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Green consumerism perspectives, sustainability, and behavior


GREEN CONSUMERISM
Perspectives, Sustainability,
and Behavior



GREEN CONSUMERISM
Perspectives, Sustainability,
and Behavior

Edited by

Ruchika Singh Malyan
Punita Duhan


Apple Academic Press Inc.
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Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication
Green consumerism : perspectives, sustainability, and behavior / edited by Ruchika Singh Malyan,
Punita Duhan.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Issued in print and electronic formats.
ISBN 978-1-77188-694-9 (hardcover).--ISBN 978-1-351-13804-8 (PDF)
1. Green marketing. 2. Consumption (Economics)--Environmental aspects. 3. Environmental responsibility.
I. Malyan, Ruchika Singh, editor II. Duhan, Punita, 1973-, editor
HF5413.G74 2018

658.8’02

C2018-904551-5

C2018-904552-3

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Malyan, Ruchika Singh, editor. | Duhan, Punita, 1973- editor.
Title: Green consumerism : perspectives, sustainability, and behavior /


editors, Ruchika Singh Malyan, Punita Duhan.
Description: Toronto ; New Jersey : Apple Academic Press, 2019. | Includes
bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2018036403 (print) | LCCN 2018038652 (ebook) | ISBN 9781351138048 (ebook) |
ISBN 9781771886949 (hardcover : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Green marketing. | Green products. | Consumer behavior--Environmental aspects. |
Environmentalism--Economic aspects.
Classification: LCC HF5413 (ebook) | LCC HF5413 .G7254 2019 (print) | DDC 658.8/02--dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018036403

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ABOUT THE EDITORS
Ruchika Singh Malyan, MBA
Ruchika Singh Malyan is a faculty of Business Administration at Meera
Bai Institute of Technology operational under Department of Training and
Technical Education, Govt. of NCT of Delhi for the past 6 years and currently
pursuing research in Green Marketing from Mewar University, Rajasthan,
India. Her research interests include Sustainable Development, Ecological
Marketing, Green Consumer Behaviour, Advertising management, and
Corporate Social Responsibility. Prior to this, she has worked as Assistant
Manager - Marketing Communications and has a wide array of experience
in the field of advertising and marketing communication. She has attended
various National and International Seminars and Conferences as she has
always been a keen learner of new concepts and techniques. She has published
research papers with prestigious national and international publishers
like Science Direct, Elsevier, etc. She has also presented research papers
in international conferences organized by prestigious instititutes in India
including Indian Institute of Management (Lucknow), Bhati Vidyapeeth
Institute of Management and Research (New Delhi) and Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi. She has been a committee member for curriculam
and content development for National Institute of Open Schooling and has
attended various training programs and workshops apart from organising
few national and international seminars.
Punita Duhan, MBA
Punita Duhan is a faculty in Business Administration with Department of
Training and Technical Education, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi for the last 18 years and currently pursuing research in Social
Media from Institute of Management Studies, Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi. Her research interests include Consumer Behavior, Behavioral
Marketing, Social and Digital Technologies, Green Marketing, Digital
Marketing, e-commerce, and m-commerce. Prior to this, she has worked as
Faculty of Management with University Business School, Punjab University,
Chandigarh and Institute of Management and Technology, Faridabad. She
has attended more than 35 national as well as international seminars/conferences and has presented papers in more than 25 national and international


vi

About the Editors

seminars and conferences. She has published more than 12 research papers
with prestigious national and international publishers such as Sage, Palgrave,
Springer, IGI global, Bloomsbury, etc. She has published two edited books
titled “Managing Public Relations and Brand Image through Social Media”
and “Radical Reorganization of Existing Work Structures through Digitalization” with IGI Global. One more book titled “M-commerce: Experiencing
the phygital Retail” is being published by Apple Academic Press, Taylor &
Francis Group. She is also on editorial board of peer reviewed prestigious
journals. Besides, she has been actively involved in curriculum development and e-content development of various universities, National Institute
of open schooling, Central Board of Secondary Education and Technical
Education Departments of Delhi and Haryana state in management area.
She has attended more than 30 training programs and workshops and has
organized around 10 seminars/conferences/workshops.


CONTENTS

List of Contributors ....................................................................................... xi
List of Reviewers ......................................................................................... xiii
List of Abbreviations .....................................................................................xv
Acknowledgment ..........................................................................................xix
Foreword ......................................................................................................xxi
Preface ...................................................................................................... xxiii
Introduction ................................................................................................xxix

PART I: Green Marketing Practices: Different Perspectives ................ 1
1.

Green Marketing: The Next Marketing Revolution........................ 3

2.

Green Pricing: The Journey Until Now and the Road Ahead ...... 21

3.

Green Consumerism: Study of Academic Publications in
Scientific Journals Indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus ..... 41

Anitha Acharya and Manish Gupta

Anjali Karol and C. Mashood

J. Álvarez-García, C. P. Maldonado-Erazo, and M. C. Del Río-Rama

4.

Green Consumer Behavior .............................................................. 67

5.

Green Practices for Green(er) Living: The Road Ahead .............. 83

6.

Determinants of Consumer Purchase Intention for
Solar Products in Varanasi City ...................................................... 99

Kulvinder Kaur Batth

George Varghese and Lakshmi Viswanathan

Om Jee Gupta and Anurag Singh

7.

Environmentally Conscious Consumer Behavior and Green
Marketing: An Analytical Study of the Indian Market............... 119
Pradeep Kautish

8.

Empirically Examining Green Brand Associations to Gain
Green Competitive Advantage through Green Purchasing
Intentions ......................................................................................... 143
Nitika Sharma and Madan Lal


viii

Contents

PART II: Sustainability Aspects of Green Marketing ....................... 159
9.

Sustainable Green Marketing: A Trend of Consumerism........... 161
Harsh Tullani and Richa Dahiya

10. Analyzing Long-Term Benefits in the Face of Higher
Upfront Costs for Green Affordable Housing: A Study of
Ghaziabad, UP (India) .................................................................... 185
Siddharth Jain, Prateek Gupta, and Deepa

11. Innovation in Green Practices: A Tool for Environment
Sustainability and Competitive Advantage .................................. 209
Nomita Sharma

12. Communicating Sustainability and Green Marketing:
An Emotional Appeal ..................................................................... 229
Moturu Venkata Rajasekhar, Krishnaveer Abhishek Challa,
Dharmavaram Vijaylakshmi, and Nittala Rajyalakshmi

PART III: Ecological Dimensions of Green Consumer Behavior...... 259
13. Eco-Awareness: Imbibing Environmental Values in
Consumers ....................................................................................... 261
Anjali Karol and C. Mashood

14. Environmental Marketing and Education ................................... 285
Kunal Sinha and S. N. Sahdeo

15. Going Green: Toward Organic Farming and a PlasticFree Eco-Friendly Lifestyle ........................................................... 305
Sumit Roy

16. Effective Utilization of Renewable Biomaterials for the
Production of Bioethanol as Clean Biofuel: A Concept
Toward the Development of Sustainable Green Biorefinery ...... 335
Geetika Gupta, Pinaki Dey, and Sandeep Kaur Saggi

Index ........................................................................................................ 365


To my parents, Dr. P. S. Nayyer and Kalpana Kumari Nayyer, for
always supporting me in my endeavors.
– Ruchika Singh Malyan
To my son, Siddharth Bamel, who has always shown maturity
beyond his age.
– Punita Duhan



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Anitha Acharya

Department of Human Resources, IBS, a constituent of IFHE, Deemed to be University,
Hyderabad, India

José Álvarez-García

Department of Financial Economics and Accounting of the University of Extremadura, Caceres, Spain

Kulvinder Kaur Batth

Department of Commerce, K. C. College, Affiliated to University of Mumbai, Mumbai, Maharashtra,
India

Krishnaveer Abhishek Challa

Department of Foreign Languages, Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Richa Dahiya

Department of Management Studies, SRM University, Sonepat, Haryana, India

Deepa

KIET School of Management, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

Pinaki Dey

Department of Biotechnology, Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Geetika Gupta

Department of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Bhadson Road,
Patiala, Punjab 147004, India

Manish Gupta

Department of Human Resources, IBS, a Constituent of IFHE, Deemed to be University,
Hyderabad, India

Om Jee Gupta

Institute of Management Studies, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U. P, India

Prateek Gupta

KIET Group of Institutions, Ghaziabad, U. P, India

Siddharth Jain

Department of Civil Engineering, KIET Group of Institutions, Ghaziabad, U. P, India

Anjali Karol

Institute for Financial Management and Research, Chennai, India

Pradeep Kautish

College of Business Management, Economics and Commerce, Mody University of Science and
Technology, Lakshmangarh, Sikar, Rajasthan

Chanchal Kumar

University of Delhi, Delhi, India


xii

List of Contributors

Madan Lal

Department of Commerce, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

Claudia Patricia Maldonado-Erazo

Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (UTPL), Loja, Ecuador

C. Mashood

SPI Global, Chennai, India

Moturu Venkata Rajasekhar

Department of Commerce and Management Studies, Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam,
Andhra Pradesh, India

Nittala Rajyalakshmi

Department of Commerce and Management Studies, Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam,
Andhra Pradesh, India

Sumit Roy

Jadavpur, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Maria De La Cruz Del Río-Rama

Department of Business Organisation and Marketing, University of Vigo, Ourense, Spain

Sandeep Kaur Saggi

Department of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Bhadson Road,
Patiala, Punjab147004, India

S. N. Sahdeo

Department of Management, Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

Nitika Sharma

Department of Commerce, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

Nomita Sharma

Department of Management Studies, Keshav Mahavidyalaya, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

Anurag Singh

Institute of Management Studies, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U. P, India

Kunal Sinha

Department of Management, Birla Institute of Technology, Jharkhand, India

Harsh Tullani

Department of Management Studies, SRM University, Sonepat, Haryana, India

George Varghese

Institute for Financial Management and Research, Chennai, India

Dharmavaram Vijaylakshmi

Gayatri Vidya Parishad, Gayatri Valley, Rushikonda, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Lakshmi Viswanathan

Institute for Financial Management and Research, Chennai, India


LIST OF REVIEWERS

Anitha Acharya

Department of Human Resources, IBS, a constituent of IFHE, Deemed to be University,
Hyderabad, India

Prachi Aggarwal

Meerabai Institute of Technology, Directorate of Training and Technical Education, New Delhi, India

José Álvarez-García

Department of Financial Economics and Accounting of the University of Extremadura, Caceres, Spain

Kulvinder Kaur Batth

Department of Commerce, K. C. College, Mumbai, India

C. Mashood

SPI Global, Chennai, India

Krishnaveer Abhishek Challa

Department of Foreign Languages, Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Geetika Gupta

Department of Biotechnology, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Bhadson Road,
Patiala, Punjab 147004, India

Manish Gupta

Department of Human Resources, IBS, a Constituent of IFHE, Deemed to be University,
Hyderabad, India

Om Jee Gupta

Institute of Management Studies, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U. P, India

Siddharth Jain

Department of Civil Engineering, KIET Group of Institutions, Ghaziabad, U. P, India

Anjali Karol

Institute for Financial Management and Research, Chennai, India

Pradeep Kautish

College of Business Management, Economics and Commerce, Mody University of Science and
Technology, Lakshmangarh, Sikar, Rajasthan

Chanchal Kumar

University of Delhi, Delhi, India

Sumit Roy

Jadavpur, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

S. N. Sahdeo

Department of Management, Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

Nitika Sharma

Department of Commerce, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India


xiv

Nomita Sharma

List of Reviewers

Department of Management Studies, Keshav Mahavidyalaya, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

Anurag Singh

Institute of Management Studies, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U. P, India

Kunal Sinha

Department of Management, Birla Institute of Technology, Jharkhand, India

Harsh Tullani

Department of Management Studies, SRM University, Sonepat, Haryana, India

George Varghese

Institute for Financial Management and Research, Chennai, India

Lakshmi Viswanathan

Institute for Financial Management and Research, Chennai, India


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

A and HCI
ADI
AFEX
AMA
ASTRA
BMI
BPA
BP
BSES
CBM
CBO
CBP
CFA
CFC
CFI
CFLs
CII
CLRI
CPCB
CSR
DDA
DDT
DFE
EAI
ECCB
EC
EE
EK
EMS
ESCI
FAO
FMCG
FSSAI
GBA

Arts and Humanities Citation Index
Acceptable daily intake
Ammonia fiber expansion
American Marketing Association
Application of Science and Technology for Rural Areas
Business model innovation
Bisphenol-A
British Petroleum
Bombay suburban electric supply
Carbohydrate-binding module
Community-based organization
Consolidated bioprocessing
Confirmatory factor analysis
Chlorofluorocarbon
Comparative fit index
Compact fluorescent lamps
Confederation of Indian Industry
Central Leather Research Institute
Central Pollution Control Board
Corporate social responsibility
Delhi Development Authority
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
Design for the environment
Environmental Awareness Index
Environmentally conscious consumer behavior
Environmental concern
Environmental education
Environmental knowledge
Environmental management system
Emerging Sources Citation Index
Food and Agriculture Organization
Fast moving consumer good
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India
Green brand association


xvi

GFI
GHG
GP
GPI
GT
HYV
IF
IGBC
IG
IISc
IUCN

List of Abbreviations

Goodness of fit
Greenhouse gas
Green practices
Green purchasing intention
Green trust
High yielding varieties
Impact factor
Indian Green Building Council
Insulated glass
Indian Institute of Science
International Union for the Conservation of Nature and
Natural Resources
JCR
Journal citation reports
KMO
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin
LCA
Life cycle analysis
LED
Light-emitting diode
LEDs
Light-emitting diodes
MI
Meyer’s index
MRL
Maximum residue limit/level
NCERT
National Council of Educational Research and Training
NFI
Normed fit index
NGOs
Nongovernmental organizations
NPOP
National Program for Organic Production
OECD
Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development
OLS
Ordinary Least Squares
PCA
Principal component analysis
PCB
Polychlorinated biphenyls
PCE
Perceived consumer effectiveness
PEB
Past environment-friendly behavior
POP
Persistent organic pollutant
PPC
Portland pozzolana cement
PVC
polyvinyl chloride
RCI
Relative quality indices
RF
Radio frequency
RMESA
Root mean square error of approximation
RoHS
Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances
SBI
State Bank of India
SCI-EXPANDED Science Citation Index Expanded
SEED
Social Economic Environmental Design


List of Abbreviations

SEM
SHF
SHGs
SJR
SME
SPM
SSCI
SSFF
SSF
SSI
ToC
UEC
UNEP
UNESCO
VOC
WEEE
WEF
WoS
WWF

xvii

Structural equation modeling
Separate hydrolysis and fermentation
Self-help groups
Scimago Journal Rank
Small and medium-sized enterprise
Suspended particulate matter
Social Sciences Citation Index
Simultaneous saccharification, filtration, and
fermentation
Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation
Small-scale industries
Touch of color
Ungra Extension Centre
United Nation’s Environmental Program
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization
Volatile organic compound
Waste electronics and electrical equipment
Willingness to be environmental friendly
Web of Science
World Wildlife Fund



ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We cannot accomplish all that we need to do without working together. And,
this academic endeavor in the form of the book is no exception. It was the
dedicated, continuous, and combined effort of the publisher, contributors,
researchers, reviewers, and editors that ensured that this book sees the light
of the day.
The editors, hereby, take this opportunity to acknowledge the effort of all
those who have worked vigorously to put this volume together.
First, the editors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the
publisher, Apple Academic Press, for providing us the opportunity to publish
this work with them and to help us at each step.
Second, the editors thank each one of the authors for their valuable
contributions. The authors’ priceless research is the backbone of the book
and helped the editors to bring forward multiple facets of green marketing.
Most of the authors helped with the blind review of the chapters. The editors
highly appreciate their double effort to improve the quality of the book.
Next, the editors are grateful to Prof. Bijender K. Punia, Vice Chancellor,
Maharshi Dayanand University, for his prefatory note and encouraging
words.
Last, but not the least, the editors are grateful to their families and friends
for their constant support to help them complete the project in time.
Ruchika Singh Malyan and Punita Duhan
Meera Bai Institute of Technology, Directorate of Training and
Technical Education, New Delhi, India



FOREWORD

Today, the world is in need of new decisions and innovations, which has led to
a green marketing environment and the creation of a new market condition to
the potential buyers. Both marketers and consumers are nowadays focusing
on green products and services. Companies are adopting green marketing
practices and are producing green products that have fewer harmful effects
on the environment than conventional products. Consumers are becoming
more and more aware of the environmental problems and are actively trying
to reduce their impact on the environment by purchasing green products and
moving towards a greener lifestyle.
Additionally, strategic marketing actions of companies target their products and services to these kinds of consumer groups to gain market share
and minimize their production costs. Green consumerism creates a balance
between the expectations of consumer behavior and business profit motives.
This book is a strenuous effort by the editors to understand the area of
green consumer behavior in a versatile manner. This book enables readers
to comprehend the concept of green consumer behavior, which has led to
various green marketing initiatives being taken by companies. This book
puts together the work of researchers and consultants working in this field
from across the world.
Overall, this book meets the needs of researchers, academicians, professionals, and students working in the domain of sustainable development,
green consumer behavior, green products and methods, ecological development, and so forth. This book will help develop the eco-literacy of people
working in this area. It will prove to be an excellent reference resource and
a handbook for detailed and up-to-date knowledge about green consumer
behavior. Editors Ruchika Singh Malyan and Punita Duhan deserve to be
congratulated for this sincere academic endeavor that covers the various
facets of green marketing in a comprehensive manner.
Prof. B. K. Punia
Vice Chancellor,
Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak – 124001 (Haryana), India



PREFACE

The idea of green consumerism is very important in this decade and is popular
among many sections of society in an effort to save the planet Earth. The
world over, economic development has come at the cost of the environment.
Green consumerism is a movement, expanding rapidly, to encourage people
to buy products that are considered environmentally friendly. The needs of the
consumers are evolving, and brand loyalty is being continuously redefined.
Nowadays, consumers are taking responsibility and doing the right
thing as consumer awareness and motivation continue to drive change in
the marketplace. Also, companies are integrating appropriate green strategies into their operational activities, product development processes, and
marketing activities to achieve a competitive advantage in saturated markets.
This helps companies gain market share and minimize their production costs.
Therefore, green consumerism has been increasingly promoting the practice of purchasing products and services produced in a way that minimizes
social and/or environmental damage. It also creates a balance between the
expectations of consumer behavior and business profit motives.
Accordingly, this book aims to understand the importance of promoting
green products and then tries to explain consumers’ buying intentions and
decisions in respect to green or ecologically friendly products under the
consumer behavior theory. This publication will be beneficial for academicians, researchers, practitioners, and students studying green marketing and
for usage by marketers and consumers.
The editors’ objective, while proposing this book, was to consolidate
the contemporary academic and business research. The editors have made a
meticulous effort to present up-to-date research related to green marketing
in a comprehensive manner and to provide some ideas for future research
avenues. Some of the broad areas this book caters to are green pricing, green
consumer behavior, various dimensions of consumer purchase intentions,
sustainable marketing, innovation techniques used to go green, eco-awareness, and other ongoing developments in this rapidly expanding area.
The book has been organized in the following three sections:
Section I: Green Marketing Practices: Different Perspectives
Section II: Sustainability Aspects of Green Marketing
Section III: Ecological Dimensions of Green Consumer Behavior


xxiv

Preface

Each section caters to a distinct dimension of green marketing. A total of
16 chapters are spread in the three sections. A brief description of each of
the chapter follows.
The first chapter of the book presents a comprehensive evolution journey
of green marketing. The authors extensively review the extant literature
on green marketing and bring forth the various definitions propounded by
the researchers. The term “green marketing” was first discussed in the year
1975 in a seminar on “ecological marketing” organized by the American
Marketing Association (AMA) (Henion and Kinnear, 1976). Since then,
terms such as environment-friendly, recyclable, ozone-friendly, refillable are
often associated with green marketing. The authors lucidly explain the evolution of green marketing along with the opportunities and challenges faced
by the marketers in this field. They conclude the chapter with discussing
the impact on stakeholders and the best green practices followed by various
organizations.
The second chapter focuses on the concept of green pricing. It is a pricing
strategy that encompasses environmental responsibility in pricing products
and services on the higher side. By charging a premium, consumers feel that
superior quality products are offered and they get an emotional contentment
from contributing toward environmental protection. The chapter takes the
readers through understanding the factors affecting the decisions to adopt
green pricing. The authors discuss the reasons for criticism of green pricing
despite the much hyped benefits.
In the third chapter, the authors have listed the past research and studies
done in the area of green marketing that have been published in scientific
journals indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus. This chapter is organized
into four sections. It starts with an introduction in which the topic under
study is contextualized and the objective is presented; the second section
details the methodology used; the third section describes the analysis of
the data; and the last section presents the conclusions and limitations of the
research. The authors also discuss the limitations of the study as it is the first
of its kind of research in this area of study. This also led to identification of
areas of future research, including green consumption and green consumer
behavior.
In continuation to the research done in the previous chapter, Chapter 4
outlays the objectives and outcomes of green consumer behavior. In this
chapter, the author describes green consumer behavior as pro-environment
behavior of consumers. It is the environment-friendly behavior of consumers
with the objective of supporting the environment. Pro-environment behavior
is reflected in the change of attitudes, perception, motives, values, beliefs, and


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