Contents Cover Title page Copyright page Dedication Preface Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Opening Remarks 1.2 Research Questions Asked Chapter 2: Delinearized History of Economics and Energy 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The European Tract of Economics History 2.3 Transition of Money 2.4 The Nature Science Tract of Economics History 2.5 Connection to Energy Chapter 3: The Incompatibility of Conventional Economic Analysis Tools with Sustainability Models 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Current Economic State of the World 3.3 The Status of the Money God
3.4 The Current Economic Models 3.5 The Illogicality of Current Theories 3.6 The Delinearized History of Modern Economics 3.7 The Transition of Robotization 3.8 Yellow Gold vs. Black Gold 3.9 How Science and Economics Mimic the Same Aphenomenality Notes Chapter 4: State-of-the Art of Current Technology Development 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Denaturing for a Profit 4.3 Aphenomenal Theories of the Modern Era 4.4 The Sugar Culture and Beyond 4.5 The Culture of the Artificial Sweetener 4.6 Delinearized history of Saccharin® and the Money Trail
4.7 The Culture of Aspartame 4.8 The Honey-Sugar-Saccharin-Aspartame Degradation in Everything 4.9 Assessing the Overall Performance of a Process Chapter 5: Comprehensive Analysis of Energy Sustainability 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Sustainability in the Information Age and Environmental Insult 5.3 Climate Change Hysteria 5.4 The Energy Crisis 5.5 Petroleum in the Big Picture 5.6 Science of Healthy Energy and Mass Chapter 6: The Islamic Track of Economical Analysis 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Function of Gold Dinars and a New Paradigm for Economic Analyses 6.3 Labor Theory of Value 6.4 Zero Waste Economy 6.5 Role of Government in State’s Economy 6.6 Macroeconomy and Theory on Money 6.7 The Optimum Lifestyle 6.8 The Gold Standard for Sustainable Economy Chapter 7: Framework of Economics of Sustainable Energy 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Delinearized History of Modern Age 7.3 Petroleum Refining and Conventional Catalysts 7.4 The New Synthesis
7.5 The New Investment Model, Conforming to the Information Age Chapter 8: Economics of Sustainable Energy Operations 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Issues in Petroleum Operations 8.3 Critical Evaluation of Current Petroleum Practices 8.4 Greening of Petroleum Operations 8.5 Zero-Waste Operations 8.6 Characteristic Time 8.7 Quality of Energy Chapter 9: Role of Government in Assuring Energy Sustainability 9.1 Introduction
9.2 The U.S. Government 9.3 The Wealth Paradigm 9.4 Zero Interest 9.5 Zero-Waste Economics Chapter 10: Summary and Conclusions 10.1 Summary 10.2 Answers to the Research Questions Chapter 11: References and Bibliography Index End User License Agreement
List of Illustrations Chapter 1 Figure 1.1 Knowledge model vs. aphenomenal model. Figure 1.2 Congressional approval rate for last 32 years (Gallup data). Figure 1.3 Nature is inherently sustainable (From Khan and Islam, 2007). Chapter 2 Figure 2.1 If truth criteria are not met, time only increases ignorance and false confidence. Figure 2.2 New science only added more arrogance, blended with ignorance to Dogma science. Figure 2.3 Exchange of goods can cause economic growth or collapse, depending on the starting point (solid circle: natural starting point; hollow circle: unnatural/artificial starting point). Figure 2.4 Rise of bitcoin transactions. Figure 2.5 Miner fee rise in 2016–2017 (from website 1). Figure 2.6 Price of Bitcoin from inception to the end of 2017. Figure 2.8 World reserve of gold. (from Gold Reserve, Inc.) Figure 2.9 US Annual gold production. (From California Gold Mining, Inc.) Figure 2.10 Gold price fluctuations since 1971 decoupling of gold and US dollars (From onlygold.com). Figure 2.11 Inflation adjusted price of gold (from Rowlatt, 2013). Figure 2.12 U.S. mine production of silver from 1860 to 2000. Total production
prior to 1860 was estimated to be 25 metrics tons (t) (Data from USGS, 2018a). Figure 2.13 Silver reserve in top silver reserve countries (from Statistia, 2018c). Figure 2.14 Silver/gold price in USA (from https://goldprice.org/gold-pricehistory.html). Figure 2.15 Gold/Silver ratio distribution (From Fulp, 2016). Figure 2.16 Showing rarest metals (from Haxel et al., 2002). Figure 2.17 Variation in “gold dollar” and “petrodollar” (left y-axis represents gold price in $/oz, while right y-axis represents crude oil price (in $/bbl), from American Bullion, Inc. Figure 2.18 Variation of gold price and oil price during 1987–2012, From American Bullion, Inc. Chapter 3 Figure 3.1 The rich are benefitting the most from the stock market’s historic run (Wile, 2018). Figure 3.2 Past and future projection of shares of global wealth of the top 1% and bottom 99% (Oxfam Report, 2018). Figure 3.3 Past shares of global wealth of the top 1% and bottom 99% (from Khan and Islam, 2016). Figure 3.4 Economic disparity and movement of wealth in USA. Figure 3.5 Economic disparity in USA Bottom (visible) pink line is the top 10% (original data from Credit Suisse, 2014). Figure 3.6 National debt increase during various presidencies. Figure 3.7 Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. Figure 3.8 Our current epoch is an epic failure of intangible values. Figure 3.9 The change in human collective activities from 1750 to 2000 (from Adams and Jeanrenaud, 2005). Figure 3.10 Lung cancer mortality rate in Sweden Cancer Trends During the 20th Century (Hallberg, 2002). Figure 3.11 Rise in obesity (OECD analysis of health survey data, 2011). Figure 3.12 Incidence of diabetes in children under age 10 years in Norway, 1925– 1995 (from Gale, 2002). Figure 3.13 Robotization of humanity: the current state of the world. Figure 3.14 US defense spending in recent history (From John Fleming/The Heritage Foundation, 2018).
Figure 3.15 Healthcare cost as a percentage of GDP for various developed countries (OECD Report, 2017). Figure 3.16 Price variation in diabetes treatment chemicals (OECD Report, 2017). Figure 3.17 Aggregated revenues reported by pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies from 1991 to 2014 (OECD Report, 2017). Figure 3.18 Percentage of children (aged 0 to 17) who are living in relative poverty, defined as living in a household in which disposable income, when adjusted for family size and composition, is less than 50% of the national median income. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/oct/19/big-pharma-moneylobbying-us-opioid-crisis. Figure 3.19 Both optimism and fear lead to movements in the financial market, thereby stimulating economy that is stacked up against sustainability. Figure 3.20 Modern science and technology development schemes focus on turning natural into artificial and assigning artificial values, proportional to the aphenomenality of a product. Figure 3.21 Lewis Dual Economy thrives on the existence of inherent disparity. Figure 3.22 Sustainability can be defined as the inevitable outcome of a conscientious start (1: phenomenal start with phenomental intention; 2: aphenomenal start and/or aphenomenal intention). Figure redrawn from Khan and Islam (2016). Figure 3.23 Good behaviors in humans lie within optimum regime of individual liberty (redrawn from Islam et al., 2017). Figure 3.24 Origins of the Arabic word for “happiness” – a non-Eurocentric view. Figure 3.25 Maximizing the Rate of Return on Investments for Others – This figure illustrates one prospect that becomes practically possible if intangible benefits are calculated into, and as part of, a well-known conventional treatment of investment capital that was developed initially to deal purely with tangible aspects of the process and on the assumption that money would normally be invested only to generate a financial return to its investor (From Zatzman and Islam, 2007). Figure 3.26 Sensitivity of business turnover to employer-employee trust – Under a regime guided by the norms of capital-dependent conventional economics, trustworthiness counts for nothing. Under an economic approach that takes intangibles into account, on the other hand, revenue growth in an enterprise should be enhanced. Figure 3.27 The figure depicts the direction of ‘legal derivation’, the process by which law is discerned, for each of the theorists’ models. Figure 3.28 Both scientific and social theories have invoked aphenomenal premises that have become increasingly illogical.
Figure 3.29 Real demand reaches equilibrium whereas artificially created demand leads to implosive economic infrastructure that ends up with a crisis. Figure 3.30 Knowledge has to be true; otherwise it will create false perception and total opacity in the economic system. Figure 3.31 From ill intention and ill-gotten power comes the onset of the cancer model. It gains traction increasing misery of the general population upon which the ‘Aphenomenal Model’ is being applied. Figure 3.32 Every ‘-ism’ introduced in the modern age belongs to the same false premise that launched the current civilization in the deliberate hunger game model. Figure 3.33 The great debate rages on mostly as a distraction from the real debate that should be on fundamental premises that are taken at face value. Figure 3.34 Interest rate over the years (shaded area US recessions) data from Research. Stlouisfed.org. Figure 3.35 Historical fluctuation of inflation rates in USA (redrawn from Website 1). Figure 3.36 Interest rate and inflation rate. Figure 3.37 Interest rate and inflation rate over the years (from Federal Reserve Economic Data). Figure 3.38 Philip’s short-run graph. Figure 3.39 Taxes as a percentage of GDP for various countries. The darker bar is the US; the darkest bar the average for advanced countries (OECD Report, 2017). Figure 3.40 Pictorial depiction estates with tax concerns (from Krugman, 2017). Figure 3.41 The Rahn curve. Figure 3.42 Taxation is part and parcel of the government growth. Figure 3.43 History of government employment and manufacturing employment (From Jeffrey, 2015). Figure 3.44 Government size or government debt hasn’t been a partisan issue. Figure 3.45 Transition from real value to perceived value of commodities (data from Commodity Futures Trading Commission website). Figure 3.46 Falsehood is turned into truth and ensuing disinformation makes sure that truth does not come back in subsequent calculations. Figure 3.47 A new paradigm is invoked after denominating spurious value as real and disinformation into ‘real knowledge’. Figure 3.48 How falsehood is promoted as truth and vice-versa.
Figure 3.49 Inflation rate and world events. Figure 3.50 Gold prices throughout modern history in US $. (from Onlygold.com). Figure 3.51 Various uses of gold (redrawn from Thomas, 2015). Figure 3.52 The Dow Jones Industrial Average from the years 1928/9–1934, with annotations describing brief historical-economic events (modified from: Velauthapill 2009). Figure 3.53 Illustrates the long-term inflation adjusted price of gold based on 2011 dollars (data from MeasuringWorth.com, as reported by Ferri, 2013). It highlights the average $500 per ounce price over the 220 year period, which was passed through many times. Figure 3.54 Inflation adjusted oil price for last 70 years. Figure 3.55 Ratio of gold price (per ounce) over oil price (per barrel). Grey areas mark recession periods. Figure 3.56 Net development (true GNP per capita, after subtracting foreign debt payments & re-exported profits of TNC’s, etc.) and net dependency for various countries. Chapter 4 Figure 4.1 Economic activities have become synonymous with corporate profiteering and denaturing of the society. Figure 4.2 The outcome of short-term profit-driven economics model. Figure 4.3 Millions of tons of sugar produced globally over the years (from Website 2). Figure 4.4 Sugar production history by region (From Islam et al, 2015). Figure 4.5 Sugar structure (note how all catalysts disappear). Figure 4.6a Chemical structure of saccharin and related salts. Figure 4.6b Chemical reactions used during saccharin manufacturing. Figure 4.7 Saccharin consumption share in 2001 (From Khan and Islam, 2016). Figure 4.8 The dominance of saccharin has been continuing in last 3 decades. (From Islam et al., 2015) Figure 4.9 Cost per tonne for various sugar products (2003 value), from Islam et al., 2015). Figure 4.10 Aspartame market growth since 1984 (From Khan and Islam, 2016). Figure 4.11 Market share of various artificial sweeteners (from Islam et al., 2015).
Figure 4.12 Chemical structure of Aspartame®. Chapter 5 Figure 5.1 Public perception toward energy sources (Ipsos, 2011). Figure 5.2 Energy outlook for 2040 as compared to 2016 under various scenarios (*Renewables includes wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, and biofuels, from BP Report, 2018). Figure 5.3 World plastic production (From Statista, 2018). Figure 5.4 Annual per capita water consumption in metric ton in 2013 (from Statista, 2018a). Figure 5.5 (from USGS, 2017). Figure 5.6 Oil dependence of various countries (From Hutt, 2016). Figure 5.7 Spider Chart of Saudi Arabia (When comparing multiple countries on a spider). Figure 5.8 Breakdown of Saudi Arabia’s prosperity index. Figure 5.9 Norway’s prosperity index in spider chart form. Figure 5.10 Breakdown of Norway’s prosperity index. Figure 5.11 Oil dependence in terms of GDP share and historical oil prices (World Bank, 2017). Figure 5.12 Trends in GDP and Energy intensity. Figure 5.13 The bell curve has been the base curve of many theories in modern era (x-axis is replaced with time and y-axis with global oil production). Figure 5.14 Population growth history and projection (data from CIA Factbook, UN). Figure 5.15 Estimated, actual, and projected population growth (decline). Figure 5.16 World population growth for different continents. Figure 5.17 There are different trends in population growth depending on the state of the economy. Figure 5.18 Per capita energy consumption growth for certain countries. Figure 5.19 A strong correlation between a tangible index and per capita energy consumption has been at the core of economic development (from Goldenberg, 1985). Figure 5.20 While population growth has been tagged as the source of economic crisis, wasteful habits have been promoted in name of emulating the west. Figure 5.21 Population and energy paradox for China (From Speight and Islam,
2016). Figure 5.22 Oil production and import history of USA (data from EIA). Figure 5.23 US data that appear to support Hubbert’s “peak oil” hypothesis (From Speight and Islam, 2016). Figure 5.24 Comparison of Hubbert curve with Norwegian oil production (from Speight and Islam, 2016). Figure 5.25 Association for the study of peak oil (ASPO) produced evidence of Hubbert peak in all regions. Figure 5.26 Actual global oil production (surface mined tar sand not included). Figure 5.28 Production-Cost and Market-Price Realities “At The Margin” (From Zatzman and Islam, 2007). Figure 5.29 US public debt as percentage of GDP. Figure 5.30 Energy content of different fuels (MJ/kg), from Spight and Islam, 2016. Figure 5.31 Fossil fuel reserves and exploration activities. Figure 5.32 Discovery of natural gas reserves with exploration activities (From Islam, 2014). Figure 5.33 Natural gas production history in New York state (from Islam, 2014). Figure 5.34 Locations of unconventional shale plays in lower 48 states (from Ratner and Tiemann, 2014). Figure 5.35 Moving from conventional to unconventional sources, the volume of the petroleum resource increases. Figure 5.36 Cost of production increases as efficiency, environmental benefits and real value of crude oil declines (modified from Islam et al., 2010). Figure 5.37 Current estimate of conventional and unconventional gas reserve (From Islam, 2014). Figure 5.38 Abundance of natural resources as a function of time. Figure 5.39 Water plays a more significant role in material production than previously anticipated (from Islam, 2014). Figure 5.40 Gas hydrate deposits of Alaska (From Islam, 2014). Figure 5.41 Known and inferred natural gas hydrate occurrences in marine (red circles) and permafrost (black diamonds) environments (From Islam, 2014). Figure 5.42 Future trends in some of the major future user of unconventional gas (from EIA report, 2013).
Figure 5.43 Gas hydrates that are the largest global sink for organic carbon offer the greatest prospect for the future of energy (From Islam, 2014). Figure 5.44 Water: a source of life when processed naturally but a potent toxin when processed mechanically. Figure 5.45 Aristotle’s four-element phase diagram (steady-state). Figure 5.46 Divinity in Europe is synonymous with uniformity, symmetry, and homogeneity, none of which exists in nature. Figure 5.47 Recasting Figure 5.45 with the proper time function. Figure 5.48 Water and fire are depicted through taegeuk (yin yang). Figure 5.49 Korean national flag contains ancient symbol of creation and creator. Figure 5.50 Combination of various fundamental elements make up the rest of the creation (From Islam, 2014). Figure 5.50 Evolution of Yin and Yang with time (from Islam, 2014). Figure 5.51 Sun, earth, and moon move at a characteristic speed in infinite directions. Figure 5.52 Orbital speed vs size (not to scale). Figure 5.53 The heart beat (picture above) represents natural frequency of a human, whereas brain waves represent how a human is in harmony with the rest of the universe (From Islam et al., 2015). Figure 5.54 Maximum and minimum heart rate for different age groups (From Islam et al., 2015). Figure 5.55 Tangible/intangible duality continues infinitely for mega-scale to nanoscale, from infinitely large to infinitely small. Chapter 6 Figure 6.1 A large market means consisting of high demand (D1) compared to small market (D0) even at a different price level. This also causes large investment, in turn causing high supply (S1). Through the cost and return function, a large market generates large income as well (from Koutsoyiannis, 1979). Figure 6.2 Derivation of demand. Graphical presentation of Utility function by Thomas Malthus and Alfred Marshall. Derived from Total Utility (TU) curve, Marginal Utility is congruent with Demand curve (D) against price and quantity (from Koutsoyiannis, 1979). Figure 6.3 Cost Push and Demand Pull Inflation. Economists agree that increase in cost – as illustrated by shifting Aggregate Supply upward (AS0–AS1) causes increase in general price level. From P0 to P1. Similar effect occurs when there is an increase in Aggregate Demand – illustrated by shifting upward of AD curve (AD0–
AD1) (from Branson, 1989). Figure 6.4 Difference between zero-interest economy and interest-based economy is glaring. Figure 6.5 Islamic society finds an optimum between individual liberty and regulatory control. Figure 6.6 Good intention launches off knowledge-based model where as a bad intention throws off the cognition to ignorance and prejudice. Figure 6.7 Intentions are the driver of sustainability. Figure 6.8 Niyah is original intention, whereas qsd is dynamic intention. Figure 6.9 Summary of Islamic economy vis-à-vis modern economy. Chapter 7 Figure 7.1 Documenting pathways by which intangible natural gifts are destroyed by being converted into tangibly valuable commodities. Figure 7.2 Economic models have to retooled to make price proportional to real value. Figure 7.3 Summary of the historical development of the major industrial catalytic processes per decade in the 20th century (from Fernetti et al., 2000). Figure 7.4 Natural chemicals can turn an sustainable process into a sustainable process while preserving similar efficiency. Figure 7.5 Trend of long-term thinking vs. trend of short-term thinking. Figure 7.6 Bifurcation, a familiar pattern from the chaos theory, is useful for illustrating the engendering of more degrees of freedom in which solutions may be found as the “order” of the “phase space,” or as in this case, dimensions, which increase from one to two to three to four. Figure 7.7 In the knowledge dimension, data about quarterly income over some selected time span displays all the possibilities – negative, positive, short-term, long-term, cyclical, etc. Figure 7.8 Linearization of economic data. Figure 7.9 When intangibles are included, the rate of return becomes a monotonous function of the investment duration. Figure 7.10 Business turnover cannot be studied with conventional economical theories. Figure 7.11 If regular light bulbs were lousy replacements for sunlight, the florescent light is scandalous – the true shock and awe approach, at your expense (from Islam et al., 2010).
Figure 7.12 By converting sunlight into artificial light, we are creating spontaneous havoc that continues to spiral down as time progresses. Imagine trying to build a whole new “science” trying to render this spiral-down mode “sustainable”. Figure 7.13 In the current technology development mode, cost goes up as overall goodness of a product declines. Figure 7.14 Increasing threshold investment eliminates competition – the essence of free market economy and economic growth. Figure 7.15 Because of the “stupidity, squared” mode, technology development in the west continues at the expense of technology dependence in the east. In this, the developing countries are ignorant because they think that this technological dependence is actually good for them and developed countries are ignorant because they think one can exploit others at the level of obscenity and get away with it in the long-term. Are you better off today than you were 4000 years ago? You don’t have to consult Moses to find an answer. Figure 7.16 As a result of the over-extension of credit and subsequent manipulation (by the creditors: Paris Club etc.) of the increasingly desperate condition of those placed in their debt, nostrums about “development” remain a chimaera and cruel illusion in the lives of literally billions of people in many parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America. (Here the curves are developed from the year 1960.) Figure 7.17 Pathways destructive of intangible social relations (cf. Figure 1) Figure 7.18 Is it the total population that makes the economy plummet, or rather the growth in the corrupt portion that one should worry about? Figure 7.19 The role of interest rate and the operating principles around the world. Figure 7.20 The role of interest rate in driving economic decline. Chapter 8 Figure 8.1 Crude oil formation pathway (After Chhetri and Islam, 2008). Figure 8.2 General activities in oil refining (Chhetri and Islam, 2007b). Figure 8.3 Pathway of oil refining process (After Chhetri et al., 2007). Figure 8.4 Natural gas “well to wheel” pathway. Figure 8.5 Natural gas processing methods (Redrawn from Chhetri and Islam, 2006b). Figure 8.6 Ethylene Glycol Oxidation Pathway in Alkaline Solution (After Matsuoka et al., 2005).
Figure 8.7 Schematic showing the position of current technological practices related to natural practices. Figure 8.8 Different phases of petroleum operations which are seismic, drilling, production, transportation & processing and decommissioning, and their associated wastes generation and energy consumption (Khan and Islam, 2006a). Figure 8.9 Schematic of wave length and energy level of photon (From Islam et al., 2010). Figure 8.10 Breakdown of the no-flaring method (Bjorndalen et al., 2005). Figure 8.11 Supply chain of petroleum operations (Khan and Islam, 2006a). Figure 8.12 Water vapor absorption by Nova Scotia clay (Chhetri and Islam, 2008). Figure 8.13 Decrease of pH with time due to sulfur absorption in de-ionized water (Chhetri and Islam, 2008). Figure 8.14 Schematic of sawdust fuelled electricity generator. Figure 8.15 Water-fire yin yang, showing how without one the other is meaningless. Figure 8.16 The sun, earth, and moon all are moving at a characteristic speed in infinite directions. Figure 8.17 Orbital speed vs size (not to scale) (From Islam, 2014). Figure 8.18 Natural light pathway. Figure 8.19 Wavelength spectrum of sunlight (From Islam et al., 2015). Figure 8.20 Colors and wave lengths of visible light. Figure 8.21 Artificial and natural lights affect natural material differently. Figure 8.22 Wavelength spectrum of visible part of sunlight. Figure 8.23 Visible natural colors as a function of various wavelengths and intensity of sunlight. Figure 8.24 Wavelength and radiance for forest fire, grass and warm ground (From Li et al., 2005). Figure 8.25 Blue flame radiance for butane (From Islam, 2014). Figure 8.26 Artificial light spectrum (From Islam, 2014). Figure 8.27 Comparison of various artificial light sources with sunlight. Figure 8.28 Comparing within the visible light zone will enable one to rank various artificial light sources (From Islam et al., 2010). Figure 8.29 Formation of a shield with dark and clear lenses (From Islam et al.,
2010). Figure 8.30 Benefit to environment depends entirely on the organic nature of energy and mass. Figure 8.31 Oxygen cycle in nature involving the earth (From Islam, 2014). Figure 8.32 Hydrogen cycle in nature involving the earth. Figure 8.33 Water cycle, involving energy and mass. Figure 8.34 Whole rock Rb-Sr isochron diagram, basement samples (From Islam et al., 2018). Figure 8.35 Natural processing time differs for different types of oils. Figure 8.36 Natural processing enhances intrinsic values of natural products. Figure 8.37 The volume of petroleum resources increases as one moves from conventional to unconventional (From Islam, 2014). Figure 8.38 Cost of production increases as efficiency, environmental benefits and real value of crude oil declines (modified from Islam et al., 2010). Figure 8.39 Overall refining efficiency for various crude oils (modified from Han et al., 2015). Figure 8.40 Crude API gravity and heavy product yield of the studied US and EU refineries (The yield of heavy products, such as residual fuel oil, pet coke, asphalt, slurry oil and reduced crude, is calculated as a share of all energy products by energy value) (from Han et al., 2015). Figure 8.41 Current estimate of conventional and unconventional gas reserve (From Islam, 2014). Figure 8.42 Abundance of natural resources as a function of time. Figure 8.43 Water plays a more significant role in material production than previously anticipated (from Islam, 2014). Figure 8.44 As natural processing time increases so does reserve of natural resources (from Chhetri and Islam, 2008). Figure 8.45 Production/reserve ratio for various countries. Figure 8.46 Crude oil production continues to rise overall (From EIA, 2017). Figure 8.47 U.S. reserve variation in recent history (From Islam, 2014). Figure 8.48 Technically recoverable oil and gas reserve in the U.S.A. (From Islam, 2014). Figure 8.49 Sulfur content of the U.S.A. crude over the last few decades (From Islam, 2014).
Figure 8.50 Declining API gravity of USA crude oil. Figure 8.51 Worldwide crude oil quality (From Islam, 2014). Figure 8.52 The three phases of conventional reserve. Figure 8.53 Unconventional reserve growth can be given a boost with scientific characterization. Figure 8.54 Profitability grows continuously with time when zero-waste oil recovery scheme is introduced. Chapter 9 Figure 9.1 Population growth history and projection. (Source: data from CIA Fact Book). Figure 9.2 Population growth rate over the years 1760–2100. Figure 9.3 World population growth for different continents (data from UN DESA/Populations Division, 2015). Figure 9.4 Trends in population growth depending on the state of the economy. Data from http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/. Figure 9.5 Wars of different variety. Figure 9.6 Post-Colonial War Model & Hierarchy Under Gold and Silver Currency. Figure 9.7 A depiction of today’s banking system is nothing but a spurious money-making scheme. Figure 9.8 Schematic of a zero-waste energy and mass consumption scheme. Figure 9.9 True sustainability cannot be determined with a short-term analysis. Chapter 10 Figure 10.1 HSSAN degradation has been ubiquitous in modern era. Figure 10.2 It is not enough to arrest the degradation; the trend has to be reverted. Figure 10.3 Current economic policies act like a cancer to the social economic health. Figure 10.4 For overall economic welfare, each financial crisis has to be dealt with natural remedies that are well intentioned and far away from the greed and fear cycle. Figure 10.5 Budgetary and regulatory growth in US Government. Figure 10.6 Economy under a benevolent government that imposes zero waste technology with zero interest rate with gold as the standard.
List of Tables Chapter 2 Table 2.1 Fundamental premises of Aristotle in relation to economic theories. Table 2.2 Transition money from the gold standard. Table 2.3 Gold reserve held by various countries (data from Holmes, 2016). Table 2.4 Top gold holding countries. Table 2.5 Gold reserve and Recent production (Data from USGS, 2018). Table 2.6 Mine production and reserve of various countries. Table 2.7 Distinction between gold and silver. Table 2.8 Comparison of various traits of gold and oil. Chapter 3 Table 3.1 Spending in various households (from Roth, 2017). Table 3.3 Occurrence of Autism (data from CDC, 2017). Table 3.9 The HSS®A® pathway and its outcome in various disciplines. Table 3.1 Inflation rates during last. Chapter 4 Table 4.1 Typical features of natural processes, as compared to the claims of artificial processes (From Khan and Islam, 2016). Table 4.2 True difference between sustainable and unsustainable processes (Reproduced from Khan and Islam, 2012). Table 4.3 Features of external entity (from Islam, 2014). Table 4.4 How natural features are violated in the first premise of various ‘laws’and theories of the science of tangibles (Islam et al., 2014). Table 4.5 Transitions from natural to processed. Table 4.6 Sugar consumption for various regions/countries (from Islam et al., 2015). Table 4.7 Commodity price over last few decades (from Islam et al., 2015). Table 4.8 Prices of various artificial sweeteners (From Islam et al., 2015). Table 4.10 Global exports of saccharin (from USITC publication, http://www.usitc.gov/publications/701_731/pub4077.pdf). Table 4.11 Synthesized and natural pathways of organic compounds as energy sources, ranked and compared according to selected criteria.
Chapter 5 Table 5.1 Ranking of various countries on oil dependence and Leagum prosperity index. Table 5.2 Per capita energy consumption (in TOE) for certain countries. Table 5.3 US crude oil and natural gas reserve (Million barrels). Table 5.4 The tangible and intangible nature of yin and yang (from Islam, 2014). Table 5.5 Characteristic frequency of “natural” objects (from Islam, 2014). Chapter 7 Table 7.1 Some “breakthrough” technologies (From Khan and Islam, 2016). Table 7.2 The transition from natural to artificial commodities, and the reasons behind their transition. Table 7.3 The HSS®A® pathway and its outcome in various disciplines. Table 7.4 Natural processes vs. Engineered processes. Table 7.5 The HSS®A® pathway in energy management schemes. Table 7.6 Overview of Petroleum Refining Processes (U.S. Department of Labour, n.d.). Chapter 8 Table 8.1 Emission from a Refinery (Environmental Defense, 2005). Table 8.2 Primary wastes from oil refinery (Environmental Defense, 2005). Table 8.3 Wave length and quantum energy levels of different radiation sources (From Islam et al., 2015). Table 8.1 The tangible and intangible nature of yin and yang (From Islam, 2014). Table 8.2 Characteristic frequency of “natural” objects (From Islam, 2014). Table 8.3 Sun composition (Chaisson and McMillan, 1997). Table 8.4 Wavelengths of various visible colors (From Islam, 2014). Table 8.5 Wavelengths of known waves (From Islam et al., 2015). Table 8.6 Artificial sources of various waves (from Islam et al., 2016). Table 8.7 Various elements in earth crust and lithosphere (From Islam, 2014). Table 8.8 Table of Elements in the Human Body by Mass (from Emsley, 1998). Table 8.9 Published isotopic mineral ages for Precambrian basement in southwestern Ontario, Michigan, and Ohio (From Islam et al., 2018). Table 8.10 Summary of Proven Reserve Data as of (Dec) 2016. (From Islam et al.,
2018) Chapter 9 Table 9.1 Cost of gold production for China Gold Intl. Resources.
Scrivener Publishing 100 Cummings Center, Suite 541J Beverly, MA 01915-6106 Publishers at Scrivener Martin Scrivener (email@example.com) Phillip Carmical (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Economics of Sustainable Energy
Jaan S. Islam M.R. Islam Meltem Islam M.A.H. Mughal
Dedication “We dedicate this book to Elif Hamida Islam, whose thirst for knowledge and passion for true perfection have been an inspiration to us” Jaan Islam, M. Rafiq Islam, and Meltem Islam “I am dedicating this book to my children: Ibrahim, Sarah and Javaria. Their affinity for TRUTH and kindness to me is the coolness of my heart.” – A.H. Mughal
Preface The public confidence in the political, financial, and corporate media establishment is at its nadir. Economics – a subject that is uniquely concerned with optimum distribution of wealth in the society-has become a laughing stock in the face of unprecedented accumulation of wealth among the richest 1% and the spectacular failure of the Establishment to arrest the free-fall of social justice. Yet, the “left” cannot think of anything more than more taxation whereas the “right” cannot think of anything more than more tax breaks for the rich. The scientific community is equally clueless. What Nobel Laureate Chemist Robert Curl characterized as “technological disaster” is only supported by Nobel laureate economist, Robert J. Shiller, as a “failure of the economic profession in contributing anything significant to society”. The discipline of economics is already infamous for having the most number of paradoxes, but what could beat the paradox of the US economy growing “stronger” proportional to the national debt, that stands at a record high? This book offers hope and guides the readership to developing full understanding of the root causes of the current global crisis. It then shows how the spiralling down can be reversed and true sustainability restored. Every year, as soon as the Oxfam report on global economic inequality reminds us about the direction our civilization is heading, there is a hysterical reaction, but hysteria dies down within weeks and we go back to the lifestyle that brought us here today. Often the blame is laid on the millennial generation for their “apathy”, “lust for comfort” and “bratty” attitude. Yet, business insider surveys indicate it’s the same millennial generation overwhelmingly cares for the state of the world and the direction that our civilization is heading. Nearly 50% of them ranked climate change and destruction of nature as their primary concern. This is followed by concern for war and global conflict, and then global economic inequality. The vast majority of those surveyed are willing and eager to make lifestyle changes. This book breaks open the hypocrisy of our civilization and stops the blame game at its tracks and identifies the root causes of today’s world economy, ecology, and global politics. Because economics is the driver of today’s civilization, the book starts with the delinearized history of economics, covering the entire span ranging from the ancient Greeks to the Information Age. Step by step all pieces of disinformation are exposed, making it clear to see the root causes of the spiralling down mode in global economy. In this, the top 10 economists of modern era (selected from both “right” and “left”) are deconstructed and their “mistakes” identified. The book shows that these “mistakes” are embedded in every economic policy that has driven modern economy. As part of this policy, climate change crisis, wars and conflicts, and overall economic extremism are but symptoms that lie in the core of modern civilization. Just as the economics is the spiritual driver of our civilization, technology development is the mechanical driver of our civilization. This book deconstructs the technology development mode that has emerged from Newtonian mechanics and blossomed during the “plastic era” for over a century. Root causes of unsustainability of this technology development mode are exposed, laying the foundation for developing sustainable
technology, with sustainable energy management as the prototype. The book makes it clear that changes in economic policies are a prerequisite to changes in energy management and technology development. Only then can one begin to talk about reversing the global spiralling down of economic welfare and the state of the environment. The book demonstrates that changes in lifestyle are necessary but not sufficient. No economic policy or technology development mode has a chance to survive, let alone thrive unless supported by the political establishment. In this process, the government plays a pivotal role. The challenge is to change the attitude of the government from a “selfserving” controlling mode to a representative philanthropic mode. This new system of economic development and political governance is inspired by a long-forgotten understanding of political economics: medieval Islamic economics. In reviewing the history of economics from trade, currencies, and interest, the strengths and weaknesses of various economic developments over our centuries are evaluated. Based on the historical analysis, a step-by-step procedure is outlined for this fundamental change in our society today. As a whole, this book is the first of modern era to offer such a comprehensive analysis, complete with solutions to the entire crisis of today’s civilization. Jaan S. Islam M. R. Islam Meltem Islam M.A.H. Mughal