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Ảnh hưởng của việc học thêm đến kết quả học tập của học sinh trường trung học phổ thông Quế Võ 1 Bắc Ninh (Luận văn thạc sĩ)

THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES

NGUYEN THI LIEN

THE INFLUENCES OF EXTRA CLASSES ON STUDENTS’
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AT QUE VO NO. 1 HIGH SCHOOL
IN BAC NINH PROVINCE

(Ảnh hưởng của việc học thêm đến kết quả học tập của học sinh
trường Trung học Phổ thông Quế Võ 1 Bắc Ninh)

M.A. THESIS
(APPLICATION ORIENTATION)

Field: English Linguistics
Code: 8220201

THAI NGUYEN – 2019

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THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES

NGUYEN THI LIEN

THE INFLUENCES OF EXTRA CLASSES ON STUDENTS’
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AT QUE VO NO. 1 HIGH SCHOOL
IN BAC NINH PROVINCE

(Ảnh hưởng của việc học thêm đến kết quả học tập của học sinh
trường Trung học Phổ thông Quế Võ 1 Bắc Ninh)

M.A. THESIS
(APPLICATION ORIENTATION)

Field: English Linguistics
Code: 8220201
Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hoang Tuyet Minh

THAI NGUYEN – 2019

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CANDIDATE’S STATEMENT
--------------*****-------------

I hereby certify that the thesis entitled
THE INFLUENCES OF EXTRA CLASSES ON STUDENTS’
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AT QUE VO NO. 1 HIGH SCHOOL
IN BAC NINH PROVINCE
is the result of my own research for the Degree of Master at School of Foreign
Languages, Thai Nguyen University, and this thesis has not been submitted
for any other degrees.



Thai Nguyen, 2019

Nguyen Thi Lien

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First and foremost, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to Assoc. Prof.
Dr. Hoang Tuyet Minh for helping me complete this study. This paper would not have
been possible without her constant support and encouragement. Her patience and helpful
criticism helped me confidently express my ideas into this paper. I regard myself extremely
fortunate in having her as my dissertation supervisor.
I would also like to express my sincere thanks to all my lecturers at the Faculty of
Post-graduate Studies, Thai Nguyen University for their valuable lectures which have
helped me a great deal in gaining a lot of theoretical as well as practical knowledge.
My special thanks go to my dear students and colleagues at Que Vo No.1 High
School who helped me a lot by participating in this study.
Finally, I would also like to express my deep gratitude and love to my devoted
parents, my husband and my friends who gave me a lot of support and encouragement
for the fulfillment of this challenging work.
Thai Nguyen, 2019

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ABSTRACT
Private tutoring is a widespread phenomenon in both developed and
developing countries. In Vietnam, a country where education reforms are at its height,
tutoring classes are proliferating and have become a concern to society and the
government. Although the government has banned tutoring classes that are
independent of school administration, in some cases the classes have been
"organized" in some schools as a means to supplement some teachers' emoluments.
Extra classes are creating a lot of stress and tension to the students and teachers who
have to come early in the morning and late in the evening. This issue has led to a lot
of problems like stress and tension of teachers and students being overburdened. This
study is therefore conducted to find out the exact requirement of extra classes and
whether it is the real reason behind students’ academic performance. Descriptive
research was adopted using non probability convenience method from Que Vo No.1
High School in Bac Ninh with a sample of 80 students, of whom 40 students took an
extra course in English while other 40 did not. In this study, the data was collected
through observation, questionnaires and tests. By doing this, we can find out the
attitudes of students and teachers towards extra classes and its influence on students'
academic performance in English. The researcher also gives some suggestions to help
teachers at Que Vo No.1 High School enhance students' achievements.
Key words: Vietnam, extra classes, high school students, academic
performance.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
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CANDIDATE’S STATEMENT ................................................................................. i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................................................................... ii
ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................. iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................... iii
LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................... vi
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................. vii
LIST OF ABBRIVIATIONS .................................................................................. viii
PART I: INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................1
1. Rational for the study ..............................................................................................1
2. Aims of the study ....................................................................................................3
3. Research Questions ................................................................................................3
4. Scope of the study ...................................................................................................3
5. Significance of the study .........................................................................................3
6. Methods of the study ...............................................................................................4
7. Organization of the study ........................................................................................4
PART II: DEVELOPMENT ....................................................................................6
CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................6
1.1. Theoretical background ........................................................................................6
1.1.1. Academic performance .....................................................................................6
1.1.2. Extra classes ......................................................................................................6
1.1.3. Factors affecting students’ academic performance ...........................................7
1.1.4. Private tutor situation ......................................................................................11
1.2. Previous studies on the effectiveness of extra classes .......................................12
1.3. Summary ............................................................................................................14
CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY .........................................................................15
2.1. Research Design .................................................................................................15
2.2. The context of the study .....................................................................................15
2.2.1. The textbook....................................................................................................15
2.2.2. The students ....................................................................................................18
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2.2.3. The teachers ....................................................................................................18
2.3. Description of the subjects .................................................................................19
2.4. Data collection instruments ................................................................................19
2.4.1. Questionnaire ..................................................................................................20
2.4.2. Observation .....................................................................................................21
2.4.3. Tests ................................................................................................................22
2.4.4. Data synthesis..................................................................................................24
2.5. Description of the procedures ............................................................................24
2.6. Summary ............................................................................................................27
CHAPTER 3: FINDINGS, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......28
3.1. FINDINGS .........................................................................................................28
3.1.1. Research question 1: The students’ and teachers’ attitudes towards
extra classes..............................................................................................................28
3.1.2. Research question 2: The influences of extra classes on academic
performance of 10th grade students at Que Vo No.1 High School............................38
3.2. DISCUSSION ....................................................................................................40
3.3. RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................................................41
3.3.1. Preparation of lesson plan ...............................................................................41
3.3.2. Organize your classroom.................................................................................41
3.3.3. Keep yourself motivated .................................................................................42
3.4. SUMMARY .......................................................................................................42
PART III: CONCLUSION .....................................................................................43
1. Recapitulation .......................................................................................................43
2. Concluding remarks ..............................................................................................43
3. Limitations and suggestions for further study.......................................................45
REFERENCES ........................................................................................................45
APPENDICES .........................................................................................................49

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LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES
Table 2.1. Academic curriculum of English 10 by Pearson 2018 ...........................16
Table 2.2. Teachers with experience and sex ............................................................19
Table 2.3. The matrix for the pre-test and post-test ..................................................23
Table 2.4. The contents of the extra course ..............................................................24
Table 3.1. Lesson plan preparation at the beginning of the academic year with
experience ..............................................................................................28
Table 3.2. Completion of the syllabus within the school time with experience .......29
Table 3.3. Preference in having practical lessons outside the classroom with
experience ..............................................................................................29
Table 3.4. Extra classes (before and after school) - the success behind the current
results with sex .......................................................................................32
Table 3.5. Suitability of extra classes with experience .............................................32
Table 3.6. Sufficiency of periods in extra classes for each section per week with
experience ..............................................................................................33
Table 3.7. Time at home to revise the daily portions taken in the class with sex
and grade ................................................................................................33
Table 3.8. The influence of extra classes on students’ results ..................................34
Table 3.9. Requirement for extra classes ..................................................................35
Table 3.10. Students’ reasons for taking extra classes ..............................................36
Table 3.11. The checklist for observation .................................................................37
Table 3.12. The total scores of the post-test compared with the pre-test..................39

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1. The subjects studied in extra classes ......................................................18
Figure 3.1. Extra classes (before and after school) - the success behind the current
results with experience (years) ..............................................................31
Figure 3.2. Whether extra classes help students to produce good marks or not .......35
Figure 3.3. Students’ achievement in the pre-test and post-test ...............................39

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LIST OF ABBRIVIATIONS

Cont

: Control

Exp

: Experimental

G

: Grade

MOET

: Ministry of Education and Training

MOF

: Ministry of Finance

L

: Language

No.

: Number

S

: Student

SD

: Standard Deviation

Ss

: Students

T

: Teacher

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PART I: INTRODUCTION
1. Rational for the study
Together with recent economic growth, Vietnam’s educational sector has been
steadily expanding, with gross enrolment rates more than doubling from 32% to 73%
at the secondary level, and increasing fivefold from 2% to 10% at the tertiary level
from 1991 to 1994 (World Bank, 2006). However, one recent and growing
phenomenon of the Vietnamese education system is a “shadow” education system
that exists alongside the official education system. In this system, students attend
extra classes to acquire knowledge that they do not appear to obtain during their hours
in school. These extra classes or private tutoring sessions have become widespread
in both urban and rural areas in Vietnam (Dang, 2007). According to Prinsloo (2008),
these two systems are obviously neither mutually exclusive nor completely sequential
or serial. They are interactive, but along a course where the first is gradually
accomplished more and more and at a decreasing pace as one reaches higher and
higher levels of skill, while the second starts off slowly but accelerates as the tools
for achieving it are becoming more and stronger.
Extra classes involve additional instruction in core academic subjects, are
usually given by children’s regular teachers and normally take place within children’s
regular schools. They can therefore be seen as a private supplement to Vietnam’s
public schooling, and are related to but distinct from the phenomenon of private
tutoring that is common elsewhere in Asia (Bray and Lykins 2012; Dang and Rogers
2007). Behind the supply of extra classes is the need to supplement teachers’ poor
salaries. On the demand side, reasons for taking the extra classes include the
prevalence of half-day schooling, and fierce competition for the limited number of
places in upper and post-secondary education. In addition, most of the high school
graduates in Vietnam prefer to continue their education at college rather than do
something else (Dang & Le, 1999); consequently, they are fully prepared to attend
extra classes to get admitted to college. This has lead to a booming business of ‘extra
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classes’ (Chau, Ry, and Dam, 2000; Dan, 2000; Edu.Net Forum, 2004; Hanoi
Department of Training and Education, 2000). To attend extra classes, students have to
pay fees, which have become burdens to many countries. In South Korea, Kim and Lee
(2004) find that parents spent an amount approximately equal to 2.9% of the nation’s
GDP on private tutoring for primary and secondary students. A survey of the extent of
private tutoring in selected countries can be found in Dang (2006).
Despite the widespread nature of extra classes, to date there have been few
quantitative studies on their influences, and even fewer studies seem to employ
adequately rigorous econometric models to evaluate the influences of extra classes
on a high school student’s academic performance. To further complicate matters,
most of the data employed so far are not nationally representative data. Lack of
official statistics or researcher’s attention may be two reasons for this situation. A
third reason is that private tutoring can be a sensitive issue; some governments may
be reluctant to make public the data for fear of political pressure (Dang, 2007). Fulltime teachers and parents may also want to keep private tutoring a secret, for various
reasons. In the United Kingdom, the reasons for limited information about private
tutoring can be teachers’ fear of harming their school’s image, their promotion
prospects or tax avoidance purposes, or parents’ fear of their children’s school
teachers misinterpreting private tutoring as a lack of confidence in their abilities
(Gordon, 1990). Some other factors affecting the students’ results would include the
socio-economic status of families, parental education levels, exposure to reading and
writing opportunity in many ways, teacher pedagogy, assessment practices and
feedback, facilities and learning materials, and including the quality and availability
of textbooks, among many more (Prinsloo, 2008). Up to now, the effectiveness of
extra classes followed by the students, especially the high school students, is still a
question. That is the reason why this study is conducted.
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2. Aims of the study
The study is aimed at finding out the influences of English extra class on
students’ academic performance in English at a high school in Bac Ninh province.
In order to gain the aims of the study, the following objectives are put forwards:
 Finding out the attitudes of teachers and students at Que Vo No.1 High School
towards extra classes.
 To examine the extent of the influences of extra classes in English on students’
academic performance at Que Vo No.1 High School in Bac Ninh.
3. Research Questions
1. What are teachers’ and students’ attitudes at Que Vo No.1 High School towards
extra classes in English?
2. To what extent do English extra classes influence on Que Vo No.1 High School
students’ academic performance?
4. Scope of the study
The scale of the study was limited to Que Vo No.1 High School on 50 teachers
and 80 students, of whom 40 students took extra classes in English while 40 others
did not so that this study was able to control external variance better, and to
empirically pilot procedures under tight and limited control conditions before
deciding on the implications of scaling up any possible interventions to more districts,
provinces, or otherwise.
5. Significance of the study
This study is conducted with the expectation that its finding will provide
readers with useful information. Specifically, this study will bring evidence to support
if there are any effects of extra classes on the improvement of students’ academic
results. In addition, it is expected that the thesis will better inform the teaching and
learning approach to gain students’ achievement.
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6. Methods of the study
Descriptive and experimental research was adopted using non probability
convenience method to find out the exact requirement of extra classes and whether
extra classes are the real reason behind high school students’ success. Based on the
purposes of the study, the researcher used both qualitative and quantitative data in
this research. The qualitative data will be collected with the use of questionnaires for
students to identify the students’ attitudes toward extra classes. Observation is also
used to find out the real effects of extra classes. In addition, the researcher uses
Microsoft Excel to analyzed quantitative data which were gained through
assessing students’ academic performances. This program was used to find out
the mean scores of students’ tests based on the matrix and the rubric used for
Speaking skill. The analysis was done for both pre-test and post-test scores.
Hence, the result of the analysis was used to find out if there was any
improvement

in

the

students’

performance.

Also,

all

comments,

recommendations and conclusions will be made based on the data analysis.
Hopefully, the data collected will contribute to the confirmation and support of
the results which have been gained from the previous studies.
7. Organization of the study
The study is divided into three main parts as follows:
Part I: Introduction includes the rational, aims, research questions, scope,
significance, methodology and organization of the study.
Part II: Development includes three chapters
Chapter 1: Literature review presents various concepts most related to the study
including definitions of academic performance, extra classes. Literature review
elaborates the private tutor situation and previous studies on the effectiveness of extra
classes.

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Chapter 2: Methodology is a detailed discussion of the method used in the study. It
gives a thorough description of the research’s components, as well as the research
program including research design, the context of the study, participants, data
collection instruments and description of procedures.
Chapter 3: Findings, Discussion and Recommendations reports the main findings
obtained from the data collection, discusses the prominent aspects and presents some
recommendations.
Part III: Conclusion is the summary of the whole study. The limitations of the study
and suggestions for further study are also recommended in this part.

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PART II: DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1. Theoretical background
1.1.1. Academic performance
The definition of academic performance extends to achievement inside the
classroom. According to Shirley Lesch (1998), academic performance or learning
outcome describes significant and essential learning that learners have achieved, and
can reliably demonstrate at the end of a course or program. In other words, academic
performance identifies what the learner will know and be able to do by the end of a
course or program. It reflects essential knowledge, skills or attitudes and focuses on
results of the learning experiences. In this study, academic performance (which is
digitized into scores) relates to the results of 5 aspects: Language Use, Listening,
Reading, Writing and Speaking.
1.1.2. Extra classes
Definition of extra classes: According to Ha & Harpham (2005), the issue of
extra classes is not new. It is an educational, economic and social one. Educationally,
it is widely called ‘shadow education’ on the grounds that much of its scale and shape
is determined by mainstream schooling (Stevenson & Baker, 1992; Bray, 1999; Lee,
Park, & Lee, 2009). For all children do not learn at the same rate and have different
level of understanding, especially slow ones, need extra time to get to know the
content compared to the fast learners in order to achieve their goal or target. They
come to extra classes as a means to meet the end. Globally, this trend is observed in
both developed and developing countries.
Types of extra classes
Although many students made individual arrangements with self-employed
tutors, the researcher offers the four main modes of extra classes as follows:
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- One-on-one extra class
- Small-group extra class
- Lecture-type extra class
- Online extra class
In this study, the experiment was conducted on extra class in form of Lecturetype one, which consists of the teacher and 40 grade 10 students from Que Vo No.1
High School.
1.1.3. Factors affecting students’ academic performance
According to Radhika (2018), there are numerous factors that influence the
academic performance of the students. These have been divided into objective factors
and subjective actors. The author based on these factors to design items in
questionnaire and observation. These factors are stated as follows:
1.1.3.1. Subjective factors
Attitude of the Students
High school students may possess the ability to distinguish between what
is appropriate and what is not. Targeted students often have positive feelings
about school experience; they have the characteristics of discipline, diligence
and resourcefulness, aspiring readers and tend to spend less time with leisure and
entertainment activities. It is necessary for students to have positive thoughts
about their schools, teachers and subjects. With a positive attitude, they will be
able to devote themselves to learning and creating the desired learning outcomes
(Maina, 2010).
Development of Study Skills
To improve the academic achievement of another person, individuals should
develop learning skills within themselves. Students themselves need to create
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awareness of study skills, so that they can create the desired learning outcomes. Some
study skills include, memorizing textbooks or other materials, taking notes, practicing
writing essays and articles, etc. One of the important areas is, when a person is
studying, it is crucial to fully focus on one’s study. Memorization is considered to be
one of the rare techniques; therefore, teachers encourage students to acquire
understanding of concepts instead of memorization.
Time Management
High school students have a busy schedule, so it is necessary for them to create
awareness about effective time management. Student's regular school schedule
includes class time and time to complete homework. They also participate in a
number of extracurricular and sporting activities. Playing and participating in creative
activities, not only helps them focus better, but they can also stimulate their thinking.
It is very important for students to participate in extracurricular activities for this
purpose; they need to implement appropriate time management skills. It is vital for
students to create a balance between all tasks and activities. More important activities
should be spent more time than less important activities. The important thing for
students is to take fun and look towards the activities of the school and the classroom
in a positive perspective. Students need to maintain their physical and psychological
health. When a student is healthy, then he will be able to play an active role in
learning.
1.1.3.2. Objective factors
School Resources
In schools, it is important to provide resources that can be used to improve the
academic performance of students. Textbooks, notes, learning materials, hands-outs,
technology, library facilities and laboratories, especially in science subjects should
include the necessary materials. When students will be provided with the necessary
tools and equipment, they will be able to better understand academic concepts and
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how to perform experiments. In some cases, especially students from disadvantaged,
marginalized, and economically outdated parts of society cannot afford the books and
materials needed for learning, so they depend on library facilities and other students
for books and other materials (Maina, 2010).
Skills and Abilities of the Teachers
Teachers have a mandatory role in influencing the academic performance of
the students. They are given the authority to direct all activities in the classroom and
manage their studies. It is important for teachers to have the characteristics of
professionalism and conscience. They need to possess an accessible nature, listen and
provide solutions to problems faced by students. They need to have adequate
knowledge and information about the subjects they are teaching, using technology,
modern and creative methods in the teaching and learning process, disciplining and
directing all classes as well as school activities and functions in a well organized
manner. Teachers in some cases are strict, but rigor should be maintained within
limits. The main goal of teachers should only be to increase the academic
performance of the students and lead to their effective development (Maina, 2010).
Classroom Environment
Academic concepts are made known to the students by teachers in the
classroom. The teachers have the main task of completing the course syllabus.
Therefore, it is important that the classroom environment should be disciplined and
well ordered (Kudari, 2016). In the classroom, it is important for teachers and students
to implement the traits of morality and ethical characteristics. It is important to
promote mutual understanding, sociability and cooperation between teachers and
students as well as among the fellow students. The efficiency in classroom
management introduces an effective and organized management of lesson plans,
teaching strategies, teaching and learning processes, etc. When there is discipline and
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effective interpersonal communication, it will help students learn better and improve
their academic performance.
Role of Parents
Home is considered as the place where learning and education platform takes
place. In order to create good academic results, it is important for parents, children
and other family members to encourage a learning atmosphere within homes. For
example, when students have problems in certain subjects, parents are responsible for
providing help. This help may be in the form of private tuition or they may teach their
children. They provide technology and other learning materials at home to enhance
their children's academic performance. Parents play an important role in leading to
the growth and development of their children (Kudari, 2016). In school, whatever
problems children have to go through with academics and other fields, they often
communicate with their parents. Parents are a source of security, encouragement and
help for their children in providing solutions to their problems.
Interactions
Children are enrolled in schools not only to learn academic concepts, but also to
learn, interact and communicate with others. Students often form friendly terms and
relationships with other students. Forming a social circle and friendship has a positive
impact on the academic outcomes of the students. As when a student has to work on a
project or prepare for a test, group study is beneficial in most cases. It also causes social
satisfaction and happiness in one's student life (Kudari, 2016). Forming a social circle
proves to benefit individuals in many ways, such as, solving academic problems,
participating in recreational activities, sharing one’s joy and sadness, etc.
Teaching Methods
Teaching methods must be appropriate and encouraging to the students. The
school teachers are a part of the mandatory one of promoting learning among
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students. It is essential for them to ensure that the teaching methods used must prove
to be beneficial to their students. The teachers in the school are required to be
approachable and professional in their behavior. They are the ones that students
approach, in case they have any problems and difficulties. When teachers are friendly
and generous, the students will feel comfortable not only in approaching them, but
also in clarifying their doubts. It is important for parents and teachers to ensure that
effective teaching methods are implemented, which can encourage learning among
students and help them better understand.
In conclusion, there are many factors that can affect to the academic
performance of students. The researcher finds it necessary to base on these factors to
design questionnaires and decide what should be observed to answer the two research
questions.
1.1.4. Private tutor situation
There has much public debate about the widespread private tutoring situation
in Vietnam. The topic has come up not just in the media, including television
broadcasting and newspapers and journals, but also in the National Assembly’s
hearings of the Minister of Education and Training. Indeed, private tutoring has
become so serious a problem that the Vietnamese government has issued several legal
documents at the ministerial levels prohibiting compulsory and mass-scale extra
classes at school (Decree No. 242, OPM, 1993), and stipulating the ranges for extra
class fees that schools can charge students (Circular No. 16, MOET & MOF, 1993).
However, after the promulgation of these regulations, private tutoring classes still
developed such that the Ministry of Education and Training had to issue some more
legal documents regulating it, notably among them Circular No. 15 (MOET, 2000)
providing guidance on urgent measures to be taken to control private tutoring. Extra
classes are creating a lot of stress and tension to the students and teachers who have
to come early in the morning and late in the evening. This issue has led to a lot of
problems like resignation of teachers and students being overburdened. This study is
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therefore conducted to find out whether extra class is the real reason behind students’
academic performance.
1.2. Previous studies on the effectiveness of extra classes
There are many students who attend classes at the tuition center or extra
classes at school, but its effectiveness against achievement of the performance of
students is still a concern. This phenomenon is explained if two students from the
same school, attended tuition but get the same results of different examinations.
However, it cannot be denied that the attitudes, interests and learning styles of
different students also affect the effectiveness of additional classes attended by these
students. Studies have been done by Jaafar et al., (2008) of UPSR students have
shown the positive effect that there is a significant difference between pre test and
post-test showed that there is effective implementation of intensive classes under the
guidance of the Sekolah Angkat Maktab Perguruan project (SAMP). However, for
students in secondary school, this was necessary matter given more in-depth study.
There are many factors that influence the effectiveness of student learning for
academic achievement, including the teaching methods of teachers (Mahzan, 2004).
This is because the teaching style that is not consistent with the learning styles may
confuse students and thus interfere with the process of teaching and learning in
schools. In such circumstances, students become the next victim and become weak in
the subjects involved. So, one alternative to improve the students’ learning process is
to attend extra classes organized by schools.
Among the existing studies, private tutoring was found to be a good with
income elasticity ranging from highly inelastic in Greece (Psacharopoulous &
Papakonstannou, 2005) to unit elastic in Turkey (Tansel & Bircan, 2006). The
common pattern is that richer and more educated household in urban areas spend
more on private tutoring classes compared to other households in more remote areas
(Ha & Harpham, 2005; Kim & Lee, 2004; Tansel & Bircan, 2006).

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There have been mixed results among the few studies seeking to determine the
influences of private tutoring on students’ academic achievement. For a sample of 8year-old children in Vietnam, after controlling for other characteristics, the
researchers find that private tutoring does not significantly increase the children’s
writing and multiplication test scores (Ha & Harpham, 2005). Le (2012) finds that
that participation in extra classes is generally not associated with higher cognitive test
scores, but a number of other factors (parental education, household wealth, ethnicity
and gender) do influence children’s test scores. Karin Guill & Wilfried Bos (2014)
concluded that while the majority of the parents as well as of the students stated that
private tutoring had improved the students’ mathematics achievement there was
neither a significant improvement of math marks of tutored students compared to the
entire sample of non-tutored students nor an improvement in math achievement test
results due to private tutoring. In Singapore, private tutoring is found to have a
negative effect on secondary students’ grades (Cheo & Quah, 2005). However,
contrary evidence is found, too. Using data from Rounds 1 and 2 of Young Lives, Ko
and Xing (2009) showed there was an association between taking extra classes and
the subjective well-being of children in Vietnam. Dang (2007) worked with
nationally representative household survey data from 1997– 1998 and found that 31
per cent of primary school, 56 per cent of lower secondary and 77 per cent of upper
secondary school students attended extra classes. Using internal school grades, this
study also found that private tutoring had a significant impact on a student’s academic
performance and the influence is larger for lower secondary students. The paper also
found that private tutoring is a necessity in the household budget for primary and
lower secondary students in Vietnam, and the trend to attend private tutoring is
stronger at higher education levels. There remained, however, a number of
unanswered questions about the effect that extra classes had on the development
of children’s cognitive ability. Moreover, little research paid attention to the
influences of extra classes on high school students. It is therefore clear that more
research needs to be done on this topic.
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1.3. Summary
In conclusion, this chapter presents background knowledge of extra classes,
students’ academic performance, factors affecting students’ academic performance,
extra class discussion of issues and aspects concerning the topic of the study. There
has much public debate about the widespread private tutoring situation in Vietnam.
The topic has come up not just in the media, including television broadcasting and
newspapers and journals, but also in the National Assembly’s hearings of the Minister
of Education and Training. Indeed, there are many factors that affect students’ results.
Hence, the study is conducted to find out if extra class is the real factor behind the
academic achievement in English of students at Que Vo No.1 High School.

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CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY
2.1. Research Design
Descriptive and experimental research was adopted using non probability
convenience method to find out the exact requirement of extra classes and whether
extra classes are the real reason behind high school students’ success. The scale of
the study was also limited to a single high school in Bac Ninh to be able to control
external variance better, and to empirically pilot procedures under tight and limited
control conditions before deciding on the implications of scaling up any possible
interventions to more districts, provinces, or otherwise.
2.2. The context of the study
The research was conducted at Que Vo No.1 High School for 15 weeks (from
January 1st to April 12th 2019).
2.2.1. The textbook
The textbook for the students is introduced by MOET, published in 2018. It
includes 10 units; however, only the last five units were chosen for the second
semester. The teacher had to cover the tutorial course with these five units in 45
periods with 45 minutes for each period in 15 afternoons. The tests were designed
basing on the content of the textbook considered as academic curriculum of English
10 in the school year 2018-2019 (Table 2.1).

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