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FIXED REVENUE
ACCOUNTING

A New Management Accounting Framework

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Japanese Management and International Studies
(ISSN: 2010-4448)

Editor-in-Chief: Yasuhiro Monden (University of Tsukuba, Japan)
Published
Vol. 15 Fixed Revenue Accounting: A New Management Accounting Framework

edited by Kenichi Suzuki & Bruce Gurd
Vol. 14 Holistic Business Process Management: Theory and Practice

edited by Gunyung Lee, Masanobu Kosuga & Yoshiyuki Nagasaka
Vol. 13 Management of Innovation Strategy in Japanese Companies

edited by Kazuki Hamada & Shufuku Hiraoka
Vol. 12 Lean Management of Global Supply Chain

edited by Yasuhiro Monden & Yoshiteru Minagawa
Vol. 11





Entrepreneurship in Asia: Social Enterprise, Network and Grossroots
Case Studies
edited by Stephen Dun-Hou Tsai, Ted Yu-Chung Liu, Jersan Hu &
Shang-Jen Li

Vol. 10 Management of Enterprise Crises in Japan

edited by Yasuhiro Monden
Vol. 9 Management of Service Businesses in Japan

edited by Yasuhiro Monden, Noriyuki Imai, Takami Matsuo &

Naoya Yamaguchi
Vol. 8 Management of an Inter-Firm Network

edited by Yasuhiro Monden
Vol. 7 Business Group Management in Japan

edited by Kazuki Hamada
Vol. 6 M&A for Value Creation in Japan

edited by Yasuyoshi Kurokawa
Vol. 5 Business Process Management of Japanese and Korean Companies

edited by Gunyung Lee, Masanobu Kosuga, Yoshiyuki Nagasaka &

Byungkyu Sohn
Vol. 4 International Management Accounting in Japan:


Current Status of Electronics Companies

edited by Kanji Miyamoto
For the complete list of titles in this series, please go to
http://www.worldscientific.com/series/jmis

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Japanese Management and International Studies – Vol. 15

FIXED REVENUE
ACCOUNTING

A New Management Accounting Framework

editors

Kenichi Suzuki
Meiji University, Japan

Bruce Gurd
University of South Australia, Australia

World Scientific
NEW JERSEY




LONDON

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SINGAPORE



BEIJING



SHANGHAI



HONG KONG



TAIPEI



CHENNAI




TOKYO

20/8/18 9:46 AM


Published by
World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.
5 Toh Tuck Link, Singapore 596224
USA office: 27 Warren Street, Suite 401-402, Hackensack, NJ 07601
UK office: 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HE

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Suzuki, Kenichi, 1960 August 9– editor. | Gurd, Bruce, 1956 September 3–
Title: Fixed revenue accounting : a new management accounting framework /
edited by Kenichi Suzuki and Bruce Gurd.
Description: New Jersey : World Scientific, [2019] | Series: Japanese
management and international studies (JMIS), ISSN 2010-4448 ; Vol 15
Identifiers: LCCN 2018012515 | ISBN 9789813237254
Subjects: LCSH: Revenue--Accounting.
Classification: LCC HF5681.R5 F59 2019 | DDC 657/.72--dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018012515

editor.

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Copyright © 2019 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.

All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval
system now known or to be invented, without written permission from the publisher.

For photocopying of material in this volume, please pay a copying fee through the Copyright Clearance
Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. In this case permission to photocopy
is not required from the publisher.
For any available supplementary material, please visit
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Desk Editor: Lum Pui Yee
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Printed in Singapore

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b3182  Fixed Revenue Accounting: A New Management Accounting Framework

Japan Society of Organization
and Accounting (JSOA)
President
Shufuku Hiraoka, Soka University, Japan
Vice Presidents
Kazuki Hamada, Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan
Gunyung Lee, Niigata University, Japan

Yoshiyuki Nagasaka, Konan University, Japan
Directors
Noriko Hoshi, Hakuoh University, Japan
Masaaki Imabayashi, Mejiro University
Noriyuki Imai, Toyota Financial Services, Japan
Tomonori Inooka, Kokushikan University, Japan
Masanobu Kosuga, Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan
Takami Matsuo, Kobe University, Japan
Yoshiteru Minagawa, Nagoya Gakuin University, Japan
Kenichi Suzuki, Meiji University, Japan
Kozo Suzuki, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, Japan
Makoto Tomo, Seijo University, Japan
Naoya Yamaguchi, Aoyama Gakuin University

v

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b3182  Fixed Revenue Accounting: A New Management Accounting Framework

vi

Japan Society of Organization and Accounting (JSOA)

Henry Aigbedo, Oakland University, USA
Mahmuda Akter, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Chao Hsiung Lee, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan
Founder &Editor-in-Chief
Japanese Management and International Studies
Yasuhiro Monden, University of Tsukuba, Japan
Auditor
Takeshi Ito, Value Co-Creation, Inc., Tokyo, Japan
Assistant Managers
Satoshi Arimoto, Niigata university, Japan
Hiromasa Hirai, Kanagawa University, Japan

Mission of JSOA and Editorial Information
For the purpose of making a contribution to the business and academic
communities, the Japan Society of Organization and Accounting (JSOA),
is committed to publishing Japanese Management and International
Studies (JMIS), which is a refereed annual publication with a specific
theme for each volume.
The series is designed to inform the world about research outcomes of
the new “Japanese-style management system” developed in Japan.
However, as the series title suggests, it also promotes “International
Studies” on the managerial competencies of various countries that include
Asian countries as well as Western countries under the globalized business
activities. Research topics included in this series are management of
organizations in a broad sense (including the business group or inter-firm
network) and the accounting for managing the organizations. More specifically, topics include business strategy, business models, organizational
restoration, corporate finance, M&A, environmental management, operations management, managerial & financial accounting, manager performance evaluation, reward systems. The research approach is
interdisciplinary, which includes case studies, theoretical studies, normative studies and empirical studies, but emphasizes real world business.

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b3182  Fixed Revenue Accounting: A New Management Accounting Framework

Japan Society of Organization and Accounting (JSOA)

vii

Our JSOA’s board of directors has established an editorial board of
international standing. In each volume, guest editors who are experts on
the volume’s special theme serve as the volume editors. The details of
JSOA is shown in its by-laws contained in the home-page: http://jsoa.
sakura.ne.jp/english/index.html

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b3182  Fixed Revenue Accounting: A New Management Accounting Framework

Japanese Management
and International Studies (JMIS)
Editor-in-Chief
Yasuhiro Monden, University of Tsukuba, Japan
Managing Editors
Kazuki Hamada, Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan
Shufuku Hiraoka, Soka University, Japan
Noriko Hoshi, Hakuoh University, Japan
Tomonori Inooka, Kokushikan University, Japan
Gunyung Lee, Niigata University, Japan
Yoshiyuki Nagasaka, Konan University, Japan
Henry Aigbedo, Oakland University, USA
Mahmuda Akter, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Chao Hsiung Lee, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan
Editorial Advisory Board
Takayuki Asada, Ritsumeikan University, Japan
Takahiro Fujimoto, University of Tokyo, Japan
Masanobu Kosuga, Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan
Yoshiteru Minagawa, Nagoya Gakuin University, Japan
Susumu Ueno, Konan University, Japan
Eri Yokota, Keio University, Japan
ix

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b3182  Fixed Revenue Accounting: A New Management Accounting Framework

x

Japanese Management and International Studies (JMIS)

Péter Horváth, Horváth & Partners, Germany
Arnd Huchzermeier, WHU Koblenz, Germany
Christer Karlsson, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Rolf G Larsson, Lund University, Sweden
Jose Antonio Dominguez Machuca, University of Sevilla, Spain
Luis E. Carretero Diaz, Universidad Complutense, Spain
Kenneth A. Merchant, University of Southern California, USA
Jimmy Y.T. Tsay, National Taiwan University, Taiwan
Stephen DunHou Tsai, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan
Yanghon Chung, KAIST, Korea
Mohammad Aghdassi, Tarbiat Modarres University, Iran
Mahfuzul Hoque, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

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b3182  Fixed Revenue Accounting: A New Management Accounting Framework

Preface
After the collapse of the bubble economy in Japan, we saw a miserable
situation: The situation of frequent corporate bankruptcies, where many
people lost their jobs or were anxious about losing their jobs. As a result,
their families no longer lived in peace. Can management accounting soften the blow of large economic fluctuations? This is the background of
fixed revenue accounting (FRA): FRA encourages employees to acquire
and retain fixed customers where the fixed customers provide protection
against economic crisis.
FRA is a new management accounting framework to evaluate and manage the impacts of fixed customers on a company’s financials. Fixed customers refer to frequent or regular customers who are expected to repeat
their purchases. Compared with non-fixed customers, fixed customers
provide several advantages for a company. Their repeated purchases lead
to stability of revenue, which makes profits more stable. Also, their
repeated purchases bring about larger amounts of revenue which
improves profitability because with the increase of revenue, the costs
involved in keeping a customer do not change. Furthermore, the profitability and stability of fixed customers can be used for decision-making
to encourage investment for future growth. Recognizing the advantages
of fixed customers, I propose the framework to assess and manage the
impacts of fixed customers on a company’s financials to improve its
performance.
FRA involves the following steps: First, the revenue, cost, and profit
are assigned to customer segments defined by the strength of purchasing
repetition. The strength of purchasing repetition is measured by the total
xi

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Preface

amount or total number of transactions of each customer. With this measurement, customers are placed into the customer segments. Also, the
revenues obtained from the customers are totaled for each customer segment. After matching the revenues to costs, the profits are calculated for
each customer segment. Based on these accounting figures, the impacts
of fixed customers on a company’s financials are assessed. The comparison of revenues, costs, and profits among the customer segments shows
the impacts of the strength of purchasing repetition to profits (Table 1).
Table 1.    The basic form of FRA profit and loss statement.
Total
Sales
(Revenue)

New
customers

Non-fixed
customers

Fixed
customers

Defector


Product A
Product B
Product C
Sub total

Traceable
variable cost

Cost of
goods sold
Selling
expenses
Sub total

Marginal profit
Traceable
fixed cost

(a)

Cost of
goods sold
Selling
expenses
Sub total

(b)

Contribution margin
Untraceable

fixed cost

Cost of
goods sold
Selling
expenses
Sub total

(c)

Operation profit
Fixed operation profit

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 Fixed operation profit = (a) – (b) – (c)

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Preface


Revenue
(Sales)
/cost

Revenue
(Sales)

Filling: Profit variability
caused by low stability of revenue
from non-fixed customers

Fixed revenue

Non-fixed revenue

(Revenue from fixed
customers)

(Revenue from non-fixed
customers)

Cost

Revenue
(Sales)

Fig. 1   Fixed customers and profit variability.

Also, the portion of revenue of the fixed customer segment in total revenues demonstrate a company’s profit stability because revenue of the
segment are more stable than those of other segments (Fig. 1).

In addition, with the comparison between budgeted and actual numbers, this demonstrates the impact of the difference of the strength in each
customer segment. The next stage is where customer policy for improving
the company’s financials is established.
This book contains four parts. The first three parts introduce the benefits of adopting FRA in business. To help readers’ understanding, these
parts include theoretical explanations and case studies of Japanese manufacturing or service companies. The last part discusses some topics of
management accounting in Japanese companies.

PART 1: Profitability Analysis
The profit and loss statement of FRA supports in helping to identify and
manage profitability of fixed customers. Part 1 introduces two cases:
A department store and a mail-order company in Japan identified the
impact of fixed customers on profits by using FRA profit and loss statements and changed marketing strategy in order to help increase their profits
by focusing on the fixed customers. Also, this part discusses a case where

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Preface

a Japanese hotel chain found key factors to satisfy fixed customers and
increase revenue by analyzing the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer purchasing amounts, measured by a questionnaire
survey.


PART 2: Stability Analysis
Part 2 demonstrates that a lot of fixed customers can increase and provide
sustainability of revenue and profits. A case study of the hotel chain
describes this proposition by using each customer’s transaction data.

PART 3: Growth Analysis
The Bathtub Model (Fig. 2), one of the components of the FRA model,
enhances the visibility of profit growth by showing customers’ movement
in the customer segments; new customers, fixed customers, non-fixed
customers, and defectors.
Part 3 discusses three issues: First, Bathtub Model variance analysis
which was developed by applying the bathtub model to variance analysis;
second, the advantages of the bathtub model variance analysis against

Acquisition rate
10% of the total
New customers
The number of customers: 1,200 people
Sales per person: 15,000 Yen
Transition rate: 40%

Fixed customers
The number of customers: 7,000 people
Sales per person: 40,000 Yen
Transition rate: 10%

Non-fixed customers

Defectors
The number of customers: 800 people

Sales per person: None

The number of customers: 3,000 people
Sales per person: 20,000 Yen

Only describes the main route from each segment to the next

Fig. 2   Bathtub Model conceptual framework.

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Preface

xv

conventional variance analysis with the semiconductor trading company/
manufacturer case; and third, growth analysis utilizing the bathtub model
variance analysis at the hotel chain.

PART 4: Related Topics in Management Accounting
Part 4 contains three topics of management accounting in Japanese

companies.
Kenichi Suzuki
Department Chair, Professor
Department of Accounting
School of Business Administration
Meiji University
1 October, 2018

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About the Editors
Dr. Kenichi Suzuki is a professor of School of
Business Administration and a chair of accounting
department, Meiji University after he worked for

Institute of The Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan
(1984–1998) and Hiroshima International University
(1998–2001). He is a deputy editor-in-chief of The
Journal of Japanese Management Accounting and
an editor-in-chief of Japanese Journal of Strategic
Management.
He got a master in Business Administration from Tsukuba University
and a PhD in Economics from Osaka University, and also won the IMA
Annual Lybrand Awards (1999–2000), The Japan Cost Accounting
Association Awards (2000), and The Japan Management Accounting
Association Awards (2014).
Now, he is (1) developing a framework of Fixed Revenue Accounting,
a new management accounting system to encourage employees to have
customer-oriented perspectives, (2) examining the importance of
­communication in management control process based on the theory of
‘Ba’ which refers to a mechanism to explain how employees are motivated
to work together and (3) investigating a MCS package consisted of
­budgeting and hoshin-kanri system.

xvii

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About the Editors

Dr. Bruce Gurd is an Associate Professor in the
School of Management at the University of South
Australia and a Deputy Director of the Australian
Centre for Asian Business. The focus of his research
has been organizational performance management
systems including the measurement of social
impact.
He graduated with a PhD from the University of
Adelaide in management control systems. More
recently he has been researching more broadly in strategy and has completed a book on Strategy Execution in complex environments. He has
taught in the MBA at the University of South Australia for nearly 20 years
in strategy, management and accounting for managers.
He was recognised as a Life Fellow of the Australia and New Zealand
Academy of Management.

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Contents
Japan Society of Organization and Accounting (JSOA)


v

Japanese Management and International Studies (JMIS)

ix

Prefacexi
About the Editorsxvii
List of Contributorsxxi
Part 1 Profitability Analysis

1

Chapter 1 Profitability of Fixed Customers: A Case of
a Japanese Department Store
Kenichi Suzuki, Misa Kikyo, Maiko Kodama,
Hitomi Toyosaki, Yu Hiasa, and Kohsuke Matsuoka
Chapter 2 Redesign and Management of Marketing
Strategies Using FRA Profitability Analysis:
A Case of a Mail-Order Company under
Turnaround Process
Shuhei Kawata, John Hatzinikolakis, Takeshi Saito
and Kaori Yamawaki
Chapter 3 Identifying the Determinant Factors Satisfying
Each Customer Segment: Case of a Japanese
Hotel Chain
Kayo Mitani and John Hatzinikolakis

3


19

35

xix

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Contents

Part 2Stability Analysis

51

Chapter 4 Measuring and Managing Customer Profit
Stability: A Japanese Hotel Chain Case Study
Ayuko Komura and Kenichi Suzuki

53

Part 3 Growth Analysis


67

Chapter 5  Variance Analysis in Fixed Revenue Accounting
Kohsuke Matsuoka

69

Chapter 6 Bathtub Model Variance Analysis at a Japanese
Hotel Chain
Kohsuke Matsuoka
Chapter 7 Promoting and Hindering Factors in the
Introduction of Fixed Revenue Accounting:
A Case Study in a B2B Company Based
on Management Accounting Change
Masahiro Hosoda, Yoshitaka Myochin,
and Daisuke Tomita

85

99

Part 4 Related Topics in Management Accounting

115

Chapter 8 Goal Congruence between Top Management
and Divisional Managers
Kazuyoshi Morimoto

117


Chapter 9 Budgeting and Vertical/Horizontal Interaction
in New Product Development — A Case Study
in Car Navigation System Development 
Masanobu Nakamura

133

Chapter 10 Empirical Study of Mechanism of Budgetary
Control and Hoshin Kanri to Stimulate Autonomous
Behavior Based on Theory of Ba
151
Hitomi Toyosaki, Misa Kikyo, Yuki Iwabuchi,
Maiko Kodama, Yu Hiasa and Ayuko Komura
Index171

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b3182  Fixed Revenue Accounting: A New Management Accounting Framework

List of Contributors
Bruce Gurd
Associate Professor,
School of Management,
University of South Australia

GPO Box 2471 Adelaide,
South Australia, 5000, Australia
bruce.gurd@unisa.edu.au
John Hatzinikolakis
Lecturer, School of Management,
University of South Australia
GPO Box 2471, Adelaide,
South Australia, 5001, Australia
John.Hatzinikolakis@unisa.edu.au
Masahiro Hosoda
Lecturer, College of Humanities
and Social Sciences, Ibaraki University
2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito,
Ibaraki, 310-8512, Japan
masahiro.hosoda.mn@vc.ibaraki.ac.jp

xxi

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List of Contributors


Yu Hiasa
Postgraduate, Graduate School of
Business Administration, Meiji University,
Research Fellow of the Japan Society
for the Promotion of Science
1-1 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku,
Tokyo, 101-8301, Japan
hiasa@ken-suzuki.net
Yuki Iwabuchi
iRidge, Inc.
1-11-9 BPRpureisu kamiyatyou
9F/10F, Azabudai, Minato-ku,
Tokyo, 106-0041, Japan
yuuki.iwbuchi0109@ken-suzuki.net
Shuhei Kawata
Senior Manager, iRidge, Inc., Postgraduate,
Graduate School of Business Administration, Meiji University
1-1 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku,
Tokyo, 101-8301, Japan
shkawata@ken-suzuki.net
Maiko Kodama
Postgraduate, Graduate School of
Business Administration, Meiji University
1-1 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku,
Tokyo, 101-8301, Japan
kodama@ken-suzuki.net
Misa Kikyo
Postgraduate, Graduate School of
Business Administration, Meiji University
1-1 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku,

Tokyo, 101-8301, Japan
kikyo@ken-suzuki.net

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List of Contributors

xxiii

Ayuko Komura
Postgraduate, Graduate School of
Business Administration, Meiji University,
Research Fellow of the Japan Society
for the Promotion of Science
1-1 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku,
Tokyo, 101-8301, Japan
kom-ayu@ken-suzuki.net
Kohsuke Matsuoka
Associate Professor, Faculty of
Business Administration,
Tohoku Gakuin University

1-3-1 Tsuchitoi, Aoba-ku, Sendai,
Miyagi, 980-8511, Japan
matsuoka@mail.tohoku-gakuin.ac.jp
Kayo Mitani
Postgraduate, Graduate School of
Business Administration, Meiji University,
Research Fellow of the Japan Society
for the Promotion of Science
1-1 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku,
Tokyo, 101-8301, Japan
hug.u.x@ken-suzuki.net
Kazuyoshi Morimoto
Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences,
Hagoromo University of International Studies
1-89-1 Hamaderaminami, Nishi-ku, Sakai,
Osaka, 592-8344, Japan
kmorimoto@hagoromo.ac.jp

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List of Contributors


Yoshitaka Myochin
Postgraduate, Graduate School of
Business Administration, Meiji University
1-1 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku,
Tokyo, 101-8301, Japan
myochin@ken-suzuki.net
Masanobu Nakamura
Associate Professor, Graduate School of
Management, Kagawa University
1-1 Saiwaicho, Takamatsu,
Kagawa, 760-8521, Japan
msnakamura@gsm.kagawa-u.ac.jp
Takeshi Saito
Lecturer, School of Management,
Chukyo University
101-2 Yagoto Honmachi, Showa-ku,
Nagoya, Aichi, 466-8666, Japan
saitou@ken-suzuki.net
Kenichi Suzuki
Professor, Chair of Accounting Department
School of Business Administration
Meiji University
1-1 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku,
Tokyo, 101-8301, Japan
kgh00111@ken-suzuki.net
Daisuke Tomita
Certified Public Accountant, Ministry of
Health, Labor and Welfare
1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku,
Tokyo, 100-8916 Japan

tomita-daisuke99@mhlw.go.jp

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