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Smart economy in smart cities

Advances in 21st Century Human Settlements
Series Editor
Bharat Dahiya
Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

More information about this series at http://​www.​springer.​com/​series/​13196

T. M. Vinod Kumar

Smart Economy in Smart Cities
International Collaborative Research: Ottawa, St. Louis, Stuttgart,
Bologna, Cape Town, Nairobi, Dakar, Lagos, New Delhi, Varanasi,
Vijayawada, Kozhikode, Hong Kong

T. M. Vinod Kumar
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi (SPA-D), Calicut, Kerala, India

ISSN 2198-2546

e-ISSN 2198-2554

ISBN 978-981-10-1608-0 e-ISBN 978-981-10-1610-3
DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-1610-3
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016948791
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Foreword I
This publication, Smart Economy in Smart Cities, featuring four African cities comes at an opportune
time when significant global agendas are being agreed. This includes notably the Africa Agenda 2063
in 2014, the Sustainable Development Goals, the 21st Conference of Parties (COP 21) in 2015 and
the United Nations Third Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III)
this year. To take full advantage of the epochal agreements, there is an urgent need to strengthen the
capacities of African countries and cities to engage with the preparatory processes in order to ensure
their views are taken into account. For example, the preparation of the Habitat III Conference planned
for October 2016 demands the empowerment of people and institutions with the right information and
knowledge that helps to prioritize their needs in the global, national and local development agenda.
Close engagement with the development of a global agenda such as the Habitat III process that will be
endorsed by member states of the United Nations is critical because it happens every 20 years.
Preparation and knowledge are therefore key to developing the framework to promote smart,

sustainable, inclusive and prosperous human settlements.
The study of the four African cities draws on a robust set of concepts that include planning,
housing, infrastructure development, economic development, environmental sustainability, social
development, disaster exposure and resilience and peace and security. The planning of African
urbanization must take into consideration and learn from the accumulated knowledge on various
conditions that make cities smart, green, ecological, livable and healthy; and the progressive
emergence of the ICT infrastructures and their correlates such as social media and in general data
revolution. With the development of ICT infrastructures and their correlates, work places are
becoming progressively spatially mobile. Walkability and public space provision have also
increasingly become a central part of planning of the city of the twenty-first century. Furthermore,
with the emergence of ICT infrastructures, the dichotomy between settlements, particularly between
cities, towns and villages is becoming less relevant than it was traditionally perceived. Various
comparative advantages traditionally associated with urban setting such as diffusion of ideas,
innovation, economies of scale and agglomeration of economies can now be achieved in sparse but
connected settlements. This is indicative of the pervasiveness of the ICT revolution in the region and
in a sense signals the deepening of the era of digital urbanization in Africa. Given the increasing
penetration of digital technologies, all things being equal Africa’s urbanization may well be
accelerated and achieved well before the predicted year of 2035. Clearly, digital urbanization will
help to address various urban issues that African cities are facing which result from certain
foundational weaknesses characterized by three main factors: (a) poor urban planning; (b) insufficient
provision of basic services; and (c) inefficient urban policies.
We recognize that ICT alone cannot make a city smart; it is the way it is integrated in the city
fabric that will determine the city smartness. With an extensive use of ICT to access services, there
will be few cars than before on the road making streets friendlier and healthy for walking and cycling.
Streets can be planned and designed as public spaces to serve communities for social interactions as
well as mobility. Hence, they can promote infrastructure development, enhance environmental
sustainability, support high socio-economic development and promote social development, equity and
social inclusion. In the long term, it will reduce emissions of CO 2 , promote the creation of lowcarbon cities, reduce land degradation and promote biodiversity.
Recently, African Ministers of Housing and Urban Development, convening in Abuja, Nigeria, in

February 2016, adopted the Abuja Declaration which spelt out Africa’s position on Habitat III.
The Declaration contains six fundamental principles underlying the African perspective to the
outcome of Habitat III which objective is to pursue an ambitious new, and transformative urban and
human settlements agenda. It will make sense to harmonize at the practical policy level the lessons
learnt from the smart economy in Smart City studies with the objectives of the Common African
Position on Habitat III. In addition, we suggest that these studies be carried out in other African
Prof. Oyebanji Oyeyinka (Director, Regional Office for Africa)

Foreword II
The Power of Sharing
Cities globally are positioned to identify, adopt and implement transformational solutions.
Technologies are changing the way cities are built, how citizens interact and move throughout the city,
and how city services from health care to safety and from water to waste are delivered. A city’s
livability, prosperity and inclusiveness are central to sustainable progress globally and smart
solutions are paving the way.
One of the greatest challenges we face today is ensuring that the work and experience in building
Smart Cities worldwide can be shared across cities globally. In order to share experience, we need a
common ‘language’ and agreement on the definitions and practices that make up a smart community,
so that we are all measuring the same dynamics. At that point, processes become transferrable and
improvable. Standardized city data can become that common language ensuring city solutions can
‘travel’ globally.
Measurement is at the heart of the progressive Smart City. A new international standard now
under development within ISO, Indicators for Smart Cities , will outline a set of indicators to enable
cities to facilitate and promote the integration and interoperability of city systems and build upon a
core set of city indicators, already standardized in ISO 37120 Sustainable Development of
Communities: Indicators for City Services and Quality of Life. Standardized indicators for Smart
Cities will enable cities to draw comparative lessons and facilitate city to city learning. This
standard will help cities to innovate and find technological and knowledge-based solutions to address
urban challenges.
One of the great attributes of this book is that it brings together respected authors from around the
world, to help drive knowledge and exchange. This book describes programmes that experts have
used with success in developing smart economies across a global array of cities. These ‘beacons of
success’ can be emulated by other cities globally if a common language—data—is available to
inform city to city learning.
There are in fact two levels of benefits that readers will find in these chapters:
Specific examples of solutions that can be adopted in other cities globally; and
An overall emerging theme highlighting common elements that are needed in order to plan a
universal strategic direction.
Standardized information on cities, gathered on a global scale, builds a strategic base of
knowledge for city leaders to act. It has the power to transform city building, to inform smart health
care, allocate energy resources, achieve sustainable economic growth and raise incomes for all
citizens. Although a great deal of hypothetical work has been done, there is little empirical study
available on how Smart Cities generate urban economic development. This book opens that door,
providing comparable information on what success looks like in different centres around the world.
Patricia McCarney (President and CEO of the World Council on City Data (WCCD); Professor
of Political Science and Director of the Global Cities Institute at the University of Toronto,

Foreword III
The ‘Smart City’ idea comes from a long line of urban innovations that attempt to re-imagine the city
and imbue it with fresh vision and purpose. Garden cities, model neighbourhoods, new towns,
national capital cities, techno-cities, socialist cities, sustainable cities, eco-cities, low-carbon cities,
healthy cities and now Smart Cities are all attempts to specify more precise versions of utopia. They
all bring organization to the otherwise spontaneous clustering of people, homes, jobs and services
that we call cities. They are attempted to improve social order.
Garden cities focused on combining the benefits of town and country. Socialist cities focused on
erasing inequalities. Eco-cities focus on minimizing ecological impact. Low-carbon cities narrow
this objective even further. Healthy cities focus on improving health by design. There is always a
utopian objective in the re-envisioning device. Smart Cities are a little different. And because of this,
it may prove that they are a more viable and long-lived notion.
‘Smart’ is not an end in itself. Why would we strive for ‘smart’ for its own sake? The perspective
of this interesting collection of writings is on ‘smart’ for the sake of ‘smart economy’. Leaving the
authors of the initial chapters to define what ‘smart economy’ means, the formula of the title
illustrates that the notion of Smart Cities is essentially about means not ends. A Smart City is an ITenabled city. This is the simplest way of understanding the idea. Expressed thus, it becomes less of a
fad in urban planning doctrine or technology strategy and more of a phase of urban management
whose time has come—a technological phase. Sensor technology; big data; inexpensive highpowered computing; pricing technology; and governmental, legal and other institutional innovations,
all mean that technology can be applied to urban management in dramatically new ways. What
happened in the factory several decades ago can now be applied to the city. The efficiency of many
parts of the urban management system can be increased by automation. This has come gradually over
the decades but has accelerated with nonlinear downward trends in the costs of computer processing;
storage; communication and data capture; and upward trends in the speed, depth and scope of
innovation in urban information and communications technology (ICT) applications.
Bridge and tunnel tolls became more feasible on high-volume highways with the advent, first of
automatic barriers, then more so with auto-tolling scanners. Number-recognition and other scanning
technology and accompanying innovations in payment collection technologies made it possible to
reintroduce the ancient idea of the road toll to city neighbourhoods as an alternative to hardengineering solutions to commuting ‘rat-runs’ and home-zone road safety. Innovations in pricing
technology means congestion pricing can become more sophisticated, with fees adjusting to
congestion levels at different times and places. Accompanying institutional and legal innovations
allow experiments with the application of road pricing to different sub-markets and different spatial
pricing boundaries, such as allowing retail owners in an urban block to set their own parking price to
optimize parking congestion (setting the price regime so that parking lots are never too empty or
completely full).
Construction waste, to take another example, has traditionally been a deadweight loss for
contractors and developers and society at large. Demolition waste and expendable concrete
formwork and other cast-offs in the building trade add costs to a construction project. If they end up in
a landfill, they become a social cost to the city. ICT can turn this construction industry externality into
consumer surplus by creating a market. Builders need rubble and a good proportion of waste can be
reused. Set up a real-time market and you can probably halve the amount of waste going to landfill.

The editors and authors of this book call for a theory of Smart Cities and offer their case studies
in the spirit of evidence building and theory building. Responding to their challenge, a theory of Smart
Cities may be based on the idea of missing markets . Urban inefficiencies arise because of
externalities—costs born by third-parties beyond the immediate parties to a transaction. Urban
externalities such as congestion in housing and transportation markets, air, noise, light and water
pollution, infectious disease risk, fire risk are typically addressed by regulation. Technology can fill
a ‘missing market gap’, turning an externality into a commodity. The insurance industry is an example
of how missing markets (in risk) can be activated through a combination of legal, organizational,
financial and technological innovations. Risks that were once serious impediments to transacting in
cities are turned into profit by the specialist skills of people working together in the insurance
industry. A mobile app-based market for construction waste exchange turns waste from a deadweight
loss to society and the construction industry into private and public benefit. All can gain if the market
is structured correctly. Road pricing has the effect of reducing the volume of road-congestion
externalities such as noise, fumes, danger and time-loss at the same time as generating revenue that
can be used to further moderate travel-based externalities, such as constructing landscape buffers,
widening or narrowing roads, introducing cycling lanes.
In an industry, corporation or factory, the efficiencies introduced by smart technology are justified
primarily on the basis of reduced costs or increase sales or profit. In a city, they can be justified by
achieving a better balance between the costs and benefits of living together in a city. This includes
reducing externalities, increasing social benefits, reducing the costs of urban management and raising
the quality and effectiveness of urban management.
The basis of a theory of Smart Cities is found, therefore, in the application of technology to the
business of city management. This can be taken a step further. A Smart City is one where ICT is used
to reduce the costs of the transactions that are the heart of a city’s life and economy. Cities exist
because it is more beneficial for people to live in close proximity to each other. It is better to live
together than apart. If that were not so, people would remain spread out evenly across the
countryside. People live together for economies of scale in production and consumption. Transport
communications technology (TCT) enabled people to move from the countryside as soon as the wheel
was invented. TCT enabled the division of labour, which in turn produced even greater economies of
scale as labour became ever more specialized. In a virtuous circle, more sophisticated TCT
innovations led to more sophisticated city economies. When cities developed into production and
consumption hubs that transported buyers and sellers, raw materials, goods, services, tastes and
customs and knowledge from across ancient empires, the knowledge specialization, labour division,
product differentiation, wealth and income of cities grew as a result. The role of technology-induced
transaction cost reductions in making cities into the engines of economy and culture that they have
been in every great empire is axiomatic to the history of civilization. ICT now plays a similar role. It
reduces the costs of living and working in the city by making it easier to find a route to work, a
suitable flat mate, supplier, customer, advisor, banker, factory site, shop premise, theatre, school,
gym or even to find a marriage partner. ICT also lowers the transaction costs of getting things into the
city and of distributing urban products and services away from the city. It enables cities to grow in
relation to international and intercontinental as well as regional hinterlands.
Smart Cities and smart economies intertwine in cause and effect. It is more likely that smart urban
management technology will be invented, trialled and adopted in a city that hosts an entrepreneurial
industrial culture. On the other hand, Smart City technology can encourage smart economic
development as explored in detail in the case studies of this book. The evidence from the literature on

regional innovation systems points to a magic mix of strong and entrepreneurial government, low
taxes, high incentives, skilled and flexible labour markets and good natural and cultural
environmental conditions. The challenge to urban governments is to use Smart City technology in a
way that blends into the background and that invisibly makes it easier to use the city for all that a city
is good for. Governments have a historical tendency to oversupply public goods. The same is as
likely to be true with ICT-based Smart City infrastructure as it is with TCT transportation
infrastructure and other engineering interventions. This is certainly the case in large corporations,
who since the start of the modern computer era have a well-documented history of failed multimillion dollar mega ICT projects. Urban governments would do well to focus not on grand systems
that treat the city as a machine. We briefly went there in the 1960s and 1970s with comprehensive
urban planning supported by the then-trendy ICT paradigm of cybernetics. Rather, we should be
thinking about fostering many small and competitive innovations, preferably using app and cloud
technology and designed for specific sub-market players to fill very specific urban missing markets. If
governments want to invest, they should think in terms of setting up the platforms for their citizens to
create their own Smart City inventions to increase efficiency in a multitude of specialist domains.
Such is the spirit of the spontaneous city of the past and such will always, hopefully, be the spirit of
the city of the future. The alternative kind of utopia can also be facilitated by ICT, but it is not
desirable and is bound to fail.
Cities across the regions of Asia are variously characterized by high density, poverty, high-speed
development, massive size, strong government and a developmental state. Smart City technology can
come from the top or bottom. It can enhance strong state planning and it can enhance spontaneous
order. Asian cities need both and there is no reason why ICT should not increase efficiency of small
and large settlements in political economies as different as India and China. To be successful, a Smart
City application needs to match its context and those that work in China may not work in India. In the
wild-west city Dongguan, in China’s Guangdong Province, rural collectives have used village assets
to become fabulously wealthy from poorly regulated capitalism. One Township, Chang’an, with a
population of one million people, is building an urban big data centre for smart local governance
across sectors and across its one hundred square kilometres. In other Asian settlements, massive
investment at the city scale like this will not be possible and it will be small smart initiatives that
will capture the power of Smart City apps to make things more efficient at the local level first. So we
need to distinguish between big versus small Smart City technology as well as centralized versus
decentralized, demand-side versus supply-side, market-enhancing versus market-creating, speculative
versus mature, public domain versus proprietary, consumer-oriented versus producer-oriented, multisector versus single-sector, and city-intranet platforms versus open Internet platforms. In many parts
of Asia, local government is fluid, being rediscovered in transitional post-socialist economies or
adapted to informal governance and financing institutions in low-income countries. Smart City ICT
has a crucial role to play in the evolution urban governance in Asia. It even holds the potential for
discovering new and more efficient forms of urban order not open to Western cities that are
encumbered with historic institutional structures that make technological innovation more difficult to
Chris Webster (Professor of Urban Planning and Development Economics; Dean, Faculty of
Architecture and Hong Kong Urban Lab, University of Hong Kong)

Foreword IV
European Smart Cities: Current and Future Enterprises and Research
It has been acknowledged that in 2010 more than half the world’s population lived in cities; by 2050
that will have risen to 70 %. As a consequence, 80 % of the global gross domestic product (GDP) is
generated in cities; as they grow, there is increasing pressure for them to become more sustainable.
Around the world, Smart Cities are increasingly evolving and many nations are promoting and have
started setting a Smart City agenda. According to politicians and financial analysts and experts, cities
drive economic growth and prosperity. Sustainable, Smart Cities are where entrepreneurs, authorities
and academia come together, using shared data and digital technology to improve urban living. In
Europe, this has been further strengthened by Research Framework Programme-Horizon 2020, which
has been broadcasted as the biggest EU Research and Innovation programme ever with nearly €80
billion of funding available over 7 years (2014–2020). By taking great ideas from the laboratory to
the market, Horizon 2020 promises more innovations and discoveries as well as attraction of
enormous private investment on the top of the funds to be distributed in relevant partnerships between
European countries ( ec.​europa.​eu/​programmes/​horizon2020/​ ). By launching this huge programme, it
was noted that Europe will be presented in a changing world of inclusive, innovative and reflective
societies (also present in current European Commission Decision C (2015)6776 of 13 October
Horizon 2020 is currently implementing the Innovation Union, a Europe 2020 Flagship Initiative
aimed at securing Europe’s global competitiveness. Thus, the programme has the political backing of
Europe’s leaders and the Members of the European Parliament; they agreed that research is an
investment in our future and so put it at the heart of the EU’s blueprint for smart, sustainable and
inclusive growth and jobs. This turns out to be evident in the publication of Regulation (EU) No
1291/2013 of the European Parliament and the Council of 11 December 2013, establishing Horizon
2020—the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (2014–2020) and repealing Decision
No 1982/2006/EC. Whereas the European Council Decision of 3 December 2013 establishes the
specific programme implementing Horizon 2020—the Framework Programme for Research and
Innovation (2014–2020) by stating that: ‘The general objective of Horizon 2020 should be pursued
through three priorities dedicated to generating excellent science (“Excellent science”), creating
industrial leadership (“Industrial leadership”) and tackling societal challenges (“Societal
challenges”). The general objective should also be pursued through the specific objectives
“Spreading excellence and widening participation” and “Science with and for society”’. Thus,
Horizon 2020 is open to everyone, with a simple structure that reduces red tape and time, so
participants can focus on what is really important. This approach makes sure new projects get off the
ground quickly—and achieve results faster.
The EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation will be complemented by further
measures to complete and further develop the European Research Area. These measures will aim at
breaking down barriers to create a genuine single market for knowledge, research and innovation.
Very recently research and international projects, such as the European Innovation Partnership on
Smart Cities and Communities (EIP-SCC), envisioned bringing together cities, industry and citizens

to improve urban life through more sustainable integrated solutions ( ec.​europa.​eu/​eip/​smartcities/​ ).
The EIP-SCC consists of the High Level Group and the Smart Cities Stakeholder Platform; together,
they are responsible for the Strategic Implementation Plan (SIP), which helps define how concepts
promoting Smart Cities are put into practice. It also looks at how the European Commission can
support these measures during the next Research Framework Programme—Horizon 2020. The EU
Framework Programme for Research and Innovation will be complemented by further measures to
complete and further develop the European Research Area by breaking down barriers to create a
genuine single market for knowledge, research and innovation (Europe 2020 Flagship Initiative).
Eleni Tracada (University Principal Tutor)

Part I Introduction
1 Smart Economy in Smart Cities
T. M. Vinod Kumar and Bharat Dahiya
Part II Canada-Ottwa
2 Ottawa:​ Rise of a Smart Community
Barry Gander, Bruce Lazenby, Charles Duffett, Greg Richards, Mark Hoddenbagh,
Mark Kristmanson, Ritch Dusome, Sarah Linkletter and Sorin Cohn
3 Ottawa:​ Rewards for a Smart City in a Global Innovation Economy
Barry Gander, Bruce Lazenby, Charles Duffett, Greg Richards, Mark Hoddenbagh,
Mark Kristmanson, Ritch Dusome, Sarah Linkletter and Sorin Cohn
4 Ottawa:​ Leaders’ Views on Innovation and the Smart Community
Barry Gander, Bruce Lazenby, Charles Duffett, Greg Richards, Mark Hoddenbagh,
Mark Kristmanson, Ritch Dusome, Sarah Linkletter and Sorin Cohn
5 Seizing the Initiative
Barry Gander, Bruce Lazenby, Charles Duffett, Greg Richards, Mark Hoddenbagh,
Mark Kristmanson, Ritch Dusome, Sarah Linkletter and Sorin Cohn
Part III China-Hong Kong Hksar
6 Introduction to Hong Kong’s Development
Sujata S. Govada, Widemar Spruijt and Timothy Rodgers
7 Smart City Concept and Framework
Sujata S. Govada, Widemar Spruijt and Timothy Rodgers
8 Assessing Hong Kong as a Smart City
Sujata S. Govada, Widemar Spruijt and Timothy Rodgers
9 Kowloon East:​ Hong Kong’s New Smart CBD
Sujata S. Govada, Widemar Spruijt and Timothy Rodgers
10 Way Forward and Conclusions
Sujata S. Govada, Widemar Spruijt and Timothy Rodgers
Part IV Germany-Stuttgart
11 Morgenstadt—A German View of the City of the Future

Satyendra Singh
12 Economic Impact of Ultraefficient Urban Manufacturing
Satyendra Singh, Michael Hertwig and Joachim Lentes
13 Holistic Value Model for Smart Cities
Alanus von Radecki and Satyendra Singh
14 Visualization for Decision-Making in Smart Cities
Satyendra Singh, Günter Wenzel and Frank Brettschneider
15 Conclusion, Opportunities and Challenges
Satyendra Singh
Part V India-Calicut (Kozhikode)
16 Transforming Economy of Calicut to Smart Economy
C. Mohammed Firoz and T. M. Vinod Kumar
17 Marketing and Branding of Calicut as a Smart City Destination
Deepak S. Kumar, Lakshmi Manohar and Priyanka Singh
18 e-Design of Umami by Smart People for Smart Economy
T. M. Vinod Kumar, P. Bimal and C. Mohammed Firoz
19 E-Urban Land Management as Business for Umami
Suzana Jacob and T. M. Vinod Kumar
Part VI India-New Delhi
20 Making Delhi a Smart City:​ Economic Buoyancy with Spatial Justice
Ashok Kumar and Pradip Kumar Sarkar
Part VII India-Varanasi
21 Smart Economy in Smart Cities Varanasi India:​ Case of a Smart Traditional Economy of
Knowledge-Based Institutional Services and Creative-Cultural Products
Joy Sen, Mouli Majumdar, Deepanjan Saha and Abhik Chaudhuri
Part VIII India-Vijayawada
22 From Smart Agriculture to Smart Economy:​ Case of Vijayawada City Region
N. Sridharan, Raktim Ray and Aparna Soni
Part IX Italy-Bologna
23 Smart Cities, Local Community and Socioeconomic Development:​ The Case of Bologna

23 Smart Cities, Local Community and Socioeconomic Development:​ The Case of Bologna
Antonio Caperna, Guglielmo Minervino and Stefano Serafini
Part X Kenya-Nairobi
24 Smart City Foundation, the Core Pillar for Smart Economic Development in Nairobi
Dennis Mwaniki
25 Infrastructure Development in Nairobi:​ Widening the Path Towards a Smart City and Smart
Economic Development
Dennis Mwaniki
26 Social Development and Security for Smart Economic Development
Robert Ndugwa, Romanus Opiyo, Dennis Mwaniki and Omondi Odhiambo
27 Towards Smart Economic Development in Nairobi:​ Evaluating Smart City Economy Impacts
and Opportunities and Challenges for Smart Growth
Dennis Mwaniki, Michael Kinyanjui and Romanus Opiyo
Part XI Nigeria-Lagos
28 Smart City Foundation for Smart Economy
Femi Olokesusi, Femi Ola Aiyegbajeje, Gora Mboup and Dennis Mwaniki
29 Smart Infrastructure Developments for Smart Economy
Femi Olokesusi, Femi Ola Aiyegbajeje, Gora Mboup and Dennis Mwaniki
Part XII Senegal-Dakar
30 Smart City Foundation—Driver of Smart Cities
Gora Mboup, Momar Diongue and Samba Ndiaye
31 Smart Infrastructure Development Makes Smart Cities—Promoting Smart Transport and
ICT in Dakar
Gora Mboup
32 Smart Social Development Key for Smart Economy
Gora Mboup
33 Creating Digital, Smart Cities for Smart Economies:​ From Big Cities to Digital Urban
Gora Mboup
Part XIII South Africa-Cape Town
34 Transforming the City of Cape Town from an Apartheid City to an Inclusive Smart City
Paida Mhangara, Naledzani Mudau, Gora Mboup and Dennis Mwaniki

Part XIV USA-St. Louis
35 Profile of St.​ Louis as an Urban Entrepreneurial City
Jim Brasunas and Francis Chmelir
36 Challenges and Lessons Learned in Developing Smart Cities
Jim Brasunas and Francis Chmelir
37 Smart City Leaders, Champions, and Entrepreneurs—The People Part of Vibrant Smart
Ken Harrington
38 Connected Innovation Neighborhoods and Innovation Districts
David Sandel
39 Estimating the Economic Impact of Smart City Innovation Neighborhoods
Patrick McKeehan
40 Smart Cities Are 90 % Sociology and 10 % Infrastructure
David Sandel
Part XV Conclusion
41 International Collaborative Research “Smart Economy in Smart Cities” and Conclusions of
Cities Case Studies
T. M. Vinod Kumar

Author’s Biography
Femi Ola Aiyegbajeje
hails from Kabba, Kogi State, Nigeria. He has a PhD in Geography, a Master
of Science (M.Sc) degree in Geography and a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc)
degree in Geography from the University of Ibadan, Ibadan Nigeria. He is
currently with the Distance Learning Centre, University of Ibadan His research
interests dwell on transport and communication geography, research methods,
urban, and regional development.

P. Bimal
holds a master’s degree in city planning from Indian Institute of Technology
Kharagpur and bachelors’ degree in architecture from Kerala University. He
had been working at JUSCO, Jamshedpur, before joining as assistant professor
at Department of Architecture, NIT Calicut. He is currently pursuing PhD in
urban modelling. He has presented papers on residential location modelling,
development potential models, etc. in various international conferences. He
has authored chapters in previous books of this series.

Jim Brasunas
has 34 years of entrepreneurial, management, marketing and sales experience with technology-based
companies. He has been involved with numerous start-up ventures, including telecommunications, IT,
retail, manufacturing and a number of non-profit organizations. In April of 2008 he founded and
became Executive Director of ITEN (www.itenstl.org) and served as the organization’s leader until
joining the board of directors in June of 2015. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree from The
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He pursued graduate studies in psychology and innovative
management at the Institute for Comparative Studies, Gloucestershire, England.

Frank Brettschneider
is the chairperson of the department of communication science at university of
Hohenheim. His main focus areas are communication in large infrastructure
and construction projects and its management. He specially emphasizes the
link between theory and practice. He is the president of VDI-Guidelines
Committee 7001 “Communication and the public participation in planning and
construction of infrastructure projects- standards for the service phase of the

Antonio Caperna
Antonio graduated from the Faculty of Architecture in Naples, he has been
awarded a PhD from Roma Tre University. A visiting Professor at several
universities, he had previously taught at the University of Rome “La Sapienza”
and for 15 years at Roma Tre University (Italy). He is the President of the
International Society of Biourbanism, and an academic consultant at the
Portuguese Agency for Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Education. His
latest research is mainly oriented to the emergent field of Biourbanism and to
the application of complexity theory, evolutionary biology, Biophilia and
Morphogenesis to define procedure/process and tools for a human oriented
architecture and urbanism.

Abhik Chaudhuri
is an Enterprise Security Architect and Domain Consultant in Cyber Security, Privacy and Policy. As

a Co-Editor of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC27 WG4 he is developing global standards in
cyber security. His research papers on various aspects of IT and IoT Security,
Privacy have been published in reputed journals like EDPACS (Taylor &
Francis), ISACA Journal, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer
Verlag) and IGI Global. Abhik is a member of IEEE IoT Community, Editorial
Board member of EDPACS Journal (Taylor & Francis, USA) and the Journal
of Data Protection and Privacy (Henry Stewart Publications, U.K.).

Francis Chmelir
has a deep history of contributing to the growth of scalable, technology startups
over the last 12 years. Previous professional roles include having been the
Director of Operations and founding member of the Technology Entrepreneur
Center (TEC) and the Statewide Director for MoFAST, a part of the
University of Missouri system program for technology commercialization. He
currently serves as the Executive Director for ITEN, a catalyst of the tech
startup ecosystem in the St. Louis region. At ITEN, he directs the fundraising,
operations and overall strategy of the organization while also focusing on new
client attraction, intake and business acceleration programs. Additionally, he
works on enhancing mentor engagement throughout all of ITEN's services to its
client companies.

Sorin Cohn
received a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from McMaster University in 1976,
following a M.Sc. degree in Physics from the University of Calgary and a
Masters. in Electronics from the University of Bucharest. Presently, he is the
President of BD Consulting and Chief Program Officer of i-Canada, driving
Innovation Nation programs to help Canadian communities and industry
enhance their competitiveness. He is also on the Board of Startup Canada and
leads the Conference Board of Canada research on innovation metrics and
management, following a 35 year career managing innovation developments in
universities, research institutions, multinational companies and high-tech

Bharat Dahiya

An award-winning urbanist, Bharat combines research, policy analysis and development practice
aimed at examining and tackling socio-economic, environmental and
governance issues in the global urban context. Working with World Bank, UNHabitat, Asian Development Bank and UNDP, he initiated, led and contributed
to international projects on sustainable urban development in Asia-Pacific. He
conceptualised and coordinated the preparation of United Nations’ first-ever
report on The State of Asian Cities 2010/11 . He has held academic positions
in Australia, Indonesia and Thailand. Reuters, China Daily, Inter Press Service
and SciDev.Net have quoted his work. He holds a PhD in Urban Governance,
Planning and Environment from the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Momar Diongue
is presentely a Researcher and a Teacher at University Cheikh Anta Diop
(UCAD) of Dakar. Dr. Diongue’s research interests cover; Peri-urban and
territorial governance; Metropolization of large urban projects; land prodution;
real estate and local public services; international migration and residential
mobility. He was also a Visiting Professor at the University of Rennes
(France) where he taught Master students courses on Urban Development
(Urban development in the peri-urban of large cities in West Africa);
Architecture and Cities’ Images (Emerging urban form in the peri-urban of
Urban); Local Public Action and Territorial Solidarities (Local Public
Services in West Africa).

Charles Duffett
has held roles at the Office of the Auditor General of Canada, Revenue
Canada, and Transport Canada where he oversaw a number of strategic air
safety initiatives. He rejoined the Federal Government on an Executive
Interchange upon being asked by the Privy Council Office to assist in the
strategy for the creation of Shared Services Canada. At SSC he led the
Division responsible for development of current secret network and desktop
standards. He has Chaired The Canadian Executive Development Series
Advisory Board, and has been an Advisor to a local startup and the Canadian
Advanced Technology Alliance. He has received numerous awards for merit.

Ritch Dusome

Ritch Dusome has over 25 years of experience in engineering, product
management, and networks. Ritch studied at the University of Ottawa and
completed a BSc in Physics and Mathematics. He has provided strategic
guidance to clients on internet and network architectures, business
transformation, and enterprise architectures. He worked at Cisco Systems in
engineering and product management and network operations and analysis. As
network analyst for Bell Canada, he worked closely on the original CANARIE
network, one of the world’s fastest research networks.

C. Mohammed Firoz
is an architect and urban planner by profession. He holds a Ph.D. degree from
IIT Kharagpur, postgraduation in urban and regional planning from CEPT
University and B.Arch. degree from NIT Calicut for which he was as a
university rank holder. He has been involved in teaching, researching and
consulting at NIT Calicut since July 2004. He was also engaged as a visiting
teacher at the Architectural Association London (AA London) for the term
May–June 2015. His field of interest includes rural urban interface studies,
sustainable urban design and planning, regional development and planning, etc.

Barry Gander
has helped jump-start the development of advanced technology organizations
in Canada and abroad. Working in both companies and in associations, with
the public sector and academia, he has created initiatives that showcase the
best of Canadian innovation to global markets. The i-CANADA program,
which he co-founded, aims to create an “Intelligent Nation” by establishing a
grass-roots movement of communities that network at ultrafast speed. He has
authored several best-selling books including “Fast Lane”, which crystallized
growth ideas, and a landmark book called “SUCCESS”, which highlights the
views of 100 top executives.

Ken Harrington
was the Founding Managing Director of the Skandalaris Entrepreneurship Center at Washington

University in St. Louis. Prior to joining the university in 2001, he held senior
management positions at seven startup technology companies. He serves on a
number of boards of directors and is an author and speaker including (1) How
Cities and Regions Can Become Thriving Entrepreneurial Hubs, an award
winning submission to the Entrepreneur Innovation Exchange, (2)
Entrepreneurship Education Comes of Age on Campus: An essay collection
published by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, and (3) Rebuilding the
American Dream, Restoring American Jobs and Competitiveness through
Innovation and Entrepreneurship, a book authored by Robert Skandalaris.

Michael Hertwig
Michael Hertwig is working researcher at university of Stuttgart. His mayor
research fields are development of suitable IT support of production processes
and the procedure development for manufacturing in urban environments. In
2005, he graduated in production technology at the University of Combined
Studies, Thuringia. In 2013, he was awarded a diploma of mechanical
engineering at the University of Stuttgart. He is member of the association of
German engineers (VDI). He is a member of the committee of the initiative
He belongs to Competence Team »Digital Engineering« at Fraunhofer
Institute of Industrial Engineering(IAO). He is responsible for the process
development and know-how transfer. His researches are about the processes
with the support of digital technology can be optimized and what the production of the future would
look like. He is also a member of the German Engineers Association (Verein deutscher Ingenieure

Mark Hoddenbagh
is responsible for engaging industry, government and community organizations
in the activities of the College. Since 2007 when he joined Algonquin College
he has accomplished this by developing strong internal and external networks
with creative, driven and passionate people; leveraging the expertise of faculty
and staff; engaging students in addressing real-world problems and
opportunities; and collaborating closely with industry, government and
community organizations. He has a Ph.D. in Chemistry and worked in pulp and
paper and biotechnology in technical and management roles for 15 years prior
to joining Algonquin.

Suzana Jacob
currently works as a research associate at National Institute of Urban Affairs
(NIUA), New Delhi. She holds a master’s degree in urban planning from
National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, and a bachelor’s degree in civil
engineering from Cochin University. Prior to joining NIUA, she worked as a
lecturer in Department of Architecture and Planning at National Institute of
Technology, Calicut, and as a research assistant for a HUDCO-HSMI project
on Cluster Level Sustainability of Nagpur City. Her research interests include
anthropology, housing, Smart Cities, social planning, urban finance and urban
land management.

Michael Kinyanjui
is a Consultant with UN-Habitat. He holds a Masters in Urban Management
and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Geography from the University of Nairobi
Kenya. His previous professional experience includes working at the United
Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD)—Africa Regional Office
as a National Officer, providing technical expertise in preparation of
Integrated Regional Development Plans (IRDP) for sub-national regional
authorities in Kenya and as a Curriculum Coordinator for the Africa Training
Course on Local Regional Development Planning and Management. He
previously worked as the Research Consultant with the Policy Analysis
Branch, Monitoring, and Research Division at UN-Habitat towards
preparation of the Global Reports on Human Settlements (GRHS). He has also
extensively worked and researched on Sustainable Urban Shelter Delivery Strategies and Urban
Poverty with Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) currently Practical Action.

Mark Kristmanson
was appointed CEO of the National Capital Commission by Foreign Affairs
Minister John Baird on Monday, February 3, 2014. In addition to numerous
university degrees including a PhD [Humanities] from Concordia University,
he was most recently director, capital interpretation and commemorations, at
the National Capital Commission. From 2000 to 2003, he served as the
founding executive director of the New Brunswick Arts Board and from 1982
to 1994 as technical director of the National Arts Centre. He held the 2011
Fulbright Visiting Research Chair in Public Diplomacy at the University of
Southern California in Los Angeles. He was expert adviser to the Cultural
Capitals of Canada Program from 2002 to 2010 and has served on federal
government’s Commemorations, Canada Remembers and War of 1812

Bicentennial interdepartmental committees.

Ashok Kumar
has been working in the School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi as a
Professor since 1993. His research interests include Inclusive Planning, and
Planning Epistemologies. He has published 90 papers, written and edited 8
books, and published 18 book chapters. He has been serving as the Editor of
the ITPI Journal since 2002. In 2016 he has co-edited two books: one for
Springer, and another one for Cambridge Scholars Press. A co-authored
chapter was published by the Policy Press in April 2016. Another co-authored
book chapter will be published in the Routledge Handbook of Theory in early

Deepak S. Kumar
Assistant Professor, Amrita School of Business, Coimbatore and Fellow (IIM
Kozhikode), MBA, B.Tech. (NIT, Calicut). His research interest areas include
branding, service scape, aesthetics and green marketing and have published in
journals such as The Marketing Review, IIM Kozhikode Society &
Management Review. He has also presented papers in many conferences
including Academy of Marketing Annual Conference; UK, International
Marketing Trends Conference; Paris, Pan-IIM World Management Conference;
IIMK. At ASB Coimbatore, he teaches marketing, services marketing and
brand management. He is also an invited faculty of NITC and undertakes skill
development programmes for EDPs, of Technology Business Incubator TBINITC.

Bruce Lazenby
After serving 20 years in the military, Bruce served in senior technology executive positions
including CEO with Ottawa’s FreeBalance Inc., Chairman of the Ottawa Software Cluster, and Vice
President in Canada for Corum Group Ltd.—the world’s largest software M&A advisory firm. He
was also a Chair and executive coach with The Executive Committee – a global network of 15,000
chief executives in 16 countries. He is a frequent speaker at knowledge-based executive events
across North America, and in 2005, he was voted Canada’s Private Sector Technology Leader by the
Canadian Advanced Technology Alliance.

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