ISBN 978-3-642-02660-7 e-ISBN 978-3-642-02661-4 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-02661-4 Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York Library of Congress Control Number: 2009932130 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, speciﬁcally the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microﬁlm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a speciﬁc statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Cover design: WMXDesign GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)
To the memory of my Mother for the Seva and the Shakti. My sincere love goes to my family and to all those whom I have met during my spiritual journey; teachers, gurus, swamis, academics, students and business people, in India and Europe, who have in one way or another helped me transform my life. Sharda S. Nandram
I would like to thank my beloved Guru Paramahamsa Hariharanandaji and his wise and loving successor Paramahamsa Prajnananandaji for their constant, patient and loving guidance over the years. I would also like to sincerely thank all my other gurus who are in the form of family, friends, clients and business mentors.
Margot Esther Borden
We, Sharda and Margot, feel very honored to be able to write and edit such a book. Our spiritual journey has led to the passion of bringing together and sharing the thoughts we ourselves have come across in our lives by meeting gurus, swamis, like-minded seekers, managers, teachers, entrepreneurs, academics, students, and by reading books and practicing spiritual techniques. We also have gained much spiritual inspiration from the teachings of Sri Aurobindo and The Mother to whom we are grateful. The thoughts presented in this book already exist in the East and West. Integrating them into the way we do business, can help us to regain trust and respect in business even in the current economic crisis. We aim to convince others of our deep belief that spiritual practices and a spiritual orientation help make life more enjoyable and makes us better human beings through helping us to live in line with our karma in every context of life, in our roles as employees, entrepreneurs, managers, leaders, mothers, or fathers, etc. These ideals, in order to be balanced, will be accompanied by rational ideals and desires and our aim for success in life. Success in business can only be achieved if the inner life of the managers, leaders, and employees is grounded. Spiritual practice is a key for achieving this balance as it helps to come home to the authentic Self. We do a lot to make ourselves appear beautiful, but that focus is all too often only on the outside or the surface. We take a bath every day to be clean, we use makeup and we go to the beauty salon, why don’t we clean our inner Self by praying, doing yoga, meditation, singing, etc? Nourishing our inner life will make us feel responsible for what we do, how we do it, and how it fits our calling in life. Our gratitude goes to H.H. Sri Sri Ravi Shankar for writing the foreword of this book. We feel very honored that he shared his words on spirituality with us. We are grateful to all the authors: Deepa Awal, Margaret Benefiel, Paul de Blot, Mr. Balagangadhara, Luk Bouckaert, Monique de Wit, Henry van Straten, Mandar Apte, Kuku Singh, Ashish Pandey, Suzan Langenberg, Jutta Ko¨nig, Wim Keizer, Sorabh Gupta, Prahlad Singh Shekhawat, Nanik Rupani, Jan Vos, and La´szlo´ Zsolnai.
They answered our call to share their beautiful and promising insights that uplift people’s minds and hearts, demonstrating theoretical and practical paths for integrating the different aspects of our being at the workplace; a place where many of us share the biggest part of our lives. It felt good to receive the responses on the draft of the book as expressed by esteemed business people and academics as it let us know that this work achieves its purpose. We would therefore like to thank Ms. Liva S. Judic, Mr. Sushil Jiwarajka, Mr. Karel Samsom, Mr. Toon Bullens, Mr. Ed Voerman, Mr. Gul Kripalani, and Mr. Stephen Stumpf. We thank Stuart Sovatsky for organizing the World Congress of Psychology and Spirituality that provided the context for the foundations of this project. When we both met in the same congress session, we could not imagine almost two years later we would write and edit a book on the topic of our presentation. We thank professor Dr. Willem Burggraaf and professor Dr. Paul de Blot of Nyenrode Business University for providing the possibility to do this work in the environment of Nyenrode, a very dynamic business environment. We thank Dr. Vijayender Reddy Nalla for his help with proofreading. We also want to thank our other colleagues, friends and family who contributed feedback and input toward the realization of this work. We are grateful to Ms. Martina Bihn from Springer for publishing this book and Ms. Irene Barrios-Kezic, also from Springer, for taking care of the layout and logistics. We have done our utmost, from where we stand to bring you a view reflecting the Truth. Forgive us if our mind, ego or intellect have clouded our perception in any way in our effort to bring this knowledge to you. Namaste May 19, 2009, Amsterdam May 19, 2009, Paris
Sharda S. Nandram Margot E. Borden
Now, more than ever, there is an urgent need to revive spirituality in business, as in all aspects of life. It is sometimes thought that spirituality is incompatible with profit making. However, in the current economic downturn, as businesses face the challenge of restoring people’s faith and confidence, spirituality can play a key role. Trust is the breath of business, ethics its limbs, and to uplift the spirit, its goal. Spirituality is living and honoring human values, or those attributes and qualities which are the very heart of humanity. These values include integrity, compassion, cooperation, responsibility and a deep caring for all life. Business devoid of spirituality breeds greed and exploitation, both significant factors in the ongoing financial crisis. We have seen the flaws in communism; now we are seeing the failings of unbridled capitalism. It is time for a new ‘ism’ – humanism. If we want to reinstate trust and sustain it as well, we cannot compromise on human values. Although these values are innate in every human being, they have been overshadowed by the stresses and strains of everyday life. The quality of life depends a great deal on the state of one’s mind. Management begins with the mind – a mind that is properly managed can manage anything. Just taking a few minutes every day to reflect and to practice spiritual techniques such as yoga, meditation, and simple breathing exercises can eliminate stress, increase energy levels, and improve mental clarity and creativity. This greatly strengthens one’s perception, intuition and expression. It gives much needed patience and vision to any leader. It broadens one’s mind and develops the ability to consider other points of view. Spirituality also enhances awareness, belongingness and commitment. I call this the ABC of life and it is integral to the success of any business. Awareness nurtures the intellect, belongingness nurtures the heart and commitment nurtures life. It is heartening to see CSR programs becoming a vital part of corporate agendas across the world. Spirituality transforms CSR from being a matter of compliance with standards, to something that springs from an inner conviction to do the right thing. Spirituality or human values cannot be imposed by society, nor can they be legislated. As the infinite potential within all people, spirituality need only be uncovered, rekindled and encouraged. ix
Spirituality can adapt to all times and places and can benefit every organization, whether large or small. This book provides fresh insights on the need for new and sustainable paradigms of corporate governance. It presents a broad and multicultural overview of philosophies and applications integrating spiritual vision, ethics and practices into the workplace. It thus offers lucid observations as well as constructive solutions that will contribute to a shift in the practice of business.
H.H. Sri Sri Ravi Shankar Founder, International Association for Human Values Founder, International Art of Living Foundation
Introduction: Exploring Possibilities for a New Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Sharda S. Nandram and Margot Esther Borden
Introduction: Exploring Possibilities for a New Paradigm Sharda S. Nandram and Margot Esther Borden
Trends in Management
There are several economic developments that affect management practices today. During the late 1970s, companies began initiating practices of business under the name of doing ‘good’ for society, corporate philanthropy or business ethics. The Body Shop, the well-known cosmetics company, took the initiative by launching a major social and ethical audit in its factories in the 1990s. Shell took the initiative by launching the report on the triple P’s for ‘People, Planet and Profits.’ They applied the notion of sustainable business practices to a new sort of reporting, which measures and analyzes not only the company’s financial goals and results, but also its ecological and social goals. Another trend we note is a sharp increase, especially during the last decade, of consumers, producers, not-for-profit organizations and governmental awareness and action toward the health and environmental aspects of living in consumer societies. This has led to a modest trend of moving away from long-term depletion and degradation of the physical environment of the earth. We also notice that sustainable ventures and entrepreneurship are on the rise as can be witnessed by the emergence of national and local organizations that subscribe to such business principles. Business for Social Responsibility (BSR), the national organization in the USA, now represents companies with over $2 trillion US dollars in turnover and 6 million employees (www.bsr.org). Corporate Social Responsibility Europe is a similar organization in Europe. A forth trend is the growing interest of spirituality in the financial world. In the beginning of 2008, the Dow Jones Dharma Indexes were launched. These are the world’s first indexes tracking the financial performance of companies world-wide that comply with dharmic (Hindu and Buddhist) principles. The Indexes originated after the collaboration between Dharma Investments and Dow Jones Indexes and are currently evolving in form. In the Indian tradition, the pursuit of wealth or ‘artha’ and pleasure or ‘kama’ is balanced and guided by ‘dharma’ or ethical living, moral duties, as well as cosmic harmony (harmony with the global environment). Recently,
S.S. Nandram and M.E. Borden (eds.), Spirituality and Business, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-02661-4_1, # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010
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with the huge rise of the middle class and rapid economic growth, the unbridled pursuit of wealth and consumerism are prevailing over dharma. Similarly, in China, Southeast and East Asia, which were traditionally influenced by Buddhist values, fast economic growth leads to some genuine development but also to corruption, environmental destruction and mindless consumerism. Those businesses and investors who feel socially and ethically concerned do not always have well-defined alternative evaluative norms and options. The Dow Jones Dharma Index tries to provide such an alternative option. This shows that Corporate Social Responsibility has some universal features as well as a cultural and religious context. While the USA has traditionally been the largest and most entrepreneurial economy in the world, in recent decades other regions, for instance, Asia and Europe have witnessed measurable and continuing growth in entrepreneurship activity and value creation stimulated by private as well as public parties. These entrepreneurial societies have their own approaches and assets. India for example, has traditionally been seen as a spiritual country. One can expect that a country like India, with its diverse economic and social makeup, has different perspectives on the place of work in one’s life, the role of companies, and the role of management. As they play a role in the global entrepreneurial arena today, the vision they uphold is destined to influence Western models of management due to its sustainability. Indeed, the higher level of congruence in respect to Self, society and nature responds to mankind’s inherent quest for meaning. These trends have several implications for corporations at several levels: l
The interest in corporate social responsibility addresses the needs of all stakeholders i.e., shareholders, employees, customers, society, and the environment. But, often these are only on paper and not in practice. Companies who uphold these values realize that corporate philanthropy, business ethics, and spirituality are currently viewed as a competitive advantage for attracting and retaining good employees and conscientious customers. Consumers, governmental organizations, CSR groups, and environmental groups are creating a growing demand for companies to take a more holistic approach to business. All the big corporate scandals (Enron, WorldCom, Lernout & Hauspie, Ahold, and most recently, Satyam) bring to the forefront the fact that it is important for executives to be motivated by a broader purpose than mere monetary considerations. In today’s market which is saturated with goods and services, companies are finding ways to come to the cutting edge by incorporating positive human values such as compassion. This responds to society’s increasing demand for good leadership, management, and general business practices.
New Leadership Models
These developments require alternative leadership models to the ones that are currently in practice. This is not the only challenge the leaders face. Rapid globalization also urges leaders to work faster to keep up with an increasingly fast moving
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market and competition. Employees are also faced with these challenges as well as an increasing search for meaning in the workplace, where they are spending more and more of their waking hours. Even when they are not in the office, they are all too often driven to access their e-mail to be kept updated outside working hours. More often than not, employees consult their e-mails even while on holiday by visiting an internet cafe´ or using a blackberry. Now, more than ever before, we are continuously mentally occupied by our work. Managers and entrepreneurs often face the constant demands of the outer world to satisfy the stakeholders, employees, and the market demands, without focusing inwards on their personal, human needs. Entrepreneurs who started their business with a lot of passion realize that they do not have the energy to manage the business growth with all that it involves. They find that just managing takes a lot of their energy and does not leave them the time and energy they need to manage the other areas of their endeavors. Spirituality can provide answers to many of these dilemmas and is therefore becoming increasingly of interest to entrepreneurs, managers and leaders. Spirituality is gaining more and more interest in Western business models. There are several academic and nonacademic definitions of spirituality. Spirituality is an umbrella concept that includes several dimensions of intrapersonal experiences (the inner side of spirituality), interpersonal experiences and person–situation experiences (the outer side of spirituality), and the connectedness between these types of experiences. At the concrete level it has to do with attitudes, values, emotions, and behaviors related to an inner force in human beings that lead us to self-actualization and happiness.
Eastern and Western Influences
There is an emerging trend among big corporations and business schools to embrace Indian philosophy. Today, phrases from ancient Hindu texts such as the Bhagavad Gita and others have started to appear in management courses and training programs. Top business schools abroad as well as in India have introduced ‘self-mastery’ classes that use Indian methods to help managers boost their leadership skills and find inner peace in their increasingly work-dominated lives. C.K. Prahalad, an influential management guru uses the term ‘inclusive capitalism’ to promote the idea that corporations can simultaneously create value and social justice. This has developed into the movement called ‘Karma Capitalism’. “Yoga has become popular in the US and China and due to that in India as well,” said Swami Ved Bharati at the International Yoga Conference in November 2008 in Rishikesh, India. The positive impacts of Yoga and Meditation techniques in clinical settings have encouraged psychologists to study the less tangible parts of human nature. Within the field of psychology the phenomenon of spirituality takes on scientific forms. The Western conception of human beings is macrocosmic. It is traditionally oriented toward the study of our relationship to the outer world. This approach has contributed to the lives of individuals by addressing some of the more
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material and physiological challenges to man’s well-being. While they have made real progress in the development of scientific methodologies, the underlying vision is exclusively materialistic and therefore gives a fragmented vision of man and his potential. This in turn, cannot lead to the ultimate fulfillment and meaning that individuals are increasingly seeking. Eastern thought is microcosmically oriented. Its tendency to focus inwards has developed a science of consciousness which has fallen into the wayside with the predominance of the more tangible, materialistic worldview. By developing scientific means of delving into the mysteries of consciousness, Eastern thought carries a congruence that is more universal and can be adopted independently of religion, unlike spiritual worldviews coming from the West. An integration of knowledge and inspiration from both Eastern and Western scholars can bring about a balanced vision incorporating ideals and action that can provide many of the answers to current world dilemmas. Integrating such spiritual concepts as intuition and authenticity can bring an entirely new meaning and corresponding way of functioning to the business community. Psychology has done a lot to free spiritual ideals from their denominational origins making them more accessible for general application in society. In a recently published article, Sheep (2006) concludes: “Conceptualizations and measurement of spirituality is most developed in psychology, tracing its roots as far back as William James’ notion of the conscious Self as being comprised of three parts: the material, social, and spiritual.” He notes that spirituality has been defined in this discipline as, “subjective feelings, thoughts, and behaviors that arise from a search for the sacred, where sacred is defined broadly as referring to a divine being, divine object, ultimate reality, or ultimate truth as perceived by the individual.” One of the subjective feelings researchers in management literature try to examine is that of intuition. For example, Dane and Pratt (2007) explored the role of intuition in decision-making processes of management. They concluded that integrating intuition and rational analysis in decision-making results in a better outcome.
Spirituality in Management Journals
In the business world, there are several entrepreneurs or managers who attribute their success to their spiritual attitude and practices. However, these insights cannot be found yet in academic journals. Normally, academic articles on spirituality cover conceptual models towards organizational performance, definition issues, models towards individual well-being and consciousness, and religion-related models. There have been very few articles demonstrating the empirical results of applying spiritual concepts in business. The academic journals that currently address management-related spirituality are Journal of Managerial Psychology, Journal of Management Development, Journal of Organization Change Management, Journal of Management Inquiry, Journal of Management Spirituality, and Religion and
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Leadership Quarterly. Journals that pay some attention to this topic are Organizational Management Journal, The Journal of American Academy of Business, The Journal of Business Ethics, and Human Resource Management Review. In addition to the top management journals publishing on this topic, we found two more papers that address the topic of spirituality: one paper in the Academy of Management Executives and the other in a conference paper of the Academy of Management, in 2004 and 2005. On related concepts such as intuition, authenticity, and religion, a few articles can be found in the Academy of Management Journal and Harvard Business Review. Several authors mention the increased interest in the topic of workplace spirituality. The topic of spirituality with a broader application, such as a religious context, has been of interest for a longer time than these newer concepts. Articles can be found in the Journal of Contemporary Religion, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Journal of Communication Management, and International Journal of Cross Cultural Management. There is another category of articles that can be found in specific clinical-related journals addressing the topic of spirituality and its relationship to well-being. These are, for example, Journal of Community Psychology, International Review of Psychiatry, Psychological Medicine, and Spirituality and Health International. Both the general subject of spirituality and the subject of well-being have been the topics of research for much longer than the topic of spirituality and business. In the interest of better understanding and applying spirituality in business, it became necessary to develop a scientific and nondenominational approach. For example, tools have been developed to measure and implement spiritual principles in business. Some of the tools that have been designed and validated are: the Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness and Spirituality (MMRS), the Spirituality Index of Well-being (SIWB), the Spiritual Wellbeing Scale (SWB), the Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI), the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES), the Spiritual Assessment Inventory (SAI), and the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS). One of the measures currently in a developing stage is the Integral Development Index (IDI) (Borden 2009). All these instruments analyze on an individual level. Instrument development for the organizational level is in its initial stages. Initiatives are under way for developing instruments for measuring the workplace spirituality (Ashmos and Duchon 2000); (Mitroff and Denton 1999).
Spirituality and Management
Management will understand the relevance of spirituality if it is related to organizational output. Several authors have been trying to answer the question of why spirituality matters to the business world. Krishnakumar and Neck (2002) offer two explanations. Firstly, that the meaning of work has changed and people now spend more time at work than in the past. Therefore, it can be asserted that people do not find it sufficient to experience spirituality exclusively in their personal life. They are
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seeking spirituality that applies to all areas of their life including their workplace. Secondly, there is an agreement amongst researchers that spirituality is beneficial to organizations. There is empirical evidence for a positive relationship between workplace spirituality and: a. b. c. d.
Individual creativity Commitment to organizational goals Honesty and trust within organizations Personal fulfillment
Ashmos and Duchon (2000) find that people’s lives are increasingly centered on the workplace which, in part, is replacing neighborhoods, churches, civic groups, and extended families. What is the theoretical framework behind this?
The Theoretical Framework of Spirituality in This Book
Spirituality has a key root in psychology, religious studies, and philosophy. We notice a difference in Eastern and Western perspectives when studying spirituality. In Western studies, with their advanced material paradigm, these three roots often function independently, whereas in Eastern studies, with their holistic paradigm, all three are much more integrated. Therefore, the spiritual or inner relationship to the divine is an implicit part of religion in the East. The application of spirituality in management in the West is often understood through its effects on human psychology. This is the case in the field of mindfulness which uses traditional meditation practice and explores its practical effects on human psychology and well-being. Much empirical research has also been done in mind–body medicine, where the benefits of meditation and well-being can also be seen to clearly filter down to our physical health. Benson (2000) did experiments with meditation and the ‘relaxation response’ which showed positive results on patients’ health. Second is the concept of flow examined by Csikszentmihalyi (1990), who talks about an optimal psychological experience. Third is the concept of Vipassana or focused meditation examined by Epstein (1995). One of the dominant Eastern perspectives that is useful for understanding spirituality hails from Sri Aurobindo. Insights can be gained from his works, Integral Yoga (1993) and the Life Divine (1970). His work and its applications and benefits to business are developed further in chapters 1, 15, and 16 of this book. Sri Aurobindo describes many steps in the transformation process of which there are two main levels. The first is the spiritual transformation which occurs through seeking the ultimate truth and light within and then bringing it down into the denser planes and finally into the material plane. Here, we can start to apply the concept of bringing spirit into matter. The second is the supramental transformation, which is a deeper form of transformation. It is about the culmination of the entire evolution. This stage is about a collective evolution. The first one will result in a glorified, divinized body. The second one will result in individuals who act as forerunners of
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a new truth consciousness. They have the capacity to unite and identify with the environment and with others. Sri Aurobindo’s thought is among several yogic schools that believe that rather than seeking to transcend the ego, and in essence, leave it behind in order to realize the Inner Being, we can aim our spiritual seeking at realizing the Inner Being, our divine spark or soul. Through bringing our Inner Being to the forefront in our lives, it provides the guiding light and the way to harmony between the different parts of the outer self: body, mind, and emotions. Wilber (2000) based his own integral theory on these foundations and Cortright (2007) connects Eastern and Western approaches to psychology and healing. In general, we can think of three philosophical views on the ultimate nature of reality (Miovic, 2004). The first one is the theistic view which believes in the existence of God or a supreme being, an immortal soul or deities. Miovic explains the positive influences of theism in the arts, humanities, and in providing a method of coping with difficulties in life. The weaknesses he refers to in this view are found in the divergent views of the Supreme Being, God or reality, fanaticism, cults, and even war. People also find it difficult to explain evil or bad things that happen to them in terms of “how can God let me suffer?” The second one is atheism, which is the belief in the nonexistence of God, any type of soul or deity. In this view, matter is the only reality. We agree with Miovic’s statement that atheism supports rational discourse and it has the tendency to challenge corrupt religious institutions. The weaknesses lie in its inability to prove that God does not exist, its small number of adherents in most cultures and its existential bleakness (Miovic, 2004). The third view is agnosticism with the belief that the question of whether or not God, any type of soul or deity exists either has not been or cannot be answered. Miovic mentions that science assumes quantification, measurable concepts and reliability and thus it cannot say anything about immeasurable phenomena, forces, events or beings that may well exist. Therefore, this kind of science cannot act as an arbiter of truth in debates on the ultimate nature of reality. The authors of this book were asked to write about spirituality in the context of business. It was up to them whether they chose a theistic or atheistic point of view. In the academic literature, there are scholars who realize that the dominant scientific perspective is not suitable for examining spirituality. Pioneering needs to be done to develop suitable frameworks that become acceptable to science. Spirituality in this book takes a diversity perspective, which means that it accepts that there are many models of spirituality and many means to seek it. It sees spirituality as a set of abilities that can be taught and a continuous process of inner, individual development. It is both an individual and a collective asset in the context of organizations. It has inner and outer aspects and, in this book, we mainly address the outer forms of spirituality as the different chapters address attitudes, behaviors, motivation, or values. The inner aspects are considered in discussions that deal with making spirituality scientific. Spirituality in this book is being viewed as a resource that can be beneficial in providing meaning and fulfillment to individuals and thus affecting the productivity of the organizations they work for, and, finally, it is a source of competitive advantage for business.
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The resource-based view (RBV) can help us to frame spirituality in relation to organizational output. Penrose’s theory of the firm is one of the first theoretical contributions linking a firm’s resources to its economic output (Penrose, 1959). Although this concept is not explicitly spiritual, it provides us with a context in which management can integrate a spiritual vision and approaches. Penrose discussed the sources of a firm’s growth, which she essentially defined as an evolutionary process involving the accumulation of knowledge relevant to the firm. Penrose attached importance to the distinctive knowledge and experience of the entrepreneur as a person and saw these as indispensable assets for growth. In this view, a firm’s resources are not fully utilized. People, such as the managers and entrepreneurs of the firm, will constantly try to find new ways to exploit the available resources. This view, in its recognition of the evolutionary pull of consciousness and its invitation to explore a company’s resources, provides a welcoming invitation for a spiritual worldview. Several researchers have been inspired by the work of Penrose and have studied several types of resources such as competences and skills in the context of learning. Barney (1991) developed RBV based on the concepts that competitive advantage can be reached if a firm develops resources and capabilities that are valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable, and not substitutable. The key idea of RBV is that firms should use heterogeneous resources such as these to contribute to their competitive advantages. How does spirituality fit into RBV? The first criterion is creation of value. A common way for firms to create value is through decreasing the costs of product and services by finding new ways for production and delivery. Spirituality creates value because it impacts the creativity, satisfaction, and commitment of employees in a positive way. It also raises their trust in an organization, thereby creating a positive spiritual climate. This further cuts cost by reducing the time required for communication. Fry (2005) defines spiritual leadership as values, attitudes, and behaviors of employees that help in awakening their intrinsic motivation. These intangible concepts and qualities have the potential to create value. Spiritual practice, through nourishing these qualities in individuals, can further contribute to this. The second criterion is rareness. Resources can be competitive only if they are rare. Common resources cannot create the competitive advantage. Bouckaert (2007) explains the opportunity cost of time spent for spiritual practices. Time is a scarce resource, he says, and by investing time for meditation and prayer, we cannot use this time for other activities. Spiritual practice requires time, and yet it can create a competitive advantage in the sense that it provides the spiritually oriented person the ability to cope better with stress or setbacks compared with a nonspiritually oriented person. Spirituality needs nourishment through prayer and other spiritual practices. When it is not nourished, it can dry up. The third criterion is that for something to create value, it must be imperfectly imitable. Firms achieve short-term and long-term profits only if their resources cannot be imitated. Again, spirituality can be seen as a resource here as it is complex, and because it comes from deep within our consciousness, it cannot be traced easily. Therefore, it cannot be imitated by others. No spiritual experience, for example, a meditation, is similar to another one even for the same person.
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The fourth criterion is that it cannot be substitutable. Spirituality, through the depth and the holistic congruence it brings to individuals and the organizations they make up, fits this criterion. The unique ways and qualities it contributes to organizations are not substitutable. Nonsubstitutability is a less tangible asset to businesses than financial resources. This is why it requires all four criteria to be defined as a resource. After reviewing the development of RBV, Barney et al. (2001) conclude that its strength is that it represents an opportunity to link microorganizational processes to the success or failure of organizations. Many studies relate resources to outcomes but few focus on the process of developing inner resources. They conclude that organizations where ethical values are important, such as Ben and Jerry’s and Body Shop, have embedded ethics in their business culture in a way that is inimitable. The working definition of spirituality for the purposes of this book is a process of designing ones’ activities (personal or professional) in such a way that they are aligned with the authentic Self (of the individual or the business). It consists of four main processes: Psychic process – consists of finding the authentic Self (the inner hidden Self) by exploring it through a variety of tools such as meditation, yoga, prayer, learning, reflection and contemplation, etc. Mental process – consists of an evaluation of the facilities and sources needed to fulfill the needs of the authentic Self. Strategy or physical process – consists of concrete steps in terms of behaviors and values to implement and align thought, word, and action to the authentic Self. Vital process – is about bringing balance and a continuous connection between the authentic Self and the needs of the environment.
Structure of the Book
The first part of the book addresses concepts of spirituality. Sharda Nandram provides an overview of issues on spirituality and some definitions of spirituality in both nonacademic settings and academic literature. She makes a distinction between inner and outer spirituality. She explains the types of knowledge based on the work of Sri Aurobindo and the work of Harman on the epistemology of consciousness and discusses how these can help to explore spirituality in a scientific framework. Margaret Benefiel outlines the current debate about the relationship between spirituality and business in business and management literature and uses Burrell and Morgan’s paradigms to contextualize that debate. She then draws on Bernard Lonergan’s work to bridge the chasm between opposing camps and, building on Lonergan, examines the ‘flatland’ state of the social sciences and Daniel Helminiak’s proposal to introduce a multileveled approach to social scientific study. The chapter concludes with some research implications for the field of spirituality at work.
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Balagangadhara explores two ways of marrying economic and management theories to religion and spirituality: the ‘Western, Judeo-Christian approach’ and ‘an Indian, heathen’ one. He draws on observation and experience to explore human beings’ limitless desires, greed, needs, and wants in terms of these two worldviews and corresponding modes of functioning. He then proposes an alternative view that opens up the potential for the happiness and fulfillment that is the potential of each human being. Paul de Blot uses the term Business Spirituality and describes it as the operationalization of the corporate soul, proceeding on three interrelated levels. The main purpose of a company is both overall quality and quality of the product or service. This is a professional approach with an optimal effect that can be measured quantitatively. It is the level of doing which is focused on making profit. According to him, the physical level of doing does not provide enough energy for doing great things and trying to make this finite energy infinite leads to stress and burnout. He tells us that our source of unlimited energy resources is found on a deeper level of consciousness, the level of being. This inner source of spiritual energy gives rise to the idealism and inspiration of our vocation. Company vocation is the collective dream of the mission. This is also a spiritual learning process. Spiritual energy gives us joy and happiness and helps us derive a sense of meaning from our work. So, it is Pneuma, on the level of being, that is the source of energy for the level of doing; from Pneuma to Profit. The interaction between Pneuma and Profit, being and doing, is an energy exchange on two levels. It is a learning process on the cosmic level of Planet; an exchange of cosmic energy between the material, earth plane and sky or cosmic, spiritual planes. It provides learning through cooperation and friendship, by People. Business Spirituality is the overall integration of the entire web of life including the four P’s of Profit, Planet, People, and Pneuma. Luk Bouckaert analyzes the context for the emergence of business ethics and explains the internal paradox of business ethics in management. He develops the assumption that spirituality should be the source of business ethics. He further explores the potential of the Socratic model of leadership as a way to cope with the business ethics paradox. Laszlo Zsolnai argues that ethics needs spirituality as an underlying background and as a major motivational force. According to him, ethical initiatives in business fail if they are not based on genuine ethical commitments. Serving the well-being of communities, nature, and future generations requires authentic care, which develops from experiential oneness with others and with the universal source of creation. In the second part of the book, we discuss how spirituality at the individual level is being applied in the workplace. Nanik Rupani provides us with views on spirituality from an Indian perspective. To him, spirituality is closely related to religion. Based on his own experiences, he believes “success is our birthright”, not the monopoly of just a few. One must do one’s karma (activities) to the best of one’s ability and not worry about the gains, as the result lies in the Lord’s hand alone. He also believes service to humanity is the best work of life.
1 Introduction: Exploring Possibilities for a New Paradigm
Jutta Ko¨nig deals with the question of how to facilitate managers’ fundamental shift in values to a greater worldview and how “to arrange conditions which foster individuals actualizing their own latent creativity.” She explores how spiritual practice and the conscious implementation of diversity in organizations can liberate us from restrictive thoughts, enhance consciousness, and facilitate a paradigm change. Monique de Wit, Henry van Straten, and Mandar Apte describe AWARE (at work a global initiative of employees in Shell with the objective of reducing stress, and increasing self-awareness and interpersonal effectiveness). AWARE is a bottom up, “staff helping staff” initiative that organizes learning workshops and sessions based on yoga, meditation, and profound breathing techniques for all interested employees. AWARE started from the initiative of a few employees in 2004 and was formalized in 2007. It now consists of a global team and 13 local teams in 9 countries delivering local initiatives and programs. Gupta explains APEX (Achieving Personal Excellence) – a program designed by the International Association for Human Values (IAHV) for corporate leadership. It has been specifically designed to address the need for development of holistic management, increased team spirit, and inspiring leadership with a broad vision of society. APEX aims to transform managers into leaders by promoting excellence. Central to the approach is the principle of ‘inspiration’. He explains that individuals take responsibility and display a greater level of commitment to the visions of employees and companies only when they are inspired. Keizer and Nandram present the concept of Integral Transformational Coaching based on the concept of Flow and its effects on work performance. Integral Transformational Coaching is a method that prevents and cures unhealthy stress and burnout. They draw on some tried and tested spiritually based insights from the schools of mindfulness, coaching, and mental fitness. Their model is suitable for diagnosing and transforming individuals by a holistic coaching process that addresses behavior, thinking, feeling, and believing. Borden and Shekhawat explore the benefits of Buddhist thought and practices and their implications from individual, management, and organizational contexts. They draw on the increasing amount of scientific research on the functioning of the brain and proven studies on how the benefits of meditation contribute to well-being, fulfillment and deeper vision, and sense of meaning in life. They explore the implications of this emerging research for the business model. Deepa Awal addresses Transformational Learning in the context of business. According to her, this concept merits attention because it has the potential to bring about significant change in an individual’s beliefs, assumptions, and worldview. It also provides critical components in respect to self-awareness and the potential to integrate new paradigms which are the basis for adaptability and survival in a world of constant and rapid change. In her chapter, she defines the concept of Transformational Learning and states how it can be beneficial to organizations. In the third part of the book, several conceptual models will be presented to deepen the discussion on how to implement spirituality in organizations. Margot
S.S. Nandram and M.E. Borden
Borden shares a case study in which she applied Integral Philosophy to help a large multinational company align its brand to a higher, more universal, and more ethical ideology. She elaborates the combined quantitative and qualitative research methodology developed to gain insight into the higher drives and motivations of a particular consumer group. The insights gained from this research result in concrete elements such as proposal for a new product line incorporating vision, qualities, images, and messages, and ultimately an evolved brand strategy aimed at addressing consumers’ deep, underlying need for fulfillment and a greater sense of meaning. She believes that, in turn, this will nourish the innate drive to evolve toward our highest potentials. She suggests the importance and potential of integrating these higher principles into the very framework and foundation of the company. This congruence to a higher set of ideals addresses not only the current ethical (economic and ecological) crisis, but also contributes to fulfilling man’s deepest, underlying needs. Sharda Nandram presents with the principles of Transformational Yoga, a leadership style which she applies to a case study involving the multinational company, Wipro. The idea behind this model is that there are behaviors needed at the physical, vital, mental, and psychic levels in order to work on the spiritual level. The model defines the tasks needed at each level of an organization. Ashish Kumar Pandey and Kuku Sing describe the Wholesome Leadership approach and the Wholesome Leadership Development Process (WLDP) developed by Pragati Leadership Institute. This approach and process is based on an integrative view of leadership. Several leadership development interventions based on this approach and processes have been implemented in many organizations in India and abroad. They present an implementation of their model at SEW-EURODRIVE INDIA. Suzan Langenberg explains the concept of critique as a means of fuelling spiritual motivation in our business behavior and social responsibility of organizations. Critique based on the individual will “not to be governed that way.” Although, to start, we do not have alternative, ethical principles or well-known scientific paradigms to back up our process, according to her, this critique-exercise or ‘disobedience’ leads primarily to a confrontation with the self and a quest for emancipation. It creates uncertainty and, at the same time, an open playing field for new developments. In short, it brings us to the practice of encouraging freedom and spiritual inspiration. She introduces an example of an organization that has organized the spiritual praxis of “truth-telling and self-critique.” Sharda Nandram and Jan Vos write about the spiritual foundations of ServantLeadership. According to them, Servant-Leadership can be approached as a means to create a meaningful workplace for all of the stakeholders involved in an organization. It involves authenticity, listening to and empowering the employees. They explore the Servant-Leadership model as an alternative perspective for the development of a new leadership paradigm to give employees a higher level of meaning and to contribute to the transformation of the workplace. In the Epilog, we reflect on the ingredients proposed throughout the chapters for a new paradigm in business.
1 Introduction: Exploring Possibilities for a New Paradigm
This book is aimed at managers, consultants, practitioners, academics, and management students, and all those who seek ideas and methods for contributing to change by transforming the way we do business. It offers a variety of approaches to spirituality and explores the principles and practices of applying them in business. It is aimed at helping the business community develop a sense of spirituality as a positive inner resource that can enrich their lives by giving them meaning and fulfillment that cannot be provided by purely materialistic models of doing business.
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