................................... 11
2.2.3. New metaphor ............................................................................................. 12
2.3. Metaphor versus other ways of meaning transference ......................................14
2.3.1. Metaphor versus simile ............................................................................... 14
2.3.2. Metaphor versus metonymy ........................................................................ 14
2.4. Advertising slogans ........................................................................................... 15
2.4.1. Definitions of slogans and adverting slogans ............................................. 15
2.4.2. Purposes of advertising slogans ................................................................. 15
2.5. Previous studies of metaphor in advertising .....................................................16
iv


CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................................ 18
3.1. Research approaches .........................................................................................18
3.2. Research samples ..............................................................................................19
3.2.1. Data source ................................................................................................. 19
3.2.2. Description of research samples ................................................................ 20
3.3. Data collection procedures ................................................................................21
3.4. Data analysis procedures ...................................................................................21
CHAPTER 4: METAPHORS IN FOOD AND DRINK ADVERTISING
SLOGANS ...............................................................................................................23
4.1. “Life is an entity/substance” .............................................................................23
4.2. “Feeling/Desire is an entity/substance” ............................................................27
4.3. “States/Characteristics are locations” ...............................................................32
4.4. “The product is an entity/substance” ................................................................33
CHAPTER 5: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ..................................................39
5.1. Subtypes of food and drink in English advertising slogans with reference to
those in Vietnamese .................................................................................................40
5.2. Target domains in English food and drink advertising slogans with reference to
those in Vietnamese .................................................................................................41
5.3. Types of metaphors in English food and drink advertising slogans with
reference to those in Vietnamese .............................................................................42
5.3.1. Conceptual metaphor in food and drink advertising slogans .................... 43
5.3.2. New metaphor in food and drink advertising slogans ................................ 44
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION ..............................................................................46
6.1. Summary ............................................................................................................ 46
6.2. Implications .......................................................................................................47
6.3. Limitations of the study .....................................................................................48
6.4. Suggestions for further studies ..........................................................................48
REFERENCES .......................................................................................................50
APPENDIXES .......................................................................................................... I

v


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS
1e: each slogan is assigned a number in the list of slogans in English.
1v: each slogan is assigned a number in the list of slogans in Vietnamese.
“Bold letters or sentences” are used for target domains, source domains, and
metaphors.
Italics type is used for slogans, terms and metaphorical expressions.

vi


LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: Information on food and drink advertising slogans used for research
analysis ......................................................................................................... 21
Table 5.1: Subtypes of food and drink used in 25 advertising slogans in English and
those in Vietnamese .................................................................................... 40
Table 5.2: Target domains used in food and drink advertising slogans in English and
in those in Vietnamese ................................................................................ 41
Table 5.3: The general frequency of each metaphor type in the whole 25 food and
drink advertising slogans in English and those in Vietnamese .................... 42
Table 5.4: The frequency of each sub-types of Conceptual metaphor in food and
drink advertising slogans in English and in Vietnamese ............................. 43
Table 5.5: The frequency of each sub-types of New metaphor in food and drink
advertising slogans in English and in Vietnamese ....................................... 44

vii


CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
This chapter aims to provide with the most general information about what is
included in the study and how it is carried out.
1.1. Rationale
Metaphor, a figure of speech, is utilized so widely that sometimes it is used
subconsciously. According to Lakoff and Turner (1989:1), it is “omnipresent”,
“accessible to everyone” and “irreplaceable”. It is used in our daily life to help us
understand the world around us by referring an abstract to a concrete one. In the
field of cognitive linguistics, it has been widely accepted that metaphor constitutes
and constructs human thoughts and it is argued that metaphor is the cross domain
mapping between the source domain and the target domain.
Metaphor has also been widely used in the field of advertising. Advertising,
as one of the most efficient ways of publicizing products, has become an
indispensable part of our life and “a major manifestation of conceptual metaphors”
(Kövecses 2002: 59). Slogans of advertising, perhaps, are some of the most
powerful component elements of all the advertisements. They are widely used to
attract potential consumers‟ attention and may be an indispensable part of
advertisements. The selling power of the advertisements largely depends on the
conceptual metaphors, pictures or words used in them. A well-chosen metaphor will
greatly prompt people‟s desire to buy a certain product.
Therefore, a study on “Metaphors used in food and drink advertising slogans
in English (with reference to Vietnamese): A study from cognitive perspective” has
been chosen with the main focus on the advertising slogans in the field of food and
drink. The study also describes slogans to exploit metaphors used in slogans in
English with reference to those in Vietnamese to find out how metaphors are used
in these slogans from cognitive perspective.

1


1.2. Aim and objectives of the study
This study mainly focuses on the metaphors used in food and drink advertising
slogans in English with reference to those in Vietnamese from cognitive
perspective. The objectives are as follows.
-

To identify and describe metaphors used in food and drink advertising
slogans in English with reference to those in Vietnamese.

-

To find out similarities and differences in the use of metaphors in food and
drink advertising slogans in English and those in Vietnamese.

1.3. Research questions
The study answers two research questions:
1)

How are metaphors used in food and drink advertising slogans in

English with reference to those in Vietnamese?
2)

What are similarities and differences between metaphors used in food

and drink advertising slogans in English and those in Vietnamese?
1.4. Research methods
The main research method is descriptive method. It provides in-depth
descriptions of food and drink advertising slogans. Qualitative method is necessary
to establish the theoretical framework, examine the data, and draw conclusions.
Quantitative method has been deployed in collecting and processing the data.
Contrastive analysis is used to find out similarities and differences between
metaphors used in food and drink advertising slogans in English and those in
Vietnamese.
1.5. Scope of the study
In a scope of a minor study, it is impossible for the researcher to cover all
English and Vietnamese advertising slogans in general and advertising slogans for
food and drink products in particular. Consequently, in this study only 50 food and
drink advertising slogans (25 slogans in English and 25 slogans in Vietnamese) with
metaphorical expressions are collected from different sources including
adslogans.co.uk, Textart Database, Wikipedia, and Google. These slogans were

2


advertised from 2000 to 2015. Slogans which do not express any metaphorical
concept and do not belong to food and drink categories are not described and
analyzed in the study.
As the application of metaphors in advertising slogans is quite huge and
diversified, and the number of slogans has been increasing year after year, the
analysis is supposed to be selective rather than comprehensive.
1.6. Significance of the study
This study has attempted to investigate different metaphors employed in food
and drink advertising slogans in English with reference to Vietnamese.
Theoretically, the study is hoped to have provided thorough investigation so as to
support or contradict the already-existing theories on the subject matter. For
example, there is a theory in which metaphor is thought to be a property of words
and to be a linguistic phenomenon; according to another theory, metaphor is a
property of concepts, and not of words.
In social life, metaphors can be useful. They lead to a kind of an intimate
atmosphere between the speakers. This creates a link based on same or, at least,
similar experiences and interests. As a matter of fact, metaphors used in advertising
slogans can help attract consumers, arouse their interests, and promote the selling
power of the product. Although there are many studies concerning metaphors and
advertising slogans, this study may help advertisers and marketers create more
effective advertising slogans and provide researchers, teachers, and learners with
different ways of approaching cultural issues, communicative competence, and the
use of many figures of speech. Collecting slogans in English and Vietnamese
seems to be not a very difficult task. However, that finding out slogans with
metaphorical expressions and analyzing them in four groups according to concept of
metaphor to analyze and understand their messages they convey from cognitive
perspective has created one significant point for the study. Furthermore, that the use
of metaphors in two languages is contrasted to find out the similarities and
differences is another significance of the study.

3


1.7. Organization of the study
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION serves as an explanation for the reason why
the study is conducted, and worth being carried out. In addition, the study also states
a brief account of relevant information including the rationale, aim and objectives,
research questions, research methods, scope, significance, and organization of the
study.
Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW begins by stating the definition of
metaphor, the typical classification of metaphor by Lakoff and Johnson. This is
followed by other ways of meaning transference and advertising slogans. This
chapter also reflects different previous studies of metaphors in advertising.
Chapter 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY refers to the research approach
used in the study and the methods of collecting and analyzing data to help the
researcher achieve the best results in the study.
Chapter 4: METAPHORS IN FOOD AND DRINK ADVERTISING
SLOGANS describes and analyzes metaphors used in slogans in English from
cognitive perspective with reference to those in Vietnamese.
Chapter 5: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION presents main findings and
discussion.
Chapter 6: CONCLUSION summarizes main findings and provides the
implications of the study to the creating process of advertising slogans in general
and food and drinks slogans in particular, limitations, and some suggestions for
further studies.
To sum up, chapter 1 explains for the reason why the study is conducted, and
worth being carried out. The study also states a brief account of relevant
information.

4


CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter provides a theoretical background and a brief of key terms related
to the issues of the study: metaphor and advertising slogans.
2.1. Definitions of metaphor
Metaphor expressions abound in most aspects of life, such as in daily
conversations, in literature, and in advertising. There are several definitions of
metaphors.
Aristotle, who was first to provide a scholarly treatment of metaphors, gives a
more detailed definition of the term metaphor. He said that a metaphor ”consists in
giving the thing a name that belongs to something else; the transference being
either from genius to species, or from species to genus, or from species to species,
or on the ground of analogy.” (Gibbs 1994: 210)
Richards, I.A. (1929, 1936, 1938) went further. He gave a terminology which is
still used nowadays when talking about metaphors. For him a metaphor has two
terms, called topic and vehicle. The latter one is the term used metaphorically.
These two terms have a relationship called ground. (Gibbs 1994: 211)
A metaphor is a literary figure of speech that describes a subject by asserting
that it is, on some point of comparison, the same as another otherwise unrelated
object. Metaphor is a type of analogy and is closely related to other
rhetorical figures of speech that achieve their effects via association, comparison or
resemblance including allegory, hyperbole, and simile.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metaphor)
All these definitions have in common that they speak of two terms which a
related to each other because of the similarities they have, but they also limit the
function of metaphors to embellish the language. (Baldauf, C. 1997: 14)
Traditional concept can be briefly characterized by pointing out five of its most
commonly accepted features.
-

Metaphor is a property of words; it is a linguistic phenomenon.

5


-

Metaphor is used for some artistic and rhetorical purpose, such as when
Shakespeare writes “all the world’s a stage”.

-

Metaphor is based on resemblance between the two entities that are
compared and identified.

-

Metaphor is a conscious and deliberate use of words, and you must have
a special talent to be able to do it and do it well. Only great poets or
eloquent speakers can be its masters.

-

It is also commonly held that metaphor is a figure of speech that we can
do without, we use it for special effects, and it is not an inevitable part of
everyday human communication.

According to Galperin (1981), metaphor is a relation between the dictionary
and contextual logical meanings based on the affinity or similarity of certain
properties of two corresponding concepts. Metaphors play an important role in
defining our everyday realities.
In cognitive linguistics, metaphor is defined as understanding one conceptual
domain in terms of another conceptual domain. A source domain that is typically
concrete is used to explain a target domain that is typically abstract. Lakoff and
Johnson view metaphor as a systematic conceptualization of certain domains of
experience in terms of other domains of experience (Lakoff & Johnson 1980: 139).
They also come from a cognitive perspective of metaphor, explaining how
metaphor changes our views, and they rely upon the cognitive components in their
theory, focusing on human thought processes. According to Lakoff and Johnson
(2003: 4), metaphor exists everywhere and plays an important role in everyday life.
It exists not only in language but in thought and action as well. The mapping is
primary. It sanctions the use of source domain language and inference patterns for
target domain concepts. The language is secondary. In other words, metaphor is
central to our thought, structures our thought, and is the process of embodied crossdomain mapping.

6


In short, Lakoff and Johnson challenged the deeply entrenched view of metaphor by
claiming that:
-

Metaphor is a property of concepts, and not of words.

-

The function of metaphor is to better understand certain concepts, and not
just some artistic or esthetic purpose.

-

Metaphor is often not based on similarity.

-

Metaphor is used effortlessly in everyday life by ordinary people, not just by
special talented people.

-

Metaphor, far from being a superfluous though pleasing linguistic ornament,
is an inevitable process of human thought and reasoning.

-

Lakoff and Johnson showed convincingly that metaphor is pervasive both in
thought and everyday language.

In this study, the investigation of metaphor is based on the two definitions by
Galperin and Lakoff, the former of which serves our exploration to seek the words
and expressions denoting metaphor based on the association of similarities whereas
the latter is useful in seeking the conceptual schemata‟s for metaphor in a variety of
aspects of life in different genres.
2.2. Classification of metaphor
There are different ways of classifying metaphors. From cognitive perspective,
it is better to comprehend metaphors in Lakoff and Johnson‟s classification.
According to Lakoff and Johnson, metaphors can be divided into conceptual
metaphor (with three basic subtypes: ontological metaphor, structural metaphor,
and orientational metaphor), mixed metaphor, and new metaphor.
2.2.1. Conceptual/Conventional metaphor
In cognitive linguistics, a conceptual metaphor is a metaphor or a figurative
comparison in which one idea (or conceptual domain) is understood in terms of
another. A convenient way to capture this view of metaphor is “Conceptual
domain (A) is conceptual domain (B)” (Kövecses 2002: 4). The two domains
involved in a conceptual metaphor are called the target domain and the source

7


domain. The conceptual domain from which we draw metaphorical expressions to
understand another conceptual domain is known as the source domain. The
conceptual domain that is understood in this way is the target domain. In other
words, the source domain is used to understand the target domain. Normally the
target domain is more abstract and the source domain is more concrete. (Kövecses
2002: 4). Take conceptual metaphor “Life is a journey” as an example. Here, the
concept of journey (the source domain) is used to understand the highly abstract
concept of life (the target domain). This conceptual metaphor is not directly used in
everyday life but is realized by metaphorical linguistic expressions (Kövecses
2002:3), such as the following:
He‟s without direction in life.
I‟m where I want to be in life.
I‟m at a crossroad in my life.
The mapping of a source domain onto the target domain is the way metaphor
transfers meaning from one area to another. A mapping is the systematic set of
correspondences that exist between constituent elements of the source and the target
domain. For example, there is a set of mappings between the source and the target
in the conceptual metaphor “Life is a journey” (Kövecses 2002:6).
Source: Journey

Target: Life

the travelers



the people

companions



friends

guides



people who give us suggestions

the starting point



birth

distance covered



events experienced

the obstacles encountered



the difficulties met

different roads



different choices

the destinations and stops



the goals and achievements

the end of the journey



death

8


It can be seen from the example above that the constituent elements of the
conceptual domain “Journey” are in systematic correspondence with constituent
elements of the conceptual domain “Life”.
Metaphorical entailments, a common property of conceptual metaphors, are
produced when rich additional knowledge about a source is mapped onto a target
(Kövecses 2002: 94). For example, in the metaphor “An argument is a journey”,
the constituent element that the journey happens along the road is mapped to the
progress of an argument, but we also have the additional knowledge that sometimes
we can leave the main path and stray from it.
Lakoff and Johnson (1980, 2003) identify three categories of conceptual
metaphors: ontological metaphor, structural metaphor and orientational metaphor.
2.2.1.1. Ontological metaphor
Ontological metaphors can also be understood as entity and substance
metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson 2003:26). It is is perceived as a metaphor in which
“an abstraction, such as an activity, emotion, or idea, is represented as something
concrete, such as an object, substance, container, or person”. This means that we
can “refer to them, categorize them, group them, and qualify them” (Lakoff and
Johnson 2003:26). Take the “Inflation is an entity” metaphor (Lakoff and Johnson
2003:27) as an example. Inflation is understood as an entity and it enables us to
refer to and qualify it in the following sentences (Lakoff and Johnson 2003: 27):
Inflation is lowering our standard of living.
Inflation is hacking us in to a corner.
Among all the physical objects, human thoughts and characteristics may be
the most familiar physical entity to us. As a result, a wide range of abstract concepts
are conceptualized as human beings. Personification can also be conceived as an
extension of ontological metaphors, for the reason that the source domain is
furthered specified as a person and human characteristics are applied to nonhuman
entities (Lakoff and Johnson 2003:35). The above “Inflation is an entity”

9


metaphor can sometimes be written as “Inflation is a person” based on the
following examples (Lakoff and Johnson 2003: 34):
Inflation has attacked the foundation of our economy.
Our biggest enemy right now is inflation.
In a detailed manner, this metaphor is further classified into container
metaphor, where one concept is represented as having an inside and outside, and
capable of holding something else, and entity metaphor, in which an abstraction is
represented as a concrete physical object, or maybe a person (personification).
Another subtype of ontological metaphor is substance metaphor via the use of
which, an abstract entity such as idea, emotion, event or activity is represented as a
solid material. As can be seen in the following examples, these kinds of ontological
metaphors are quite clearly illustrated:
Life is empty for him. (Container metaphor)
Her ego is very fragile. (Entity metaphor)
Inflation is eating up our profits. (Personification)
There was a lot of good running in the race. (Substance metaphor)
2.2.1.2. Structural metaphor
Structural metaphors are “cases where one concept is metaphorically
structured in terms of another” (Lakoff and Johnson 2003: 14). In structural
metaphors, rich structure knowledge is provided by the source domain for the target
concept. By the structure of the source, the speakers are able to understand the
target. The understanding process happens when the elements of the source are
conceptually mapped onto the elements of the target (Kövecses 2002: 33). For
example,
“Love is a journey”
We can‟t turn back now.
We‟re at a crossroads.
I don‟t think this relation is going anywhere.

10


Here, love is structured according to journey and we can get the following
mappings in this metaphor:
Source: Journey

Target: Love

travelers



lovers

vehicle



relationship

destination



goal

obstacles



difficulties

speed



intensity

forward



growth

Our concept and understanding of love is structured and understood in this
way. Without structural metaphor, it would be difficult to understand and imagine
what our concept of love would be.
2.2.1.3. Orientational metaphor
According to Lakoff and Johnson (2003: 14), orientational metaphor
“organizes a whole system of concepts with respect to one another” since “most of
them have to do with spatial orientation: up-down, in-out, front-back, on-off, deepshallow, central-peripheral”. The cognitive function of orientational metaphor is a
series of target concepts coherent in our conceptual system. It could sometimes be
called a “coherence metaphor”. Orientational metaphors give a concept a spatial
orientation; for example, an upward orientation characterizes certain target
concepts, while their opposite concepts are characterized by a downward
orientation.
“Happy is up”; “Sad is down”: I‟m feeling up today. He‟s really low these days.
“Good is up”; “Bad is down”: Things are looking up. Things are at an all-time
low.
(Lakoff and Johnson 2003: 14, 15)
2.2.2. Mixed metaphor
According to Lakoff and Johnson (1980: 92, 95), mixed metaphors can be
understood as different metaphors occurring in the same utterance, especially the

11


same sentence, to express the same concept. Mixed metaphors is divided into
impermissible mixed metaphors which conflict because they serve different
purposes and permissible mixed metaphors which do not conflict with each other
because they serve the same purpose, and/or exhibit a correlation with each other.
Mixed metaphors often, but not always, result in a conflict of concepts.
In the following sentences, a mixture of the argument-as-journey and
argument-as-container metaphors is presented. The first three sentences are
acceptable; however, the last two are marginally acceptable.
At this point our argument doesn‟t have much content.
In what we‟ve done so far, we have provided the core of our argument.
If we keep going the way we’re going, we‟ll fit all the facts in.
We can now follow the path of the core of the argument.
The content of the argument proceeds as follows…
2.2.3. New metaphor
Metaphor can be regarded as “an essential characteristic of the creativity of
language” or “deviant and parasitic upon normal use” (Ortony 1993: 2). Metaphors
used in creative works, such as literary works, advertisements and films, are
different from metaphors in our everyday life. They are usually more creative and
new. In Lakoff and Johnson‟s affirmation, “such metaphors are capable of giving a
new understanding of experience. Thus, they can give new meaning to our pasts, to
our daily activity, and to what we know and believe.”
In order to create new metaphors, several devices have to be employed in the
reworking of normal and everyday language. These include extending, elaborating,
questioning, and combining (Kövecses 2002: 47). Here only extending, elaborating
and combining will be explained since these three appear most frequently in the
material that is described and analyzed in chapter 4.
2.2.3.1. Extending
Extending is recognized when a new conceptual element is introduced in the
source domain to an already existing conventional metaphor and the ordinary

12


conceptual metaphor is expressed by new metaphorical linguistic expressions. Take
the following linguistic expressions as examples (Kövecses 2002: 47):
Two roads diverged in a wood, and
I took the one less travelled by.
In the middle of life’s road
I found myself in a dark wood.
It can be seen that the conventional metaphor “Life is a journey” is utilized
and at the same time the ordinary metaphor is expressed in a new way. The novelty
added is in this case by using and extending conventional metaphors. Despite the
very same destination both roads lead to, there is one road less or more traveled
than the other and one‟s road may go through a dark wood. An “unused” element is
added in the creative process (Kövecses 2002: 47).
2.2.3.2. Elaborating
Quite different from extending, in elaborating, people elaborate on an
already existing element of the source in detail rather than adding a new element to
the source domain (Kövecses 2002: 47).
According to Lakoff and Turner (1989: 67-69), Horace‟s metaphorical
expression “eternal exile of the raft” is used to refer to death. The conventional
metaphor “Death is departure” is reflected in this expression, but is elaborated by
detailing the type and means of departure (exile and raft). It includes details instead
of adding new elements from the source.
2.2.3.3. Combining
To create novel metaphors, several conventional everyday metaphors can be
combined in a single metaphorical linguistic expression. It is said to be “perhaps the
most powerful mechanism to go beyond our everyday conceptual system” (Kövecses
2002: 49).
Example: You took away the light of my life.
In this sentence, light is understood as a substance that can be took away and
life is understood as a substance that has light. At least there are two conventional

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metaphors combined here, namely “Life is a substance” and “A life time is a
day”. The combination of conventional metaphors thus enables the creation of new
ones.
2.3. Metaphor versus other ways of meaning transference
2.3.1. Metaphor versus simile
Galperin (1981) gives the comparison between simile and metaphor. Both
similes and metaphors link one thing to another. A simile is a comparison using
“like” or “as” while functional words like “like” or “as‟‟ are ellipses in metaphors.
A metaphor creates a relationship directly and leaves more to the imagination. With
simile A is like B. With metaphor A is B. In Vietnamese, words are simile là, như,
giống như, tựa như, như là, như thể…
Metaphor: “Life is a journey”
Simile: “Life is like a journey”
2.3.2. Metaphor versus metonymy
Lakoff and Johnson (1980: 36) explain that metaphor and metonymy are
different kinds of processes. Metaphor is principally a way of conceiving of one
thing in term of another. Metonymy, on the other hand, has primarily a referential
function. In other words, one entity is used to stand for another. Metonymy is not
only merely a referential device, but also serves the function of providing
understanding.
Galperin (1981) distinguishes the stylistic device based on the principle of
identification of two objects called metaphor while metonymy is the stylistic device
based on the principle of substitution of one object for another. Another difference
between metaphor and metonymy is that a metaphor acts by suppressing an idea
while metonymy acts by combining ideas. Metaphor is used for substitution and
condensation, while metonymy is used for combination and displacement.

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2.4. Advertising slogans
2.4.1. Definitions of slogans and adverting slogans
According to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (1995: 1349),
“a slogan is a short easily-remembered phrase used by an advertiser, a politician,
etc.”
In general, a slogan is a memorable motto used in political, commercial,
religious, and other contexts as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose. In the
particular case of an advertising slogan, it is a verbal logo normally appearing just
beneath or beside the brand name or the logo of the product. In other words, a
slogan is a condensed message of the whole advertisement which advertisers want
their customers to remember most. It is the usual case that slogans come to
customers‟ mind first when they think about the products.
According to Whittier (1958: 11), a slogan should be a statement of such
merit about a product or service that it is worthy of continuous repetition in
advertising, is worthwhile for the public to remember, and is phrased in such a way
that the public is likely to remember it.
Rein (1982: 49) defines an advertising slogan as a "unique phrase identified
with a company or brand". It is often a summarized "big idea" which gives the
product or the company a concept in the contracted form and "ties together all of
the elements in an advertising campaign" (Rein, 1982: 54). A slogan has "to say
something about the product uniqueness or values" and it "should command
attention, be memorable and be brief" (Rein, 1982: 54).
2.4.2. Purposes of advertising slogans
According to Abreu et al. (2005: 42), slogans can be used for the following
general purposes:
-

To express especially the main advantage of the product

-

To identify clearly the advertised product

-

To attract the addressee‟s attention

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The reason why a slogan commonly appears together with the
logo of the product is to ensure that if customers get nothing from the
advertisement, they can get from the slogan instead. Moreover, in a
printed advert, a slogan often comes next to the logo as an example
of KFC‟s.
In case readers just have a glance at the most noticeable position in the paper,
the logo, they must have a look at the slogan at the same time so in this way,
advertisers may reach their purpose of transmitting the key message of the
advertisement.
2.5. Previous studies of metaphor in advertising
Due to the interdisciplinary nature and the massive exploitation of metaphors
in advertising, quite a vast amount of research has been so far carried out. Below are
some examples.
Elizabeth M. Anderson (1998) has investigated the use of metaphor in online advertising. The research provides advertisers beneficial competitive
information when developing an on-line presence. It finds out the most common
type of metaphor used in on-line advertising in 1998. In evaluating the metaphor
usage of commercial web sites, it is verbo-pictorial, clickable, and working
metaphors that are the most effective and present the least risk to advertisers on the
web. It also presents the difference between metaphor usage in shopping versus
non-shopping web sites and the influencing factors that account for these
differences. However, metaphor and subtypes of metaphor used in on-line
advertising have their own characteristics and different ways of analysis. No
comparison or reference to other languages is presented in the research.
Chennan Yu (2009), from Kristianstad University College, has analyzed
metaphors in food advertising slogans. The study identifies and analyzes both the
conceptual metaphors and the creative metaphorical linguistic expressions used in
20 slogans in English and the possible reasons why a certain source domain is
chosen for a certain target domain. There is no comparison between advertising

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