Tải bản đầy đủ

Encyclopedia of african american business

Encyclopedia of African
American Business,
Volumes 1 & 2

Edited by
Jessie Carney Smith

Greenwood Press
www.ebook3000.com


Encyclopedia of African American Business

www.ebook3000.com


www.ebook3000.com


Encyclopedia of African
American Business

Volume 1
A–J

EDITED BY JESSIE CARNEY SMITH
Millicent Lownes Jackson, Consultant
Linda T. Wynn, Consultant

Greenwood Press
Westport, Connecticut  London

www.ebook3000.com


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Encyclopedia of African American business / edited by Jessie Carney Smith ;
consultants : Millicent Lownes Jackson, Linda T. Wynn.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0–313–33109–X (set : alk. paper)—ISBN 0–313–33110–3 (v. 1 : alk. paper)—
ISBN 0–313–33111–1 (v. 2 : alk. paper) 1. African American business
enterprises—United States—Encyclopedias. 2. African American businesspeople—
United States—Encyclopedias. I. Smith, Jessie Carney. II. Jackson, Millicent
Lownes. III. Wynn, Linda T.
HD2358.5.U6E53 2006
338.7092'396073—dc22
2006002866
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available.
Copyright # 2006 by Jessie Carney Smith
All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be
reproduced, by any process or technique, without the
express written consent of the publisher.
This book is included in the African American Experience database from Greenwood
Electronic Media. For more information, visit www.africanamericanexperience.com.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2006002866
ISBN: 0–313–33109–X (set)
0–313–33110–3 (vol. 1)
0–313–33111–1 (vol. 2)
First published in 2006
Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881
An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.


www.greenwood.com
Printed in the United States of America

The paper used in this book complies with the
Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National
Information Standards Organization (Z39.48–1984).
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

www.ebook3000.com


In recognition of
African American entrepreneurs
for their vision, endurance,
and notable contributions to the world of business;
and to my father, James A. Carney, an early entrepreneur
and my inspiration for this book

www.ebook3000.com


www.ebook3000.com


Contents
Entry List

ix

Topical Entry List

xiii

African American Business Leaders by Occupation

xvii

Preface

xxiii

Introduction

xxvii

The Encyclopedia

1

Selected Bibliography

855

Index

861

About the Contributors

879

www.ebook3000.com


www.ebook3000.com


Entry List
Henry ‘‘Hank’’ Aaron
Robert Sengstacke Abbott
Advertising Agencies
Advertising and Marketing
Archie Alphonso Alexander
Clifford Leopold Alexander Jr.
Paget Alves
American Savings and Loan
League
Wally ‘‘Famous Amos’’
Amos Jr.
Association of Black Women
Entrepreneurs
Barbecue Establishments
Don H. Barden
Edwin C. Berry
Jesse Binga
Black Banks: Their Beginning
Black Business Development and
the Federal Government
Black Business Development in
Missouri
Black Businesses in Large Cities:
A History
Black Corporate Directors
Conference
Black Fund Managers
Black Press: Newspapers in Major
Cities
Black Retail Action Group
Blacks in Agriculture

Booker T. Washington Business
Association
Ruth Jean Bowen
Richard Henry Boyd
Sheila Bridges
Andrew Felton Brimmer
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters
Todd C. Brown
Dorothy E. Brunson
Thomas J. Burrell
Roland W. Burris
John Edward Bush
Business Ownership in Select
Academic Institutions
Cardozo Sisters
Albert Irvin Cassell
Catering Industry
Centers for Entrepreneurship in
Academic Institutions
Chambers of Commerce and
Boards of Trade in the
1920s and 1930s
Debra Martin Chase
Leah Chase
Kenneth Irvine Chenault
Robert Reed Church Sr.
Citizens’ League for Fair Play
Alexander G. Clark
Coalition of Black Trade
Unionists

www.ebook3000.com

Daniel C. Cochran
Marie Therese Coincoin
Virgis William Colbert
Donald Alvin Coleman
Kenneth L. Coleman
Colored Merchants’
Association
Sean ‘‘Diddy’’ Combs
Conferences and Studies on
the Negro in Business: The
Early Years
Conferences on African
American Businesses
Ward Connerly
Consumer Cooperatives
Nathan G. Conyers
Edith W. Cooper
Corporation of Caterers
Credit Unions
Calvin Darden
Edward Davis
Erroll B. Davis Jr.
Thomas Day
Suzanne de Passe
Charles Diggs Jr.
Don’t Buy Where You Can’t
Work Movement
Frederick Douglass’s Business
Enterprises
Dr. Dre (Andre Young)
Joe L. Dudley Sr.


Entry List
E-Commerce and the African
American Community
Economic Boycotts and Protests
Kenneth ‘‘Babyface’’ Edmonds
and Tracey Edmonds
Elleanor Eldridge
William Ellison
Evern Cooper Epps
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc.
Faith-Based Entrepreneurship
James Conway Farley
Melvin Farr
Fashion Industry
Federal Records for African
American Business
History
Federation of Southern
Cooperatives Land Assistance
Fund
Food Service Industry
Barney Launcelot Ford
James Forten
Ann M. Fudge
S. B. Fuller
I. Owen Funderburg
Edward G. Gardner
Marcus Garvey’s UNIA
Enterprise
A. G. Gaston
Karen Patricia Gibbs
John Trusty Gibson
Bruce S. Gordon
Berry Gordy Jr.
Earl G. Graves
Sylvester Green
Grocery Store Enterprises
James Francis Haddon
Elliott Sawyer Hall
Marc R. Hannah
Carla Ann Harris
Lowell Hawthorne
Darryl B. Hazel
Ellenae Henry-Fairhurst
Alexis M. Herman
Alonzo Franklin Herndon
Dennis Fowler Hightower
Jesse Hill Jr.

x

Casper A. Holstein
Christine Moore Howell
Catherine ‘‘Cathy’’ Hughes
International Black Women’s
Congress
Maynard Holbrook
Jackson Jr.
O’Shea ‘‘Ice Cube’’ Jackson
Thomas ‘‘T. D.’’ Jakes
Earvin ‘‘Magic’’ Johnson Jr.
Eunice Walker Johnson
John H. Johnson
Robert L. Johnson
Caroline R. Jones
John Jones
Quincy Jones
Vernon Eulion Jordan
Marjorie Stewart Joyner
Kid/Teenpreneurs: Business
Leaders in the Making
Don King
Thomy Lafon
Lunsford Lane
Ronald N. Langston
John Anderson Lankford
Dorothy R. Leavell
Debra Louise Lee
Spike Lee
Legal Defense and
Educational Fund
Byron Eugene Lewis
Delano Eugene Lewis
Reginald F. Lewis
William M. Lewis Jr.
Alfred M. Ligon
James Bruce Llewellyn
Paula Madison
Annie Turnbo Malone
Julianne Malveaux
Bridget ‘‘Biddy’’ Mason
William G. Mays
Jewell Jackson McCabe
H. Carl McCall
Renetta McCann

McKissack and McKissack
Architects and Engineers, Inc.
Calvin McKissack and Moses
McKissack III
Frank Mercado-Valdes
John Merrick
Lightfoot Solomon Michaux
Minority Businesses in Major
Cities
Minority Enterprise Development
Week
Aaron McDuffie Moore
Rose Morgan
Cecilia Antonietta Mowatt
Eddie Murphy
Isaac Myers
Woodrow Augustus Myers Jr.
John E. ‘‘Jack’’ Nail
James Carroll Napier
National Afro-American
League
National Alliance of Market
Developers
National Association of Black
Accountants
National Association of Black
Owned Broadcasters
National Association of Black
Women Entrepreneurs
National Association of
Investment Companies
National Association of Minority
Contractors
National Association of Negro
Business and Professional
Women’s Clubs
National Black Chamber of
Commerce
National Black Farmers
Association
National Black MBA
Association
National Black United Fund
National Negro Business
League
Berry O’Kelly
Hazel R. O’Leary
E. Stanley O’Neal


Entry List
100 Black Men of America
Opportunities Industrialization
Centers of America
Clarence Otis Jr.
Anthony Overton

Roadside and Street Vending
Roy S. Roberts
David Ruggles
Herman Jerome Russell
Patricia Russell-McCloud

Harry H. Pace
Henry Green Parks Jr.
Richard Dean Parsons
Robert Paschal and James
Paschal
Paschal’s Family Business
Frederick Douglas Patterson
Charles V. Payne
Philip A. Payton Jr.
Heman Edward Perry
Charles E. Phillips Jr.
Joseph Alphonso Pierce
Winston Pittman Sr.
Myrtle Stephens Potter
Ernesta G. Procope
Barbara Gardner Proctor

Sailors and Merchant
Mariners
Frank Savage
Alan Shaw
Shoe Shine Establishments
Joseph Jacob Simmons III
Russell Simmons
Naomi R. Sims
Norma Merrick Sklarek
Barbara ‘‘B’’ Smith
Paula A. Sneed
Charles Clinton Spaulding
David L. Steward
Leon Howard Sullivan
Percy Ellis Sutton
Lucious (Lou) Switzer

Franklin Delano Raines
Real Estate Industry
Antonio ‘‘L. A.’’ Reid
Retail Industry
Sylvia Rhone
Linda Johnson Rice
Norman Blann Rice

Vertner W. Tandy Sr.
Susan L. Taylor
Theater Owners Booking
Association and the
Entertainment Industry
John W. Thompson
Gloria E. A. Toote

Dempsey Jerome Travis
Lloyd G. Trotter
Urban Financial Services
Coalition
Sheila Vaden-Williams
A’Lelia Walker
Antonio Maceo Walker
Madame C. J. Walker
Maggie Lena Mitchell Walker
E. E. Ward Transfer and
Storage Company
Lloyd David Ward
Carl H. Ware
Augustus Washington
Booker T. Washington
Regynald G. Washington
Sarah Spencer Washington
Barbara Mae Watson
Damon Wayans
Paul Revere Williams
David Augustus Williston
Oprah Winfrey
Women and Business
Sylvia P. Woods
Alfred W. Zollar

xi



Topical Entry List
Academic Institutions
Business Ownership in Select
Academic Institutions
Centers for Entrepreneurship
in Academic
Institutions
Advertising
Advertising Agencies
Advertising and Marketing
American Savings and Loan
League
Agriculture
Blacks in Agriculture
Biographies
Henry ‘‘Hank’’ Aaron
Robert Sengstacke Abbott
Archie Alphonso Alexander
Clifford Leopold Alexander Jr.
Paget Alves
Wally ‘‘Famous Amos’’ Amos Jr.
Don H. Barden
Edwin C. Berry
Jesse Binga
Ruth Jean Bowen
Richard Henry Boyd
Sarah Breedlove. See Madame
C. J. Walker

Sheila Bridges
Andrew Felton Brimmer
Todd C. Brown
Dorothy Edwards Brunson
Thomas J. Burrell
Roland W. Burris
John Edward Bush
Cardozo Sisters
Elizabeth Cardozo Barker
Margaret Cardozo Holmes
Emmeta Cardozo Hurley
Catherine Cardozo Lewis
Albert Irvin Cassell
Debra Martin Chase
Leah Chase
Kenneth Irvine Chenault
Robert Reed Church Sr.
Alexander G. Clark
Daniel C. Cochran
Marie Therese Coincoin
Virgis William Colbert
Donald Alvin Coleman
Kenneth L. Coleman
Sean ‘‘Diddy’’ Combs
Ward Connerly
Nathan G. Conyers
Edith W. Cooper
Calvin Darden
Edward Davis
Erroll B. Davis Jr.
Thomas Day
Suzanne de Passe

‘‘Diddy.’’ See Sean ‘‘Diddy’’
Combs
‘‘P. Diddy.’’ See Sean ‘‘Diddy’’
Combs
Charles Diggs Jr.
Frederick Douglass. See Frederick
Douglass’s Business
Enterprises
Dr. Dre (Andre Young)
Joe L. Dudley Sr.
Kenneth ‘‘Babyface’’ Edmonds
and Tracey Edmonds
Elleanor Eldridge
William Ellison
Evern Cooper Epps
Ellenae Fairhurst. See Ellenae
Henry-Fairhurst
James Conway Farley
Melvin Farr
Barney Launcelot Ford
James Forten
Ann M. Fudge
Samuel B. Fuller. See S. B. Fuller
S. B. Fuller
I. Owen Funderburg
Edward G. Gardner
Marcus Garvey. See Marcus
Garvey’s UNIA Enterprise
A. G. Gaston
Karen Patricia Gibbs
John Trusty Gibson
Bruce S. Gordon


Topical Entry List
Berry Gordy Jr.
Earl G. Graves
Sylvester Green
James Francis Haddon
Elliott Sawyer Hall
Marc R. Hannah
Carla Ann Harris
Lowell Hawthorne
Darryl B. Hazel
Ellenae Henry-Fairhurst
Alexis M. Herman
Alonzo Franklin Herndon
Dennis Fowler Hightower
Jesse Hill Jr.
Casper A. Holstein
Christine Moore Howell
Catherine ‘‘Cathy’’ Hughes
‘‘Ice Cube.’’ See O’Shea ‘‘Ice
Cube’’ Jackson
Maynard Holbrook Jackson Jr.
O’Shea ‘‘Ice Cube’’ Jackson
Thomas ‘‘T. D.’’ Jakes
Earvin ‘‘Magic’’ Johnson Jr.
Eunice Walker Johnson
John H. Johnson
‘‘Magic’’ Johnson. See Earvin
‘‘Magic’’ Johnson Jr.
Robert L. Johnson
Caroline R. Jones
John Jones
Quincy Jones
Vernon Eulion Jordan
Marjorie Stewart Joyner
Don King
Thomy Lafon
Lunsford Lane
Ronald N. Langston
John Anderson Lankford
Dorothy R. Leavell
Debra Louise Lee
Spike Lee
Byron Eugene Lewis
Delano Eugene Lewis
Reginald F. Lewis
William M. Lewis Jr.
Alfred M. Ligon
James Bruce Llewellyn
Paula Madison
Annie Turnbo Malone

xiv

Julianne Malveaux
Bridget ‘‘Biddy’’ Mason
William G. Mays
Jewell Jackson McCabe
H. Carl McCall
Renetta McCann
Calvin McKissack and Moses
McKissack III
Frank Mercado-Valdes
John Merrick
Lightfoot Solomon Michaux
Aaron McDuffie Moore
Rose Morgan
Cecilia Antonietta Mowatt
Eddie Murphy
Isaac Myers
Woodrow Augustus Myers Jr.
John E. ‘‘Jack’’ Nail
James Carroll Napier
Berry O’Kelly
Hazel R. O’Leary
E. Stanley O’Neal
Clarence Otis Jr.
Anthony Overton
Harry H. Pace
Henry Green Parks Jr.
Richard Dean Parsons
Robert Paschal and James Paschal
Frederick Douglas Patterson
Charles V. Payne
Philip A. Payton Jr.
Heman Edward Perry
Charles E. Phillips Jr.
Joseph Alphonso Pierce
Winston Pittman Sr.
Myrtle Stephens Potter
Ernesta G. Procope
Barbara Gardner Proctor
‘‘Puff Daddy.’’ See Sean ‘‘Diddy’’
Combs
‘‘Puffy.’’ See Sean ‘‘Diddy’’ Combs
Franklin Delano Raines
Antonio ‘‘L. A.’’ Reid
Sylvia Rhone
Linda Johnson Rice
Norman Blann Rice
Roy S. Roberts
David Ruggles
Herman Jerome Russell

Patricia Russell-McCloud
Frank Savage
Alan Shaw
Joseph Jacob Simmons III
Russell Simmons
Naomi R. Sims
Norma Merrick Sklarek
‘‘B’’ Smith. See Barbara
‘‘B’’ Smith
Barbara ‘‘B’’ Smith
Paula A. Sneed
Charles Clinton Spaulding
David L. Steward
Leon Howard Sullivan
Percy Ellis Sutton
Lucious (Lou) Switzer
Vertner W. Tandy Sr.
Susan L. Taylor
John W. Thompson
Gloria E. A. Toote
Dempsey Jerome Travis
Lloyd G. Trotter
Sheila Vaden-Williams
A’Lelia Walker
Antonio Maceo Walker
Madame C. J. Walker (Sarah
Breedlove)
Maggie Lena Mitchell
Walker
Lloyd David Ward
Carl H. Ware
Augustus Washington
Booker T. Washington
Regynald G. Washington
Sarah Spencer Washington
Barbara Mae Watson
Damon Wayans
Paul Revere Williams
David Augustus Williston
Oprah Winfrey
Sylvia P. Woods
Andre Young. See Dr. Dre
Alfred W. Zollar
Booking Agencies
Theater Owners Booking
Association and the
Entertainment Industry


Topical Entry List
Boycotts and Protests
Economic Boycotts and
Protests
Businesses
E-Commerce and the African
American Community
Marcus Garvey’s UNIA Enterprise
McKissack and McKissack
Architects and Engineers, Inc.
E. E. Ward Transfer and Storage
Company
Celebrations
Minority Enterprise Development
Week
Chambers of Commerce and
Boards of Trade
Chambers of Commerce and
Boards of Trade in the 1920s
and 1930s
Cities and States
Black Business Development in
Missouri
Black Businesses in Large Cities:
A History
Minority Businesses in
Major Cities
Clothing and Fashions
Fashion Industry
Conferences
Black Corporate Directors
Conference
Conferences and Studies on the
Negro in Business: The Early
Years
Conferences on African
American Businesses
Cooperative Movement
Colored Merchants’ Association
Consumer Cooperatives

Credit Unions
Don’t Buy Where You Can’t
Work Movement
(1929–1941)
Federal Government
Black Business Development and
the Federal Government
Financial Institutions/
Investments
American Savings and Loan
League
Black Banks: Their
Beginning
Black Fund Managers
Credit Unions
Food Industry
Barbecue Establishments
Catering Industry
Food Service Industry
Grocery Store Enterprises
Paschal’s Family Business
Roadside and Street Vending
Military and Industry
Sailors and Merchant Mariners
Miscellaneous Industries
Roadside and Street Vending
Sailors and Merchant
Mariners
Shoe Shine Establishments
Newspapers and the Press
Black Press: Newspapers in Major
Cities
Organizations
Association of Black Women
Entrepreneurs
Black Retail Action Group
Booker T. Washington Business
Association

Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters
Chambers of Commerce and
Boards of Trade in the 1920s
and 1930s
Citizens’ League for Fair Play
Coalition of Black Trade
Unionists
Colored Merchants’ Association
Corporation of Caterers
Emergency Land Fund. See
Federation of Southern
Cooperatives Land Assistance
Fund
Eta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc.
Federation of Southern
Cooperatives. See
Federation of Southern
Cooperatives Land Assistance
Fund
Federation of
Southern Cooperatives Land
Assistance Fund
International Black Women’s
Congress
Kid/Teenpreneurs: Business
Leaders in the Making
Legal Defense and Educational
Fund
National Afro-American League
National Alliance of Market
Developers
National Association of Black
Accountants
National Association of Black
Owned Broadcasters
National Association of
Black Women
Entrepreneurs
National Association of
Investment Companies
National Association of Minority
Contractors
National Association of
Negro Business and
Professional Women’s
Clubs
National Black Chamber of
Commerce

xv


Topical Entry List
National Black Farmers
Association
National Black MBA Association
National Black United Fund
National Business League. See
National Negro Business
League
National Negro Business League
100 Black Men of
America
Opportunities Industrialization
Centers of America

xvi

Urban Financial Services
Coalition
Waiters Benefit Association.
See Corporation of Caterers

Research Resources on
Business History

Real Estate

Retail Industry

Real Estate Industry

Retail Industry

Religion and Entrepreneurship

Women

Faith-Based Entrepreneurship

Women and Business

Federal Records for African
American Business History


African American Business
Leaders by Occupation
Abolitionists

Advertising Executives, Agents

Athletes

Frederick Douglass. See Frederick
Douglass’s Business
Enterprises
James Forten
John Jones
David Ruggles
Augustus Washington

Donald Alvin Coleman
Caroline R. Jones
Byron Eugene Lewis
Barbara Gardner Proctor

Henry ‘‘Hank’’ Aaron
Melvin Farr
Earvin ‘‘Magic’’ Johnson Jr.

Accountants, Actuaries
Roland W. Burris
Jesse Hill Jr.
Activists
Frederick Douglass. See Frederick
Douglass’s Business
Enterprises
Marcus Garvey. See Marcus
Garvey’s UNIA Enterprise
Earvin ‘‘Magic’’ Johnson Jr.
Don King
Julianne Malveaux
Maggie Lena Mitchell
Walker
Actors
O’Shea ‘‘Ice Cube’’ Jackson
Eddie Murphy
Damon Wayans

Architects, Building
Planners
Albert Irvin Cassell
John Anderson Lankford
Calvin McKissack and Moses
McKissack III
Norma Merrick Sklarek
Vertner W. Tandy Sr.
Paul Revere Williams
David Augustus Williston
Artisans

Authors, Writers
Wally ‘‘Famous Amos’’
Amos Jr.
Richard Henry Boyd
Earl G. Graves
O’Shea ‘‘Ice Cube’’ Jackson
Thomas ‘‘T. D.’’ Jakes
Julianne Malveaux
Patricia Russell-McCloud
Barbara ‘‘B’’ Smith
Susan L. Taylor
Gloria E. A. Toote
Dempsey Jerome Travis

William Ellison
Artists—Painters,
Portraitists
James Conway Farley
Artists—Woodcarvers
Thomas Day
Arts Patrons
A’Lelia Walker

Automobile Industry
Executives, Dealers
Nathan G. Conyers
Edward Davis
Melvin Farr
Elliott Sawyer Hall
Darryl B. Hazel
Ellenae Henry-Fairhurst
Frederick Douglas Patterson
Winston Pittman Sr.
Roy S. Roberts


African American Business Leaders by Occupation
Bankers, Bank Founders,
Executives

Booking Company
Executives

Communications Industry
Executives

Jesse Binga
Richard Henry Boyd
Todd C. Brown
Roland W. Burris
I. Owen Funderburg
Frederick Douglass. See Frederick
Douglass’s Business
Enterprises
A. G. Gaston
James Francis Haddon
Carla Ann Harris
William M. Lewis Jr.
James Bruce Llewellyn
Anthony Overton
Heman Edward Perry
Norman Blann Rice
Maggie Lena Mitchell
Walker

Ruth Jean Bowen

Thomas J. Burrell
Delano Eugene Lewis

Barbershop Owners, Operators,
Workers
Alonzo Franklin Herndon
John Merrick
Beauty Industry Officials
Joe L. Dudley Sr.
S. B. Fuller
Edward G. Gardner
Marjorie Stewart Joyner
Annie Turnbo Malone
Naomi R. Sims
A’Lelia Walker
Madame C. J. Walker (Sarah
Breedlove)
Sarah Spencer Washington
Beauty Salon Owners,
Operators
Cardozo Sisters
Marjorie Stewart Joyner
Rose Morgan

Booksellers
Alfred M. Ligon
Broadcast Executives
Catherine ‘‘Cathy’’ Hughes
Casino Owners, Operators
Don H. Barden

Aaron McDuffie Moore

xviii

Robert Reed Church Sr.
Isaac Myers
James Carroll Napier
Alan Shaw
Composers
Quincy Jones

Charm School Officials
Barbara Mae Watson
Civil Rights Leaders, Activists,
Workers
Archie Alphonso Alexander
Clifford Leopold Alexander Jr.
Richard Henry Boyd
Alexander G. Clark
Barney Launcelot Ford
James Forten
Earl G. Graves
Jesse Hill Jr.
John Jones
Thomy Lafon
Lunsford Lane
Julianne Malveaux
Leon Howard Sullivan
Chemists, Chemical
Company Executives
William G. Mays
Civic Leaders
Edward G. Gardner
Herman Jerome Russell
Carl H. Ware

Corporate Executives
Kenneth Irvine Chenault
Virgis William Colbert
Evern Cooper Epps
Ann M. Fudge
Dennis Fowler Hightower
E. Stanley O’Neal
Richard Dean Parsons
Myrtle Stephens Potter
Franklin Delano Raines
Frank Savage
Paula A. Sneed
Lloyd David Ward
Cosmetics Company Officials,
Founders
Joe L. Dudley Sr.
S. B. Fuller
Rose Morgan
Anthony Overton
Economists
Andrew Felton Brimmer
Julianne Malveaux
Editors

Columnists
Bibliophiles

Community Activists

Julianne Malveaux
Susan L. Taylor

Eunice Walker Johnson
Susan L. Taylor
Augustus Washington


African American Business Leaders by Occupation
Educators, Educational
Administrators
Richard Henry Boyd
Andrew Felton Brimmer
Albert Irvin Cassell
Suzanne de Passe
Dennis Fowler Hightower
Marjorie Stewart Joyner
John Anderson Lankford
Berry O’Kelly
Hazel R. O’Leary
Joseph Alphonso Pierce
David Ruggles
Norma Merrick Sklarek
Augustus Washington
Booker T. Washington
David Augustus Williston
Engineers
Archie Alphonso Alexander
Joseph Jacob Simmons III
Entrepreneurs, Business Leaders
Henry ‘‘Hank’’ Aaron
Clifford Leopold Alexander Jr.
Wally ‘‘Famous Amos’’ Amos Jr.
Don H. Barden
Ruth Jean Bowen
Richard Henry Boyd
Sheila Bridges
Albert Irvin Cassell
Debra Martin Chase
Robert Reed Church Sr.
Alexander G. Clark
Marie Therese Coincoin
Kenneth L. Coleman
Sean ‘‘Diddy’’ Combs
Ward Connerly
Joe L. Dudley Sr.
Kenneth ‘‘Babyface’’ Edmonds
and Tracey Edmonds
Elleanor Eldridge
Melvin Farr
Edward G. Gardner
Marcus Garvey. See Marcus
Garvey’s UNIA
Enterprise

A. G. Gaston
John Trusty Gibson
Berry Gordy Jr.
Earl G. Graves
Lowell Hawthorne
Ellenae Henry-Fairhurst
Alexis M. Herman
O’Shea ‘‘Ice Cube’’ Jackson
Thomas ‘‘T. D.’’ Jakes
Eunice Walker Johnson
John H. Johnson
Robert L. Johnson
Don King
Lunsford Lane
Reginald F. Lewis
James Bruce Llewellyn
Annie Turnbo Malone
Julianne Malveaux
William G. Mays
Jewell Jackson McCabe
H. Carl McCall
John Merrick
Lightfoot Solomon Michaux
Aaron McDuffie Moore
Isaac Myers
John E. ‘‘Jack’’ Nail
James Carroll Napier
Hazel R. O’Leary
E. Stanley O’Neal
Anthony Overton
Henry Green Parks Jr.
Charles V. Payne
Heman Edward Perry
Ernesta G. Procope
Barbara Gardner Proctor
Linda Johnson Rice
Roy S. Roberts
David Ruggles
Herman Jerome Russell
Frank Savage
Russell Simmons
Norma Merrick Sklarek
Barbara ‘‘B’’ Smith
Percy Ellis Sutton
Gloria E. A. Toote
Dempsey Jerome Travis
Lloyd G. Trotter
A’Lelia Walker
Antonio Maceo Walker

Madame C. J. Walker
(Sarah Breedlove)
Carl H. Ware
Augustus Washington
Booker T. Washington
Oprah Winfrey
Entertainment Agents,
Entrepreneurs
Ruth Jean Bowen
Robert Paschal and James
Paschal
Farmers, Planters
William Ellison
Augustus Washington
Fashion Industry Executives
John Jones
Reginald F. Lewis
Fashion Show Producers
Eunice Walker Johnson
Film Producers, Production
Executives
Debra Martin Chase
Suzanne de Passe
Spike Lee
Eddie Murphy
Damon Wayans
Oprah Winfrey
Financial Industry
Executives
James Francis Haddon
Financial Journalists
Karen Patricia Gibbs
Food Industry Officials,
Founders, Owners
Todd C. Brown
Leah Chase

xix

www.ebook3000.com


African American Business Leaders by Occupation
Lowell Hawthorne
Reginald F. Lewis
Clarence Otis Jr.
Robert Paschal and James Paschal
Barbara ‘‘B’’ Smith
Regynald G. Washington
Sylvia P. Woods
Fund-raisers
Delano Eugene Lewis
Furniture Industry
Executives, Owners

Jesse Hill Jr.
John Merrick
Aaron McDuffie Moore
Anthony Overton
Harry H. Pace
Heman Edward Perry
Ernesta G. Procope
Charles Clinton Spaulding
Antonio Maceo Walker
Interior Designers,
Executives

Thomas Day

Sheila Bridges
Lucious (Lou) Switzer

Government Officials (Federal)

Inventors

Andrew Felton Brimmer
Alexis M. Herman
Ronald N. Langston
Delano Eugene Lewis
Joseph Jacob Simmons III
Barbara Mae Watson

Marjorie Stewart Joyner

Government Officials
(State, Local)

Investment Company
Executives

Roland W. Burris
Hazel R. O’Leary
Norman Blann Rice

Daniel C. Cochran
Edith W. Cooper
James Francis Haddon
Carla Ann Harris
Vernon Eulion Jordan
Charles V. Payne

Investment Bankers,
Consultants

James Carroll Napier
Hazel R. O’Leary
Harry H. Pace
Richard Dean Parsons
Gloria E. A. Toote
Manufacturing
Executives
Lloyd David Ward
Marketing Executives
Thomas J. Burrell
Media Executives,
Entrepreneurs
Dorothy Edwards Brunson
Sean ‘‘Diddy’’ Combs
Catherine ‘‘Cathy’’ Hughes
Quincy Jones
Renetta McCann

Franklin Delano Raines
Merchants

Health-Care Officials/Workers
Aaron McDuffie Moore
Woodrow Augustus Myers Jr.
David Ruggles
Hotel Owners, Operators
Edwin C. Berry
Humanitarians
Joe L. Dudley Sr.
A. G. Gaston
Insurance Company
Executives, Founders
A. G. Gaston
Sylvester Green
Alonzo Franklin Herndon

xx

Labor Union Activists,
Officials

Berry O’Kelly
Midwives
Bridget ‘‘Biddy’’ Mason
Models
Naomi R. Sims
Barbara ‘‘B’’ Smith
Morticians

Isaac Myers

Charles Diggs Jr.

Lawyers

Motivational Speakers

Clifford Leopold Alexander Jr.
Paget Alves
Roland W. Burris
Kenneth Irvine Chenault
Elliott Sawyer Hall
Maynard Holbrook Jackson Jr.
Vernon Eulion Jordan
Debra Louise Lee
Reginald F. Lewis
James Bruce Llewellyn

Wally ‘‘Famous Amos’’
Amos Jr.
Patricia Russell-McCloud
Music Producers,
Publishers, Promoters
Suzanne de Passe
Quincy Jones
Harry H. Pace


African American Business Leaders by Occupation
Antonio ‘‘L. A.’’ Reid
Russell Simmons

Physicians

Newspaper Publishers/Editors

Policy Bankers

Robert Sengstacke Abbott
Frederick Douglass. See
Frederick Douglass’s Business
Enterprises
Anthony Overton

Casper A. Holstein

Organization Founders,
Officials
John Edward Bush
Bruce S. Gordon
Vernon Eulion Jordan
Jewell Jackson McCabe
Sheila Vaden-Williams
Philanthropists
Robert Reed Church Sr.
Virgis William Colbert
Joe L. Dudley Sr.
Casper A. Holstein
Eunice Walker Johnson
John H. Johnson
Marjorie Stewart Joyner
Don King
Thomy Lafon
Reginald F. Lewis
James Bruce Llewellyn
Annie Turnbo Malone
Bridget ‘‘Biddy’’ Mason
John Merrick
Aaron McDuffie Moore
Berry O’Kelly
Herman Jerome Russell
Dempsey Jerome Travis
Madame C. J. Walker (Sarah
Breedlove)
Maggie Lena Mitchell
Walker
Sarah Spencer Washington
Oprah Winfrey
Photographers
James Conway Farley
Augustus Washington

Woodrow Augustus Myers Jr.

Political Activists, Leaders
Richard Henry Boyd
Robert Reed Church Sr.
Ward Connerly
Barney Launcelot Ford
James Carroll Napier
Political Advisers
Franklin Delano Raines
Politicians
John Edward Bush
Charles Diggs Jr.
Maynard Holbrook Jackson Jr.
John Jones
H. Carl McCall
Percy Ellis Sutton
Gloria E. A. Toote
Augustus Washington
Booker T. Washington
Popular Culture
Executives, Moguls

Linda Johnson Rice
Susan L. Taylor
Dempsey Jerome Travis
Rap Artists
Dr. Dre (Andre Young)
O’Shea ‘‘Ice Cube’’ Jackson
Real Estate Developers,
Brokers
Don H. Barden
Jesse Binga
Barney Launcelot Ford
A. G. Gaston
Thomy Lafon
John Merrick
John E. ‘‘Jack’’ Nail
Philip A. Payton Jr.
Dempsey Jerome Travis
Record Industry Officials,
Performers, Producers
Dr. Dre (Andre Young)
Kenneth ‘‘Babyface’’ Edmonds
and Tracey Edmonds
Berry Gordy Jr.
Quincy Jones
Harry H. Pace
Antonio ‘‘L. A.’’ Reid
Sylvia Rhone

Sean ‘‘Diddy’’ Combs
Public Servants, Officials
Archie Alphonso Alexander
James Bruce Llewellyn
Public Utility Officials
Erroll B. Davis Jr.
Publishers, Publishing
Executives (books,
magazines)
Richard Henry Boyd
Earl G. Graves
John H. Johnson
Dorothy R. Leavell

Religious Leaders,
Evangelists, Ministers
Richard Henry Boyd
Alexander G. Clark
Thomas ‘‘T. D.’’ Jakes
H. Carl McCall
Lightfoot Solomon Michaux
Leon Howard Sullivan
Screenwriters
Suzanne de Passe
Damon Wayans
Singers
Carla Ann Harris

xxi


African American Business Leaders by Occupation
Slaves
Lunsford Lane

John W. Thompson
Alfred W. Zollar

Songwriters

Telecommunications Officials

Kenneth ‘‘Babyface’’
Edmonds and Tracey
Edmonds
Antonio ‘‘L. A.’’ Reid

Paget Alves
Bruce S. Gordon

Sports Promoters
Don King
Technology, Computer
Industry Executives
Donald Alvin Coleman
Kenneth L. Coleman
Sylvester Green
Marc R. Hannah
Charles E. Phillips Jr.
Alan Shaw
David L. Steward

xxii

Television Executives,
Network Executives,
Journalists
Don H. Barden
Karen Patricia Gibbs
Robert L. Johnson
Debra Louise Lee
Paula Madison
Frank Mercado-Valdes
Television Hosts
Barbara ‘‘B’’ Smith
Oprah Winfrey

Television Producers
Damon Wayans
Oprah Winfrey
Theater Owners,
Producers, Managers
John Trusty Gibson
Earvin ‘‘Magic’’ Johnson Jr.
Traders
Elleanor Eldridge
Transportation, Shipping
Company Executives,
Shipbuilders
Calvin Darden
James Forten
Isaac Myers


Preface
Researching and writing on African American themes is both rewarding and
challenging. A special challenge comes with determining the best and most
logical way to present the findings so that readers who are knowledgeable in
the field will gain fuller insight into trends in African American business and
those who are barely knowledgeable will learn with ease. While some aspects
of African American culture such as literature have broader appeal, clearly
business is an area that affects everyone. And for African Americans who
have experienced, and continue to meet, the challenges of a society that
has yet to remove all vestiges of racial segregation, this work will contain
information on African American business that helps to define their lives.
This encyclopedia is designed as a user-friendly guide to all readers who seek
to know more about African American business developments. To determine
what focus the work should take, the editor conferred with African Americans
who are business educators, business leaders, corporate executives, researchers,
students, librarians, and information specialists. Special concern was given to
consulting librarians and information specialists, for they are the ones who are
called to address the information needs of all groups. Two primary advisers/
consultants assisted the editor in making the final selection of topics. Space
limitations made it necessary to limit the number of entries; consequently, the
reader should not expect to find every conceivable topic or an exhaustive list of
biographies.
This encyclopedia includes a variety of topics and ideas that may spur one
on to further study and exploration. The topical arrangement is alphabetical;
some topics are broad—for example, ‘‘Black Banks: Their Beginning’’;
others are specific—such as the ‘‘Booker T. Washington Business Association.’’ A specific item is listed according to the most logical arrangement for
that item; for example, ‘‘Frederick Douglass’s Business Enterprises’’ is arranged under the D’s, while ‘‘E. E. Ward Transfer and Storage Company’’ is
arranged under the W’s. The arrangement also includes organizations and
movements, such as the Colored Merchants’ Association and the ‘‘Don’t


Preface

Buy Where You Can’t Work’’ movement. Interspersed throughout the topics
are entries on well-known African American women and men business
leaders, such as entrepreneur Marcus Garvey, automobile dealer Melvin Farr,
hair-care magnate Madame C. J. Walker, and television personality Oprah
Winfrey. There are also lesser-known black entrepreneurs of an earlier time,
including hotel operator Edwin C. Berry, banker Jesse Binga, furniture maker
Thomas Day, and theater owner John Trusty Gibson. Timely topics, such as
‘‘E-Commerce and the African American Community,’’ and topics of concern
to America’s black youth, such as ‘‘Kid/Teenpreneurs: Business Leaders in the
Making,’’ are included as well.
All entries, which are signed, were written by scholars with a connection
to educational institutions. Each entry concludes with a list of sources. The
reader is encouraged to consult these references for additional information.
Where appropriate, blind entries are provided to guide the reader to the
actual listing for an entrant; for example, popular culture mogul Sean
‘‘Diddy’’ Combs, who has assumed various names from time to time, is actually listed under ‘‘Combs’’; blind entries include ‘‘P. Diddy,’’ ‘‘Puff Daddy,’’
‘‘Puffy,’’ and his current assumed name, ‘‘Diddy.’’ Similarly, rapper ‘‘Ice
Cube’’ is referenced to O’Shea ‘‘Ice Cube’’ Jackson.
Bold references appear throughout the work; thus, terms, individual
names, and so on, that are themselves entries in the encyclopedia are boldfaced when they first appear in an entry. If a cross-reference is boldfaced in
an entry, it does not appear as a ‘‘see also’’ reference.
To further facilitate use of the information in this encyclopedia, special lists
are provided at the front of the book: Entry List, Topical Entry List, and
African American Business Leaders by Occupation. The Topical Entry List
gives broad headings in alphabetical order, under which various topics are
further grouped, alphabetically arranged. The topical head ‘‘Academic Institutions,’’ for example, includes entries ‘‘Business Ownership in Select
Academic Institutions’’ and ‘‘Centers for Entrepreneurship in Academic Institutions.’’ ‘‘Biographies’’ is another heading and provides an alphabetical
listing of individuals who are entries in the encyclopedia. Other headings
include ‘‘Booking Agencies,’’ ‘‘Boycotts and Protests,’’ ‘‘Businesses,’’ the ‘‘Food
Industry,’’ and ‘‘Organizations,’’ among others. The final section, ‘‘Women,’’
lists the entry ‘‘Women and Business,’’ although the reader should realize that
information on women is scattered throughout the encyclopedia.
The African American Business Leaders by Occupation list is likewise alphabetically arranged by occupation and includes headings such as ‘‘Abolitionists’’; ‘‘Activists’’; ‘‘Architects, Building Planners’’; ‘‘Artisans’’; ‘‘Authors,
Writers’’; ‘‘Corporate Executives’’; ‘‘Engineers’’; ‘‘Entrepreneurs, Business
Leaders’’; ‘‘Food Industry Officials, Founders, Owners’’; ‘‘Philanthropists’’;
‘‘Politicians’’; ‘‘Publishers, Publishing Executives (books, magazines)’’; ‘‘Record
Industry Officials, Performers, Producers’’; ‘‘Religious Leaders, Evangelists,
Ministers’’; ‘‘Technology, Computer Industry Executives’’; ‘‘Television Executives, Network Executives, Journalists’’; and ‘‘Traders’’. Those businesspeople

xxiv


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×