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NGỮ PHÁP 12 HK2 và NÂNG CAO

UNIT 9 - CONNECTIVES
1. Cause
Adverb clause words
Because
Since
Now that

Transitions

- Because the weather
was cold, we stayed
home.
- He failed the test
because he didn’t
study.
- Now that (= because
now) I live only a few
blocks from work, I
walk to work and enjoy
it. (explanation of a
new situation)


Conjunctions
for

- The child hid
behind his mother,
for he was afraid of
the dog.

Prepositions
Because of
Due to
Owing to
Due to / Because of
the fact that
- Because of the cold
weather, we stayed
home.
- Due to the cold
weather, we stayed
home.

2. Effect
Adverb clause words
So ... that …
Such … that …
- It was such good
coffee that I had
another cup.
- The coffee is so hot
that I can’t drink it.

Transitions
Therefore
Consequently
- Ann didn’t study.
Consequently, she
failed the test.
- Ann didn’t study.
Therefore, she failed


the test.
- Ann didn’t study.
She, therefore, failed
the test.
- Ann didn’t study.
She failed the test,
therefore.
- Ann didn’t study,
and therefore, she
failed the test.

Conjunctions
so
- Ann didn’t study, so
she failed the test.

Prepositions


3. CONTRAST
Adverb clause words
Unexpected result
even though
although
though
Direct contrast
while
whereas
- Even though /
Although / Though it
was cold, I went
swimming.

- Mary is rich while /
whereas John is poor.

Transitions

Conjunctions

Prepositions

nevertheless
nonetheless
however … still

but … anyway
but … still
yet … still

despite
in spite of
despite / in spite of
the fact that

however
on the other hand
- It was cold.
Nevertheless, I went
swimming.
- It was cold;
nonetheless, I went
swimming.
- It was cold.
However, I still went
swimming.

But

- Mary is rich;
however, John is
poor.
- John is poor; Mary
is rich, however.
- Mary is rich. John,
on the other hand, is
poor.

- Mary is rich, but
John is poor.

- It was cold, but I
went swimming
anyway.
- It was cold, but I
still went swimming.
- It was cold, yet I
still went swimming.

- I went swimming
despite the cold
weather.
- I went swimming in
spite of the fact that
the weather was cold.

4. CONDITION
Adverb clause words
if
unless
only if
even if
whether or not
in case
in the event that
- If I don’t eat breakfast, I
get hungry.
- You’ll get wet unless you
take your umbrella.

Transitions
Otherwise

Conjunctions
or (else)

- I always eat
breakfast. Otherwise,
I get hungry during
class.

- I always eat
breakfast, or (else) I
get hungry during
class.

Prepositions

NOTES: VỊ TRÍ VÀ DẤU
- Adverb clause: có thể đứng trước hoặc theo sau mệnh đề độc lập. dùng dấu ‘,’ nếu
adverb clause đứng trước.
- Preposition + cụm danh từ. Dùng dấu ‘,’ nếu preposition đứng trước mệnh đề độc lập
- Transition: được dùng với câu thứ 2 trong một cặp câu. Transition có thể di chuyển
nhiều vị trí trong câu thứ 2. Dùng dấu ‘.’ hoặc ‘;’ để ngăn cách 2 câu. Dùng dấu ‘,’ để
ngăn cách transition với phần còn lại của câu.


-

Conjunction: đứng giữa 2 mệnh đề độc lập. Dùng dấu ‘,’ ngay đằng trước conjunction.

UNIT 10 + 11: MODAL VERBS
FUNCTIONS
1. ABILITY (khả năng, năng
lực)

MODAL VERBS
Can, could, be
able to

2. FUTURE POSIBILITY (có
thể xảy ra trong tương lai)
3. REQUEST (yêu cầu)

May, might, can,
could, be likely to
Can, could, will,
would

4. OFFER (đề nghị)

Can / Shall I /
Shall we

5. PERMISSION (xin phép)

Can / could / may

6. ADVICE, OBLIGATION,
NECESSITY (lời khuyên, sự
bắt buộc, sự cần thiết)

Should, ought to,
had better,
have to, must,
have got to,
be to
Must not
Must, may,
Can’t, couldn’t,
might not

7. PROHIBITION (cấm)
8. LOGICAL ASSUMPTION
(giả định có căn cứ)
9. PREFERENCE (sở thích)

10. SOMETHING IN
PROGRESS IN THE PRESENT
(một việc đang diễn ra ở
hiện tại)
11. SOMETHING IN
PROGRESS IN THE PAST (một
việc đang diễn ra ở quá khứ)
12. SOMETHING HAPPENED
IN THE PAST (một việc xảy ra
trong quá khứ)

Would like, would
prefer, would
rather
Would prefer not,
Would rather not
Modal + be + Ving
Modal + have
been + V-ing
Modal + have +
PP
- advice (should /
ought to) (lời
khuyên)
- prediction (dự
đoán)

EXAMPLES
He can speak five languages
We will be able to swim very fast after this
swimming course
He may win the race
She will leave tomorrow. She’s ready now.
Can you close the door?
Could you please help me with this exercise?
Answer by Can or Will, or OK, Sure, Sorry, …
Can I help you?
Shall we do it for you now?
Answer by OK, thanks; That would be nice,…
Can we go to the movies tonight?
May I leave early today?
Answer: Sure, Go ahead, Certainly,…
Students ought not to do too much
homework
You’d better study for the test if you don’t
want to fail.
I am to be at the airport by 4 pm tomorrow
They mustn’t bring pets into this restaurant
You have worked all night these days. You
must be very tired.
Tom couldn’t be at the library now. I just saw
him five minutes ago.
I would prefer to watch this film.
I would rather eat at home.

Tom is in the library now. He must be
studying for his test tomorrow.
Don’t call me tonight. I could be going to the
movies with my family.
Sue wasn’t at home last night when we went
to visit her. She might have been studying at
the library.
She should have studied hard during the
course last semester (but she didn’t)
The grass is all wet. It must have rained very
hard last night.
Marry can’t have been at home. She ate out


- unreal condition
in the past (If 3)

with me.
I would have accepted this job, but I didn’t
want to leave my country.

- unnecessary
things

You needn't have washed the dishes. I
would've put them in the dishwasher.

DEGREE OF CERTAINTY
1. PRESENT TIME
a) Affirmative
- Why isn’t John in class?
100% sure:
95% sure:
Less than 50% sure:
b) Negative
100% sure:
99% sure:
95% sure:
Less than 50% sure:

He is sick.
He must be sick.
He may be sick.
He might be sick.
He could be sick.
Sam isn’t hungry.
Sam couldn’t be hungry.
Sam can’t be hungry.
Sam must not be hungry.
Sam may not be hungry.
Sam might not be hungry.

2. PAST TIME
a) Affirmative
- Why wasn’t Mary in class?
100% sure:
She was sick.
95% sure:
She must have been sick.
She may have been sick.
Less than 50% sure:
She might have been sick.
She could have been sick.
b) Negative
- Why didn’t Sam eat?
100% sure:
Sam wasn’t hungry.
99% sure:
Sam couldn’t have been hungry.
Sam can’t have been hungry.
95% sure:
Sam must not have been hungry.
Less than 50% sure:
Sam may not have been hungry.
Sam might not have been hungry.
3. FUTURE TIME
100% sure:
90% sure:

Less than 50% sure:

Kay will do well on the test.
Kay should do well on the test.
Kay ought to do well on the test.
Kay may do well on the test.
Kay might do well on the test.
Kay could do well on the test.


UNIT 12: TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS
1. TRANSITIVE VERBS (Ngoại động từ): diễn tả hành động trực tiếp lên người hoặc vật nào
đó, theo sau bởi danh từ hoặc tân ngữ trực tiếp
Eg: Let’s invite Sally.
You surprised me.
Có thể đổi qua thể bị động
2. INTRANSITIVE VERBS (Nội động từ): diễn tả hành động dừng lại ở người nói hoặc người
thực hiện hành động đó, không cần tân ngữ trực tiếp
Eg: Sit down
The children are playing
Không thể đổi qua thể bị động
3. Nhiều động từ vừa là ngoại động từ vừa là nội động từ
Eg:
He ran as fast as he could
He has no idea how to run a business
Flowers grow in the garden
They grow flowers in the garden

UNIT 13: COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES
1. Tính từ ngắn – Tính từ dài
a. Tính từ ngắn
- Có 1 âm tiết: loud – louder – loudest ; short – shorter – shortest
- Có 2 âm tiết và kết thúc bằng: -y, -ow, -et, -er, -le
happy – happier – happiest ; narrow – narrower – narrowest ; quiet – quieter – quietest ; clever
– cleverer – cleverest ; simple – simpler – simplest
b. Tính từ dài
- Có 1 âm tiết và kết thúc bằng –ed: bored – more bored – the most bored
- Có 2 âm tiết, không kết thúc bằng -y, -ow, -et, -er, -le
useful – more useful – the most useful
- Có 3 âm tiết trở lên: expensive – more expensive – the most expensive
c. Có một số tính từ vừa là tính từ ngắn vừa là tính từ dài: free, keen, safe, sure, true, wise,
clever, common, gentle
2. Comparatives
S + V + COMPARATIVE ADJ/ADV + THAN + PRONOUN / S + V / NOUN
Eg: She is more clever / cleverer than him
Tom did the exam better than I did
Her house is more beautiful than mine / my house.
* Có thể sử dụng even, much, (by) far, a lot, ( ) times để làm tăng mức độ so sánh
Eg: He is even better than his brother
This book is much more expensive
This river is three times longer than that river
* Dùng các từ a bit, a little, slightly để giảm mức độ so sánh


Eg: He studies a bit harder than me.
This hotel is slightly cheaper than that one.
 Comparison of noun


There are more / fewer boys than girls in my class.



We drank more / less coffee than he did

3. Superlatives
S + V + SUPERLATIVE (+ N)
Eg: This film is the longest of the three
John is the most outgoing person in class
This is the commonest / the most common mistake
4. Irregular
Good
Bad
Much / many
Little
Far
Old

better
worse
more
less
farther / further
older / elder

the best
the worst
the most
the least
the farthest / the furthest
the oldest / the eldest

5. Positive comparison
S + V + AS + ADJ/ADV + AS + NOUN / PRONOUN / S + V
S + V + NOT + AS/SO + ADJ/ADV + AS + NOUN / PRONOUN / S + V
Eg: John said that no other car could go as fast as his car.
Ann cannot cook as/so well as her sister does.
*Có thể dùng twice / half
Eg: Your room is twice as large as mine
He works half as hard as he used to
 The same as
Eg: Tom’s salary is as much as mine.
Tom’s salary is the same as mine.
 Tom gets the same salary as me.
6. Double comparison
S + V + COMPARATIVE AND COMPARATIVE
Eg: Their business is getting better and better
It rained more and more heavily as the game was going on
There are less and less people coming to this vacation spot.
THE COMPARATIVE + S + V, THE COMPARATIVE + S + V
Eg: The earlier she leaves, the sooner she will arrive.
The more you study, the more knowledge you gain


The more dangerous it is, the more I like it.

INVERSION OF SUBJECT AND VERB
Nguyên tắc chung:
1)- Với động từ BE:
2)- Với dộng từ thường:
a)- Ở các thì đơn (HT đơn, QK đơn):
b)- Ở các thì hoàn thành (HTHT , QKHT):
…………
3)- Với các động từ tình thái (MV):

…… BE + S ………
……. DO/DOES/DID + S + V …………
……. HAVE/HAS/HAD + S + PP/V3
………. Modal V + S + V .................

I-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NO VÀ NOT:
1) I will lend you no money from now on.
 No money ……………………………………
2) I won’t lend you any money from now on.
 Not any money ……………………………….
II-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI CÁC TRẠNG TỪ PHỦ ĐỊNH:
Never, rarely = seldom = little, hardly (ever), scarcely (ever)
1) I will never speak to him again.
 Never ………………………………….
2) He has rarely got mark 10 in math.
 Rarely ………………………………….
3) I seldom listen to rock music.
 Seldom …………………………………..
4) She little understands me.
 Little ………………………………………
5) They hardly (ever) speak in public.
 Hardly (ever) ……………………………….
III-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI:
No sooner …… than; Hardly/Barely/Scarcely…… when/before……..
1)- No sooner + had + S + PP/V3 + than + clause
2)- Hardly/Barely/Scarcely + had + S + PP/V3 + when/before + clause
- As soon as I arrived home, the phone rang.
 No sooner …………………………………………….
IV-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI ONLY:
- Only after N/V-ing: chỉ sau khi.
- Only later: Chỉ sau này
- Only once: chỉ một lần
- Only then : chỉ đến lúc đó
- Only when + clause : chi đến khi
- Only if + clause : chỉ nếu
- Only by N/V-ing : chỉ bằng cách
- Only with N/V-ing: chỉ với.
- Only in this/that way : chỉ bằng cách này/đó
1) I realized that I had forgotten to put on a stamp only after posting the letter.
 Only after ………………………………………………………………………………..


2) She will love him only when she understands him.
 Only when …………………………………………………………………..
3) We can pass the exam only by working harder.
 Only by ……………………………………………………………………..
4) We will be successful only in this way.
 Only in this way ……………………………………………………………
5) You are allowed to enter this room only if I have given permission.
 Only if ……………………………………………………………………..
V- ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI CÁC CỤM GIỚI TỪ CÓ NO:
- At no time : chưa từng bao giờ
- By no means: không khi nào
- In no way : không còn cách nào
- On no condition : tuyệt đối không
- On no account : không vì bất cứ lí do gì
- Under/In no circumstances: trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào cũng không.
- For no reasons = On no account : không vì bất cứ lí do gì.
- No longer: không còn nữa
- Nowhere
Ex:
1) He never knew she came from a rich family.
 At no time ………………………………………………………….
2) Keith certainly can’t be held responsible for the accident.
 In no way …………………………………………………………...
3) Passengers aren’t permitted to open the doors under/in any circumstances.
 Under/In no circumstances …………………………………………..
4) He no longer works as an accountant.
 No longer …………………………………………………………..
5) The wallet couldn’t be found anywhere.
 Nowhere …………………………………………………………..
VI-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI SO ………….. THAT VÀ SUCH ………. THAT :
1)- SO ……….. THAT :
6) He worked so hard that he forgot his lunch.
 So ………………………………………………………………………..
7) The play is so interesting that the theatre is likely to be full every night.
 So ………………………………………………………………………….
 Such ……………………………………………………………………….
8) He bought so many books that he couldn't read them all.
 So many …………………………………………………………………..
9) Alice has so much homework that she can't finish it all.
 So much ………………………………………………………………….
Note: Dùng SO MANY/FEW/MUCH/LITTLE không dùng SUCH.
2)- SUCH ……………. THAT :
- It was such a boring speech that I got sleepy.


 Such …………………………………………………………………….
Note: trong trường hợp BE + SO MUCH/GREAT đổi thành SUCH + BE + NOUN
- The force of the storm was so great that trees were uprooted.
 Such was the force of the storm that trees were uprooted.
VII-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI : NOT ONLY …………. BUT ALSO
NOT ONLY mệnh đề đảo BUT ……… ALSO mệnh đề thường
- He is not only good at English but he can also draw very well.
 Not only …………………………………………………………………………….
VIII-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI: NOT UNTIL/TILL (THEN/LATER)
NOT UNTIL/TILL + mệnh đề thường + mệnh đề đảo.
1) I didn’t know where I was until I asked a passer-by.
 Not until …………………………………………………………………………...
NOT UNTIL/TILL THEN/LATER + mệnh đề đảo. (mãi đến lúc đó/sau này)
2) I didn’t recognize him until later.
 Not until …………………………………………………………………………..
IX-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NEITHER/NOR VÀ SO:
- They don’t like chicken, and neither/nor do I.
- He had no money, and nor did he know anyone he could borrow from.
- She can play the guitar, and so can I.
* ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NEITHER………………..NOR :
- There is neither excitement nor entertainment in this small town.
 Neither is there excitement nor entertainment in this small town.
X-ĐẢO NGỮ TRONG CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN:
1-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 1:
IF + S + V ……. ---------> SHOULD + S + V ……….
- If anybody phones me, please tell them I’m busy.
 Should ………………………………………………………………………….
2-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2:
a- Có động từ to be: IF+ S + WERE + Adj / N / Pronoun --------> WERE + S + Adj / N /
Pronoun
- If I were you, I wouldn’t do that.
 Were ………………………………………………………………….
b- Có động từ thường: IF S + P/V2 …… ---------------> WERE + S + TO V ……………
- If he worked more slowly, he wouldn’t make many mistakes.
 Were …………………………………………………………………..
3-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 3: IF S + HAD + PP/V3 ------------> HAD + S + PP/V3 ………….
-If they had realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
 Had ………………………………………………………………………………………….
Note: Đối với cả ba loại câu điều kiện, nếu mệnh đề IF là phủ định thì ta đặt NOT sau chủ
từ.


XI-ĐẢO NGỮ SAU CÁC TRẠNG NGỮ CHỈ PHƯƠNG HƯỚNG HOẶC VỊ TRÍ:
Khi câu có một từ hoặc một cụm trạng ngữ chỉ phương hướng hoặc vị trí thì nội động từ được
đảo lên trước chủ ngữ.
1) David began to open the parcels. A dictionary was inside the first.
 David began to open the parcels. Inside the first ………………………….
2) The knights came round the corner.
 Round the corner ……………………………………………………………..
3) His father sat in an armchair.
 In an armchair ………………………………………………………………….
Note:
-Động từ TO BE thường được sử dụng trong dạng đảo ngữ này, ngoài ra ta còn dùng các nội
động từ chỉ sự chuyển động như: CLIMB, COME, FLY, GO, HANG, LIE, RUN, SIT, STAND,
……..
-Thường chỉ dùng dạng đảo ngữ này khi động từ ở thì quá khứ đơn.
-Trường hợp đảo ngữ này, không sử dụng trợ động từ mà sử dụng trực tiếp động từ đặt trước chủ
từ.
-Không đảo ngữ khi chủ từ là đại từ.
(sai): In an armchair sat she.

CLEFT SENTENCE
1. Subject focus:
It is/was + subject + who/that + verb
a) My father bought a new car last Saturday.
 It was ………………………………………………………….
b) English becomes more and more popular in the world.
 It is …………………………………………………………….
2. Object focus:
It is/was + object + that + S + V
a) I met Lan at the party.
 It was ………………………………………………………….
b) She sent her friend the postcard.
 It was ………………………………………………………..
3. Adverbial focus:
It is/was + adverbial phrase + that + S + V
a) My father bought a new car last Saturday.
 It was …………………………………………………………..
b) I was born in this house.
 It was ………………………………………………………….
c) You can kill computer viruses by using some software.
 It is ………………………………………………………….
d) The father repaired the bicycle for Nam.
 It was ………………………………………………………
Note:
e) My sister didn’t write this letter
 It was ………………………………………………………


f) Thường dùng It’s me và It’s us hơn là It’s I và It’s we

INVERSION
1.I have never seen such a mess in my life.
 Never............................................................................................................................
2.Children learn a lot about how to behave in a situation like this.
 Only in..........................................................................................................................
3.The only way to eliminate world terrorism is by united opposition.
 Only by.........................................................................................................................
4.They had to wait for twelve hours before the flight left.
 Only after a...................................................................................................................
5.A country can’t be prosperous if it’s not quite independent.
 Only when....................................................................................................................
6.The realization that I had made a big mistake came later.
 Only later......................................................................................................................
7.She doesn’t understand how much suffering she had caused.
 Little.............................................................................................................................
8.She didn’t shed a tear when the story ended in tragedy.
 Not a tear......................................................................................................................
9.John did not celebrate a party until he received the offer of promotion in writing.
 Not until.......................................................................................................................
10.The men continued to feel unsafe until they crossed the border.
 Not until.......................................................................................................................
11.Diana sprained her ankle and broke her leg.
 Not only........................................................................................................................
12.Immediately after their arrival, things went wrong.
 No sooner.....................................................................................................................
13.Just after solving one problem, I was faced with another.
Hardly............................................................................................................................
14.They had such a fierce dog that nobody would visit them.
 So.................................................................................................................................
15.He is so foolish that he can’t remember his lessons.
 So.................................................................................................................................


16.He never suspected that money had been stolen.
 At no time.....................................................................................................................
17.I won’t go out that way to visit him again on my account!
On no.............................................................................................................................
18.I am not to be disturbed under any circumstances.
 Under no.......................................................................................................................
19.I didn’t realize how ill he was until I visited him.
 Not until.......................................................................................................................
20. If Smith resigned, I might stand a chance of getting his job.
 Were ............................................................................................................................
21.They would have discovered land sooner if they had carried a compass.
 Had...............................................................................................................................
22. If you have any further questions, please ask to see the manager.
 Should...........................................................................................................................

23. If she found out that he was cheating on her, she would go mad.
 Were ............................................................................................................................
24. I didn’t know about those problems, so I moved here.
 Had ..............................................................................................................................
25. Because he didn’t understand the problem, he committed those mistakes.
 Had ..............................................................................................................................


PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
 The subjunctive is always the same as the base form.
 SHOULD is sometimes used instead of the subjunctive.

E.g.
» The doctor recommended (that) I rest for a few days.
» The doctor recommended that I should rest for a few days.
 You can use the subjunctive for the present, past, or future.
 Note the subjunctive BE.
E.g.
» I insist (that) something be done about the problem.
» The chairperson proposed (that) the plans be changed.
» It is crucial that she not be there before Tom arrives.
» It is important that a car be waiting for the boss when the meeting is over.

 You can use the subjunctive after these verbs:
advise

They advise that a passport be carried with you at all times.

ask

She asked that she be kept informed of developments.

command

The commission commanded that work on the building cease.

demand

The UN has demanded that all troops be withdrawn.

insist

I insisted that he have dinner with me.

order

They ordered that for every tree cut down two more be planted.

propose

She proposed that the book be banned.

recommend

I recommend that he see a lawyer.

request

She requested that no one be told of her decision until the next meeting.

require

The situation required that he be present.

suggest

I suggest that you take a vacation.

urge

The report urged that all children be taught to swim.

 You can use the subjunctive after these adjectives:


advised*

It is strongly advised that you take out some form of medical insurance.

important / vital
crucial

It is important / vital / crucial that he attend lectures every day.

imperative

It is absolutely imperative that we finish by next week.

necessary / essential It is necessary / essential that he find the books.
obligatory

It is obligatory that all employees wear protective clothing.

proposed*

It was proposed that the president be elected for a period of two years.

recommended*

It is strongly recommended that the machines be checked every year.

required*

It is required that all students wear uniform at school.

suggested*

It has been suggested that bright children take their exams early.

urgent

It is urgent that the new law be passed.


SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT
1. Danh từ không đếm được kết hợp với động từ số ít
Eg: The grass is growing all over the field.
2. Các danh từ nối với nhau bằng liên từ and kết hợp với động từ số nhiều
Eg: Rice and rubber from Vietnam are exported to many countries.
Nhưng khi các danh từ tạo thành một thực thể, chúng kết hợp với động từ số ít
Eg: The bread and butter was all we had (=bread with butter on it)
3. Với các danh từ nối với nhau bằng or, either…or, not...but, not only…but also, động
từ kết hợp với danh từ gần nhất
Eg: Either Mary or I come to the party
Not only cigarettes but also alcohol is banned in the campus
4. Với các danh từ nối với nhau bằng with, like, as well as, together with, along with, in
addition to, other than động từ kết hợp với danh từ đầu tiên (chính là chủ từ của động
từ)
Eg: The manager, together with his assistants, has arrived.
5. every, each, one kết hợp với động từ số ít
Eg: Each student / Each of the students has to do homework.
6. some, part, all, most, almost, the rest, the remainder of … và các phân số kết hợp với
động từ số ít hay số nhiều phụ thuộc vào danh từ theo sau of
Eg: Most of the house was destroyed
Most of the tomatoes are too ripe
Three quarters of the earth surface is water
Only a third of the students are qualified for the new course
7. Đại từ bất định kết hợp với động từ số ít
Eg: Someone has eaten all the food
8. Các danh từ chỉ sự đo lường, thời gian, khoảng cách, các tựa đề sách thường kết hợp
với động từ số ít
Eg: Twenty kilometers is too far to walk
Five minutes is not enough for me to do it
A hundred thousand dollars is a big sum of money
BUT: Ten dollars are scattered on the floor
9. There / Here + be + N, động từ phụ thuộc vào danh từ đi theo sau
Eg: Here are the keys
There is a table and four chairs in the room.
There are four chairs and a table in the room


10. Khi từ để hỏi, cụm từ hoặc mệnh đề làm chủ từ, thường kết hợp với động từ số ít
Eg: Who wants tea? – We all do, please.
What has happened? – Several things have happened.
What the boy wants now is a glass of water.
Reading books is one of my favorite hobbies.
11. Danh từ tập hợp (collective nouns) thường đi với động từ số ít khi được xét như
một thực thể hoặc với động từ số nhiều khi được xét từng bộ phận / thành viên
Eg: The whole team is playing very well.
My family is a happy one.
My family are early risers.
Army
Association
Audience
Board
Choir
Class
Club
College
Committee
Community
Company
Congress
Council
Crew
Crowd
Family
Gang
Government
Group
Jury
Military
Navy
Orchestra
Staff
Team
University
12. Một số danh từ có hình thức số nhiều hoặc danh từ chỉ vật gồm hai thành phần
như nhau kết hợp với động từ số nhiều
Eg: The supermarket own-label goods are cheaper than branded goods.
The company’s earnings per share have fallen by 29p.
Goods
Scissors
Clothes
Pincers / pliers
Outskirts
Shorts
Belongings
Trousers / pants
Earnings
Jeans
Surroundings
Glasses / spectacles
Binoculars
Shoes
Sneakers
Boots
BUT: A pair of + ….. + động từ số ít
Eg: A pair of binoculars is necessary for your tip.
Your new pair of jeans is really fashionable.
13. Tên các môn học, căn bệnh, môn thể thao và một số từ khác tận cùng là –s kết
hợp với động từ số ít


Eg: Mathematics is my favorite subject.
Measles is a dangerous disease.
Dominos is a good game for relaxing
Mathematics
Measles
Physics
Mumps
Politics
Rickets
Economics
AIDS
Statistics
Linguistics

Athletics
Gymnastics
Billiards
Darts
Dominos

News

14. Một số danh từ số nhiều không tận cùng bằng –s/-es kết hợp với động từ số nhiều
Eg: Many young people are out of work now.
Sheep were grazing in the fields.
People
Cattle
Children
Fish
Women
Sheep
Police
Deer
Reindeer
15. Danh từ chỉ ngôn ngữ kết hợp với động từ số ít, danh từ chỉ dân tộc kết hợp với
động từ số nhiều
Eg: English is spoken in many parts of the world.
The English really like to drink tea.
16. The number of + plural N + singular V
A number of + plural N + plural V
Eg: The number of days in a week is 7.
A number of students were absent yesterday.



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