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Phát triển năng lực tư duy khái quát hóa cho học sinh thông qua bài tập hóa học hữu cơ lớp 11 ở trường THPT tt tiếng anh

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INTRODUCTION
1. Reasons to select topic
Generalized thinking competence (GTC) which is one of the important
competences need to develope for every pupils. Although organic chemistry
includes the millions of compounds, but only representative compounds are
introduced in high school. All most of them will be formed from the equivalent
properties of the representative compounds. Therefore, teachers need to base
on the organic chemistry exercises to develope GTC for pupils. By this way, the
knowledge will be formed fully to response the goal of program in textbook.
Chemistry is one of important science subjects to serve for the goal of high
school education. In this process, the competence of students have been created
and developed to continue learning or participate in production. The chemistry
includes both theoretical and experimental science. So, this subject can create
the basic to develope GTC.
Using chemistry exercises is one of methods to practice and develop
thinking for pupils. Exercises have important role in approving the quality of
teaching chemistry at high school. However, they aren’t still interested by most
teachers. Organic chemistry at high school can help learners to increasing GTC.
Although many exercises were chosen, built, and used to this goal, it is not
response in develop GTC.

GTC is the specific competence in learning chemistry. It is constructed
from the general and body competence which is not investigated fully.
With above reasons, we chose the topic: “Developing generalized thinking
competence for students through the organic chemistry the 11 th grade in high
school”
2. Study objectives
Study on the choosing, building, and using organic chemistry exercises to
develop GTC for pupils. They will contribute to increase the quality of teaching
chemistry at high school.
2. Studied objects and subjects
Studied objects: The teaching chemistry at high school.
Studied subjects: chemistry exercises, GTC of student in learning and
solutions to develop GTC for students in high school by using chemistry exercises.
3. The study scope
- Content: Organic chemistry of standard program of Chemistry at class 11
in high school.
- Areas: Some high schools which representative for the national regions:
Dong Nai, Ho Chi Minh city, Binh Phuoc, Hanoi, An Giang, Vinh Phuc.


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- Time: from September/2014 to May/2018
4. Scientific hypothesis
If selecting and building exercises have high quality, the combination in
using these exercises and the active teaching methods reasonably and efficiency
can help students in form GTC and contribute to improve the quality of teaching
chemistry in high school.
5. Study tasks
- Study the overview of theoretical basis related to the topic: Orient to
develop the education in the current period, innovation of teaching chemistry
methods, chemistry exercises, the general problems about competence and
develop the competences for pupils, especially as GTC.
- Investigating and assessing the status of teaching chemistry; building and
using the chemistry exercises to GTC for pupils at high schools today.
- Study chemical program in high school, especially organic chemistry
program at high school.
- Determine structure, build the competence frame, specifying the
expression, criteria for evaluating the GTC of learners in study chemistry.
- Propose a lot of ways to develop the GTC for students at high schools
through the construction and using the organic biological systems.


- Design a set of assessment tools for students' GTC through the use of
chemical exercises.
- Conduct pedagogical experiment (TNSP) to assess the feasibility and
effectiveness of the methods and suggestions of the topic.
7. The study methods
Using the combine of the following methods:
7.1. The group of theoretical methods
- The analyzing method, synthesizing method, and systematic method
about documents.
- The modeling method (suggestions).
- The hypothesis method.
- The historical method.
7.2. The group of practical research methods
- The pedagogical observe method: Observe the development of GTC of
students when using chemical exercises.
- The investigation method of the situation of teaching chemistry: Survey
the status of the using chemical exercises to develop GTC for students.
- The expert method.


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- The experimental pedagogical method.
7.3. The mathematic method
Using the statistical math, SPSS software to handle the survey results of
actual situation and pedagogical experiment (calculate the specific statistical
parameters...)
8. The new features of the thesis
8.1. In theory
- Contribute to an overview about GTC in teaching and learning the
chemistry.
- Proposing concepts and structures of the GTC. Propose the solutions to
use organic chemical exercises to develop GTC for students.
8.2. In practice
- Assessing the status of teaching chemistry, building and using the
chemical exercises to develope the GTC for students in some high schools today.
- The system of the organic chemistry exercises at 11 th grade to develop the
GTC.
- A set of assessment tools for students' energy efficiency through the use
chemical exercises.
9. The structure of thesis
The thesis include the introduction (4 pages), conclusion (3 pages),
references (107 documents), appendix (112 pages), and 3 main chapter: Chapter
1 (43 pages), chapter 2 (63 pages), chapter 3 (25 pages). In addition, there are list
of summary letter, list of table (24 tables), diagram, figure (11 figures), list of the
published report relate to thesis (7 reports).
CHAPTER 1. THEORETICAL BASIS AND PRACTICE ON COMPETENCE
DEVELOPMENT FOR RECOMMENDATION FOR STUDENTS THROUGH
CHEMICAL EXERCISE
1.1 The history of research issues in nation and abroad
Present the science publishes about developing GTC for students in
Vietnam and in the world. Currently, there has not been any publish which
mention the development of GTC in teaching chemistry in Vietnam.
1.2. Thinking, chemical thinking, generalization thinking
1.2.1. Overview of thinking
1.2.1.1. Thinking concept
Thinking is a psychological process that reflects the intrinsic properties, the
internal relative rules of things in objective reality that we haven’t known before.


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1.2.1.2. The characteristics of thinking
The characteristics of thinking include problem properties, the
indirectness, abstraction and generalization, the closely relative with language,
the closely related to sensory awareness.
1.2.1.3. Manipulations of thinking
Analyze, synthesize, compare, abstract, generalize, induce, interpret,
analogize, concretize.
1.2.1.4. The stages of a thinking process
Identify problems and present the problems, collecting the knowledge,
experience, making the associations, selecting associations and form hypotheses,
solve problems, test hypotheses.
1.2.1.5. Types of thinking: experience thinking, creative thinking, intellectual
thinking, analytical thinking, generalization thinking, synthesis thinking.
1.2.1.6. The role of thinking in teaching
1.2.2. Chemical thinking
1.2.2.1. Chemical thinking concept
The concept of chemical thinking is the process of studying the relationship
between all the particular structural features of a substance and the modification
laws.
1.2.2.2. The manipulation of chemical thinking needs to develop for students in
teaching chemistry in high school include analysis, synthesis, comparison,
generalization, induction, interpretation, analogy.
1.2.3. Generalized thinking
1.2.3.1. The concept of generalization
Generalization is an thinking manipulation in which the subject of thinking
(human) uses the their mind to unify many different objects into one in according
to the same properties.
Generalization is an activity which derived from one or more problems to
give a judgment, a broader view that includes many other problems
systematically, legally. It is the process to finding dialectical relationships between
things or phenomena.
1.2.3.2. Two types of generalizations:
- Firstly, generalization is aa experience process of individuals acquire the
basic concepts. It was done through comparison to separate common and similar
relationships of phenomena.
- Secondly, the theoretical generalization (or content generalization) to


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receptive the scientific concepts which is done through analysis to separate the
nature properties, the lawful relationships of phenomena, forming
conceptualization, is a objective reality in thinking.
1.2.3.3. Three levels of generalization: feeling generalization, concept generalization
(scientific generalization), image – concept generalization.
1.2.3.4. Develop generalization competence for students
1.3. Competence and generalized thinking competence
1.3.1. Overview about competence
1.3.1.1. Competence concept: Systematic of the views on competence of authors in
Vietnam and abroad. According to OECD, competences is divided into: General
competence and professional competence. Each competence is constituted by
elements, behavior indicators, quality criterias.
1.3.1.2. The competence of students in high school in Chemistry subject
Competences in using chemical language, chemical practice, finds and
solves problems through chemistry, the computational competence, and applying
chemical knowledge to life, GTC.
1.3.1.3. Assessment of competence: Assessing the competence of students in high
school is the process of using assessment tools to analyze qualitatively and
quantitatively the output products. The teachers, students and related parties can
imagine relatively objective and accurate about learners' achievements after the
learning process.
1.3.2. Generalized thinking competence
1.3.2.1. The concept of generalized thinking competence: The GTC is the ability to
do the intellectual activities successfully in a specific context by the using
knowledge, skills and other personal properties such as excitement, beliefs,
wills,... By this way, the nature and generalization of research problems are
determined.
1.3.2.2. The structure and expression of generalized thinking competence
Competence in understand the problems: analyzing and synthesizing
problems; evaluate and reflect solutions
1.4. Chemical exercises
1.4.1. The concept of chemical exercises
According to Vietnamese Dictionary, exercise is a problem for students
to practice what they have learned"
1.4.2. The role of chemical exercises
1.4.3. Competence-oriented exercises


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1.4.4. Chemistry exercises develop generalization thinking
- Have basic knowledge correctly, self-consciously and systematically.
- Know the way to consider a chemical problem: from perception (look,
read, ...)
- Helping students to build their own interpretation process in each
exercises
- Habits in thinking and acting independently
1.5. The reality of developing GTC for students through the using of 11th
grade organic chemistry exercises in some high schools
1.5.1. Purpose of the investigation, Subjects of the investigation,
Investigations’ areas
1.5.1.1. Purpose of the investigation: Find out and evaluate the current status of
developing GTC for students through the use of organic chemistry exercises at
high schools and consider them as a basis for determining the direction and next
development tasks of the topic.
1.5.1.2. Subjects of the investigation: The teachers teach chemistry and students
in 11th grade.
1.5.1.3. Investigations’ areas: We conducted a survey of the above objects in the
areas of some provinces: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Dong Nai, Binh Phuoc, An
Giang, and Vinh Phuc.
1.5.2. Methods of investigation
Contribute and collect questionnaires, meet and exchange directly,
interview teachers, experts, 11th grade students in high schools.
1.5.3. Investigation’s results of teacher
There are 446 teachers in the survey. From the survey results, the majority
of teachers have noticed the expression of students when developing the GTC.
However, there are still many teachers who have not discovered the expressions
of students when developing the GTC. There are 87.7% teachers agree to express
the students' GTC "From individual events to generalize the common ones". This
is an expression that many teachers chose in expression to develope the GTC of
students. There are 80% of the teachers agree that "Form the rules of reading
names and reading the right names according to different nomenclature for
organic compounds" is an clearly visible expression of the students’ GTC and "Self
find out the key, the implications of the problem in chemical questions and
exercises" which has 47.3% of the teachers agreed; "Knowing demonstration and
using the formula in generalization" has 35.2% of teachers. "Self-adjusting the
plan when implementing the solution is not successful" with 30.3% of the


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teachers agree. These are some expressions that few teachers choose the most,
which shows that the majority of teachers do not really understand fully and
comprehensively about GTC. This leads to the limited in the consequence of
teachers using solutions and assessment tools.
1.5.4. Results of student surveys
There are 1054 students in survey through organic chemistry.
- Students have a good awareness in learning chemistry. They often do the
exercises at home which are proposed by teachers, and exercises in reference
books and exercises at the internet.
- However, students do not have the spirit of learning in groups. This limits the
development of students' competence in general and the GTC in particular.


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CHAPTER 2. DEVELOP GENERALIZED THINKING COMPETENCE FOR THE
STUDENTS THROUGH THE 11th GRADE CHEMISTRY EXERCISE IN HIGH
SCHOOL
2.1. Analysis the content, structure of organic chemistry program at high
school in 11th grade
2.1.1. The goal of the 11 th grade organic chemistry program
2.1.2. Content and structure of the 11 th grade organic chemistry program
2.2. Building the structure of generalized thinking competence of students
in studying chemistry in high school
2.2.1. Principles in building GTC’s structure
Principle 1. Ensure science
Principle 2. Ensuring objectivity
Principle 3. Ensure practicality
Principle 4. Ensure integrity
2.2.2. The process of building the GTC structure
Step 1. Determine the scientific basis of the building GTC process of students
Step 2. Determine the components of competence
Step 3. Determine the criteria of components of competence
Step 4. Propose a detailed description table of the criteria or behavioral
indicators
Step 6. Complete the competence structure
Step 5. Review, get expert advice and test
2.2.3. Structure of general thinking competence of students in teaching
chemistry in high school
The GTC is the ability to implement a process of thinking, corresponding to
each step in that process is a component, as follows:
2.2.4. Criteria in component competence of generalized thinking ability of
high school students
The parts of
The criteria
competence
1) The competence to Criteria 1: Determine the content/problem of the
determine
the awareness
generalized purpose.
Criteria 2: Determine the task of learning; describe
the concept which is finished.
2) The competence to Criteria 3: Chose the objects to form the group for
choose, identify the the purpose of generalization.
generalized object
Criteria 4: Format the objects or name the object in


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The parts of
competence

3) The competence to
analysis the significant,
properties of object in
every group.
4) The competence to
classify the significacnt
to find the common and
nature of group.
5) The competence to
present the content
which is generalized to
concept.

The criteria
generalization process.
Criteria 5: Determine the position, role of study in
generalization process.
Criteria 6: Point out the characteristic of every object.
Classify them into the parts, the properties, the
relations which is oriented.
Criteria 7: Set up the relation between above
characteristic to form the unified one.
Criteria 8: Point out the similar and different
signatures of objects. Select the similar signature of
them.
Criteria 9: Eliminate the signatures which are not
nature. Keep the natural signatures.
Criteria 10: Choose the words for creating the
concept in objects.

2.2.5. Describe the expression of students' GTC in studying Chemistry
2.3. Building a system of exercises to develop GTC for students in teaching
Organic Chemistry - Chemistry of 11th grade.
2.3.1. The pedagogical principles (requirements) of teaching chemistry
towards the development of generalized thinking competence
Principle 1: The teaching content of chemistry lessons is built into the
chemistry exercises, situations, events, ..., creating a thinking situation.
Principle 2: The designed chemistry exercises are cognitive problems,
which correspond to the cognitive levels: Understanding - Applying - High level
application.
Principle 3: Learning activities of students are active learning activities,
promoting self-learning, critical thinking, creative thinking. The learning activities
are designed:
- Activity in creating lesson situations / starting situations (Experimental
activities, connection).
- Knowledge-forming activities (discovery activities)
- Practice activities.
- Knowledge manipulation activities (application activities)
- Activity to expand knowledge.
Principle 4: Teachers are one guide, organize learning activities for
students, there is no the teaching activity in class of teacher.


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Principle 5: Students need to be evaluated according to the competence,
apply the describing criteria table of the GTC to build tools to evaluate the
learning results and the competence of students.
2.3.2. The process of developing exercises develops general thinking skills for
students
Step 1. Determine the purpose of the exercise
Step 2. Determine the content of the exercise system
Step 3. Determine the type of exercises
Step 4. Collect information to prepare the exercise system
Step 5. Create the draft document
Step 6. Reference and exchange ideas with experts and colleagues
Step 7. Experiment, revise and supplement
2.3.3. Select and build the content of exercises to develop GTC for students
Principle 1. the chemistry exercises which is selected and built must ensure
the teaching objectives, ensuring the standard of knowledge, skills and
development orientation for students.
Principle 2. the content of the exercises must have a context, ensuring the
accuracy, scientific and modernity
Principle 3. Exercises must be able to develop the GTC for students
Principle 4. the chemistry exercises must be built on the learning content.
Principle 5. chemistry exercises must ensure pedagogy
Principle 6. the chemistry exercises is systematic and logical.
2.3.4. Systematic of the exercises to develop generalized competences for
students in teaching organic chemistry in 11th grade in high school
2.3.4.1. Exercises on the general formulas of peer ranges
2.3.4.2. Exercises on isomers
2.3.4.3. Exercises on the name of organic compounds
2.3.4.4. Exercises on relation of the structure and physical properties such as
solubility, boiling point, melting point
2.3.4.5. Exercises on the structure and chemical properties such as saturated
hydrocarbons and substituted reactions, unsaturated hydrocarbons and addition
reactions, aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic properties
2.3.4.6. Exercises on the derivatives of hydrocarbons
2.3.4.7. Exercises on the chain reaction
Example 1. Complete the reaction equations according to the following


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diagram:
A

B

C

D

CH3OH

X

Y

Z

T

CH3OCH-CH3
CH3

C2 H5OH

Example 2. From X is xenlulozo and the inorganic compounds, catalysts to
product M as follow diagram
Xenlulozo

X

+ H 2O
H+, t0

+HCl
1:1

D1

enzim

D2

enzim

D3
H2SO4

D4 +NaOH
0
t

D5

+H 2
Ni , t0

M

D6

With D4 is one of products of adding HCl to C atoms at 1,4 positions of X.
D6 is 3-metylbutan-1-ol. Determine the structure formula of X, D 1→ D6, M and
finish the reaction equations as above diagram.
2.3.4.8. Exercises on the formulation’s molecular
2.3.4.9. Practical, contextual exercises
Question 3. Lycopene (red pigment in ripe tomatoes)
C40H56 only contains double bonds and single bonds in
the molecule. When 0.1 mol lycopene react with the
residual hydrogen (Ni catalyst, to) to form C40H82. On the
other way, 0.1 mol lycopene react with m gram brom.
Answer
How much the reacted hydrogen:

82  56
).0,1 1,3� nBr2  1,3mol
2
mBr2  1,3.160  208gam
nH2  (

Question 4. Carotene (orange-yellow pigment in carrot)
C40H56 contains double bonds and saturated rings in the
molecule. Carotene react with the residual brom to form
the organic compound of C40H56Br22. On the other way,
0.1 mol carotene can react with x mol H 2 (Ni, to). The
value of x is:

Answer
The reacted molar of H2 = The reacted molar of Br2



22
.0,1  1,1
2
mol


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Question 5. In lemon essential oil is C 10H16 limonene.
Know that the hydrolysis of the limonene is mentan
C10H20. How many are the number of double bonds and
number of saturation rings in the limonene molecule?
Answer
The number of double bond



 2.10  2  16  3
2

 2.10  2  20  1

2
The number of saturation ring =
Question 6. C20H32 cembrene (separated from pine
resin), when react with the residual Br 2 to form X
compound with C20H32Br8. On the other hand, if 0.1
mol cembrene react with the residual H2 (Ni, to),
the molar of reacted H 2 is x mol and obtain organic
compound Y. Detemine the molecular formula of Y
and the value of x.
Answer
The molar of Br2 = The molar of H2 = 4 mol => The formula of Y is C20H40
Question 7. Brazil is the largest exporter of coffee in the
world. Coffee beans contain significant amounts of caffeine
C8H10N4O2. Determine the percent of nitrogen element in
caffeine?
Answer
14.4
.100%  28,87%
%N 12.8  10  14.4  16.2



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Question 8. The distillation of lemongrass by steam to give
geranial. The name of geranial is 3,7-dimethylocta-2,6dienal. The molecule formula of geranial is:

Question 9. Glycerol trinitrate is a very powerful explosive substance which has
molecular formula C3H5(ONO2)3, The explosion created the mix of products
consisting of CO2, H2O, N2 and O2 according to the following equation:

aC3H5O9N3 � bCO2  dH2O  eN2  f O2 in this equation, x = a + b + d + e + f
(a, b, c, d, e, f, x are the minimal integer). The value of x is:
Answer: x = 34
Question 10. Saccarozo sugar has many
practical applications as food, cake, candy,
soft drinks, etc. Saccarozo sugar has a
molecular weight of 342.0 au. The products
of completely burning 34.2 grams of sugar
are taken into first bottle containing the
residual of P2O5, the second bottle
containing Ca(OH)2. The weight of the first
bottle increased by 19.8 grams; the second
bottle has 120.0 grams of precipitate. Find
the molecule formula of saccharose sugar.
Answer

y
� y z�
t0
CxHyOz  �
x  �
O2 ��
� xCO2  H2O
2
� 4 2�

34,2
19,8
 0,1mol nH2O 
 1,1
342
18
nsugar =
;
mol;
nCO2  nCaCO3 
x

120
 1,2 mol
100

1,2
1,1
342  12.12  22.1
 12; y  2x
 12; z 
 11
0,1
0,1
16

Saccharose sugar: C12H22O11


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Question 11. From an essential oil, the organic compound X can be separated.
Burning 2.64 grams of X completely, the products are only 7.92 grams of CO 2 and
1.14 grams of H2O. Know that molar weight of X is 132 g / mol. Find the molecule
of X.
Answer

7,92
 0,18mol
44
1,44
nH  X   2.nH2O  2.
 0,16mol
18
0,32
nO  X  
 0,02mol
16
X :CxHyOz � x: y: z  0,18:0,16:0,02  9:8:1
nC  X   nCO2 

CTPT  X  :  C9H8O n  132 � n  1
Question 12. From jasmine essential oil, people separated
the organic compound X. Burn 16.4 grams of X completely
to give 44.0 grams of CO2 and 10.8 grams of H2O. Know MA
= 164.0 au. Find the molecule of X

Answer
mC



44
.12  12
44
gam

10,8
.2  1, 2
mH 18
gam


mO=16,4-12-1,2 =3,2 gam
12 1, 2 3, 2
:
:
x : y : z = 12 1 16 = 5 : 6 : 1

MA = 164 = n.(12.5 + 6.1 + 16) n=2
A:C10H12O2
2.3.4.10. Exercises related to true or false
2.3.4.11. Exercise system is used to Developing Generalized Thinking Ability for
students through exercises in organic chemistry at grade 11
2.4. Some solutions to use chemistry exercises system to develop
generalized thinking competence for students


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2.4.1. Solution 1: Use the exercises in the lesson of forming new knowledge to
develop generalized thinking competence for students
2.4.1.1. Characteristics of new knowledge-forming lessons in the basic 11 th grade
Organic Chemistry program
2.4.1.2. Solution ’s Content: In one lesson, teachers should prepare a exercise system
according to the levels of awareness and thinking of students to design learning
activities.
2.4.1.3. Some lesson plans illustrated
Below is a lesson plan to teach new knowledge
See Appendix 2.5 (lesson plan: Lesson 40. Alcohol) and Appendix 2.6
(lesson plan: Lesson 41. Phenol)
2.4.2. Solution 2: Use exercises in training and revision lessons to develop
generalized thinking competence for students
2.4.2.1. Content of the solution
2.4.2.2. Process of using solutions
When practicing, you need to follow a certain pedagogical sequence, which is the
basis for forming teaching methods. This sequence is determined by the rules of
the teaching process. You need to start from memorizing new material: At the
beginning of the regular practice lesson, teachers instruct students to recreate
and memorize the knowledge they need to grasp. Repetition does not take place
in the form of memorizing texts or textbooks so students can answer teachers'
questions like a machine. How to promote the positive, thinking of students
though it is the knowledge they have learned, how do students learn how to learn
for themselves through the reenactment of knowledge? This depends greatly on
the teacher's way of teaching, can be organized in many different forms of
teaching, but at the core teachers must guide students to recreate that knowledge
based on close relationships. , logic, generalization and by reasoning. This way of
reproducing is effective for students, fostering their way of learning: learning is
not about rice, rote learning but reasoning; learn on new understands developing
thinking, thereby improving ability to solve problems; not only that, knowledge is
also long-term and sustainable.
2.4.2.3. Some lesson plans illustrated
Here is an illustrative example using exercise to practice to review and
reinforce knowledge for students.
See Appendix 2.1; Appendix 2.2; Appendix 2.3; Appendix 2.4; Appendix 2.7;
Appendix 2.8.


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2.4.3. Solution 3: Use the exercises in the assessment test to develop
generalized thinking competences for students
2.4.3.1. Content of the solution
2.4.3.2. Process of using solution
Teachers can use tests to assess students' knowledge and skills in such aspects as
durability, depth, flexibility, quality of different aspects of knowledge and skills,
practice chemistry. Through the test results, the teacher shows students the
shortcomings and gaps in knowledge and has additional plans in the teaching
process.
2.4.3.3. For example
2.5. Develop a set of tools to evaluate students' generalized thinking
competence by using the chemical exercises
2.5.1. Evaluate through competence assessment test
2.5.2. Assessing students' abilities through evaluation forms and checklists
STUDY FOR ASSESSMENT OF GTC FOR STUDENTS
Table . Assessing the GTC assessment through 10 criteria (for students)
The evaluated criteria
Criteria
1:
Determine
the
content/problem of awareness
Criteria 2: Determine the task of learning;
describe the concept which is finished.
Criteria 3: Chose the objects to form the
group for the purpose of generalization.
Criteria 4: Format the objects or name
the object in generalization process.
Criteria 5: Determine the position, role
of study in generalization process.
Criteria 6: Point out the characteristic of
every object. Classify them into the
parts, the properties, the relations which
is oriented.
Criteria 7: Set up the relation between
above characteristic to form the unified one.
Criteria 8: Point out the similar and
different signatures of objects. Select the
similar signature of them.

Assess by lessons
1
2
3
4 …

Assess the
compenent of
competence


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Criteria 9: Eliminate the signatures
which are not nature. Keep the natural
signatures.
Criteria 10: Choose the words for
creating the concept in objects.
The general assessment about GTC
2.5.3. Design the students’ questionnaire about the level of develop GTC by
chemistry exercises
The level of assessment
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

The criteria of GTC

Bad

Average

Good

Very
good

Criteria
1:
Determine
the
content/problem of awareness
Criteria 2: Determine the task of
learning; describe the concept which is
finished.
Criteria 3: Chose the objects to form the
group for the purpose of generalization.
Criteria 4: Format the objects or name
the object in generalization process.
Criteria 5: Determine the position, role of
study in generalization process.
Criteria 6: Point out the characteristic of
every object. Classify them into the parts,
the properties, the relations which is
oriented.
Criteria 7: Set up the relation between above
characteristic to form the unified one.
Criteria 8: Point out the similar and
different signatures of objects. Select the
similar signature of them.
Criteria 9: Eliminate the signatures which
are not nature. Keep the natural signatures.
Criteria 10: Choose the words for
creating the concept in objects.

CHAPTER 3. THE PEDAGOGICAL EXPERIMENT
3.1. Purpose of pedagogical experiment
- Verify the correctness of the scientific hypothesis which set out in the thesis.


18
- Evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of proposed solutions and the set
of assessment tools to develop the GTC for students on the basis of analyzing the
results of pedagogical experiment by a scientific and objective way.
- Evaluate exercises which constructed and selected.
3.2. Tasks of the pedagogical experimental
3.3. Experimental content
3.4. The pedagogical experiment’s method
3.4.1. The pedagogical experiment’s plan
3.4.1.1. Choose the pedagogical teaching lesson
3.4.1.2. Select an object and an experimental locality
3.4.1.3. Choose an experimental method
3.4.1.4. Choose an experimental teacher
able Province / cities, schools, experimental classes, compared class and teachers
participate in pedagogical experiment
Class
Numbe
numeric
controlr of
High schools
Experimental
al order
experime studen
-Province
teachers
nt
ts
Bắc Thăng Long -Hà
1
EX 1
43
Nội
Hà Lâm Phương
Bắc Thăng Long -Hà
2
CO 1
46
Nội
3
EX 2
42
Xuân Hòa –Vĩnh Phúc
Lê Thanh Mai
4
CO 2
45
Xuân Hòa –Vĩnh Phúc
5
EX 3
44
Thành Lộc – HCM city
Vũ Ngọc Hải
6
CO 3
45
Thành Lộc –HCM city
7
EX 4
43
Tịnh Biên –An Giang
Phan Văn Trực
8
CO 4
44
Tịnh Biên –An Giang
9
EX 5
42
Vĩnh Xương –An Giang
Nguyễn Tài Lộc
10
CO 5
42
Vĩnh Xương –An Giang
11
EX 6
46
Long Phước –Đồng Nai
Đào Duy Quang
12
CO 6
44
Long Phước –Đồng Nai
13
EX 7
43
Long Thành –Đồng Nai Phạm
Thị
14
CO 7
44
Long Thành –Đồng Nai Thanh Hương
15
EX 8
43
Nhơn Trạch –Đồng Nai
Nhơn Trạch –Đồng Nai Phan Kim Oanh
CO 8
43
16
Phước Bình –Bình
EX 9
46
17
Phước
Phan Đình Viên
Phước
Bình
-Bình
CO 9
45
18
Phước
EX 10
45
Phước Long -Bình Nguyễn Thị Thu
19


19

CO 10

20

Phước
Phước
Phước

46

Long-

Bình

Hồng

3.4.2. The pedagogical experiment’s organization
3.4.2.1. Conversation with a pedagogical teacher
3.4.2.2. Do the pedagogical experiment
Test 1: After teaching the 11th grade "Practice No. 5" lesson 59 "according to
the program’s distribution, we conduct 45-minute test.
Test 2: After completing the 11th grade "Practice No. 6" lesson, section 67,
we conduct a 45-minute test.
a. Exploration experiment (2015-2016 course)
b. Experiment in round 1 (2016-2017 course)
c. Experimentin round 2 (2017-2018 course)
3.5. Experimental results
3.5.1. The results in evaluating the generalized thinking competence of
students
3.5.1.1. Results through the test
a. Experimental results of exploration round
120

45

100

40
35

80

30
Ex 25
Co
20

60
40

Ex
Co

15

20

10

0

5
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Figure 3.1. The cumulative curve of the
exploration test

0

Well

fairly moderate badly

Figure 3.2. The graph of classify the
students in the exploration test

Table 3.1. Describe and compare the exploration test of experimental class and
compared class
Analysis the data

Quantity

Describe the data

Mode
Median

Compared
class
6.27
6.46

Experimental
class
7.15
7.17


20

Compare the data

Average
Standard deviation

6.30
0.309

7.17
0.200

pindependent value

2,36E-02

The affect level ES

2,82

b. The experiment results in round 1
120

45
40

100

35
30

80

25

40

10
5

20

0
0

EX
Co

Ex 20
Co
15

60

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

well

fairly moderately badly

10

Figure 3.3. The cumulative curve of the
round 1

Figure 3.4. The graph of classify the
students
in round 1
Table 3.2. Describe and compare the results of the round 1 test of the experimental
class and compared class
Analysis the data

Describe the data
Compare the data

Quantity
Mode
Median
Average
Standard deviation
pindependent value
The affect level ES

c. The experiment results in round 2

The
The
compared
experimental
class
class
7,02
7,74
6,95
7,78
6,913
7,802
0,168
0,127
2,46E-10
5,292


21
120

45
40

100

35

80

30

60

25
Ex
Co 20

40

15
10

20
0

Ex
Co

5
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 10

0

Well

Fairly moderately badly

Figure 3.5. The cumulative curve of the
Figure 3.6. The graph of classify the
round 2
students in round 2
Table 3.3. Describe and compare the results of the round 2 test of the experimental
class and compared class
Analysis the data

Describe the data
Compare the data

Quantity
Mode
Median
Average
Standard deviation
p independent value
The affect level ES

The
The
compared
experimental
class
class
6,39
7,85
6,78
7,92
6,747
7,939
0,177
0,09
3,71E-11
6,73

Based on the results of pedagogical experiments and through the
processing of pedagogical experiments’ data, we find that the quality of learning
of the students in the experimental classes is higher than that in the compared
classes. This is shown as follow:
The percentage of students is weak, average, good and very good
The percentage of students who achieved good and very good grades in the
experimental classes was higher than the percentage of students who achieved
good and very good grades in the compared class; In contrast, the percentage of
students who achieved weaknesses and averages in the experimental classes was
lower than the percentage of students with weak and average scores in the
compared class. Thus, the experimental plan has effectively developed the GTC of
students, contributing to reducing the rate of weak and average students and
increasing the rate of good and good students.
Graph showing cumulative test lines


22
The graph of cumulative lines of the experiment class is always on the right
and below the cumulative lines of the compared class.
This shows that the learning quality of the experimental classes is better
than that of the compared classes.
Value of specific parameters
- The average score of the students of the experimental classes is higher
than that of the students in the compared class, which proves that after a certain
period of time, the experimental students have better learning results than the
compared class.
- Standard deviation in the experimental class is smaller than that in the
compared class, showing that the data of the experimental class is less dispersed
than the compared class.
From the obtained above results, we conclude confidently that in the
experimental classes through the exercise system which we have built can
develop the GTC for students.
3.5.1.2. Evaluation on the results through observation checklist and questionnaires
3.5.1.3. Comment on the results of students' generalized thinking competence
a. Qualitative evaluation
Comments: In professional discussions, we had meetings with teachers to
teach experiment, as well as students of some experiments. Through
experimental teachers, they have a same comment on the experimental students
with the better GTC (understand the requirements of the lesson in faster, solving
exercises in faster, more concise, presenting scientific solutions, more logic) than
students in compared classes. This helps us to give conclusions: We have
developed good GTC for students through the system of organic chemistry in 11 th
grade.
b. Quantitative evaluation
Comment: Based on these tables (Table 3.4; Table 3.5; Table 3.6; Table 3.7;
Table 3.8; Table 3.9; Table 3.10; Table 3.11; Table 3.12) and Figures (Figure 3.1;
Figure 3.2, Figure 3.3, Figure 3.4, Figure 3.5, Figure 3.6) show that the results of
the experimental classes are always higher than the results of the compared
classes. This proves that we have well developed the GTC for students through the
system of organic chemistry exercises in 11th grade.
In order to evaluate the system of exercises that we have built, we have sent
reference cards to experts who have many years of experience. There are 446


23
teachers in my investigation.


24
Table 3.4. The ideas of experts and the teachers about the develop GTC exercises
system for students
No
The survey content

The answer
Very
Good
good
205
171
45,96
(38,7%)
%
205
158
45,96
35,43%
%
215
149
48,21
33,41%
%

1

The knowledge is exactly, science,
available for student

2

The exercises’ system is plenty
which support for students in selfstudy.

3

Obey
the
knowledge/skills

4

The content of the exercise system
is available with the teaching
purpose
to
develop
the
competence for student.

137
30,72%

5

Developed the GTC for students

136
30,49%

6

The material for design the test of
GTC of students

116
26,01%

standard

179
40,13
%
140
31,39
%
223
50,00
%

Average Bad
55
12,33%

15
3,36%

67
15,02%

16
3,59%

78
17,49%

4
0,90%

102
22,87%

28
6,28%

156
34,98%

18
4,04%

91
20,40%

16
3,59%

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. General conclusions
After the long time to research the topic "Developing generalized thinking
competence for students through the organic chemistry the 11 th grade in high
school", we have completed all tasks. We have some conclusions as follows:
1.1. On the basis of an overview of theoretical and practical issues about
chemistry exercises, thinking, Generalized Thinking, chemical thinking,
competence, GTC of high school students of grade 11th, we have some problems:
The developing GTC for grade 11 students in high schools is necessary, in
accordance with the innovation requirements of basic and comprehensive
education as in Resolution 29 has identified.
Through reality survey, the majority of teachers are not fully and accurately
aware of the development of GTC for students. Therefore, the use of these


25
competence assessment tools has little biased and very limited. In addition, the
developing of GTC of students in 11th grade in high school are not same and
limited.
1.2. From the research results of theoretical and practical basis, we propose
the concept and structure of GTC for students at high schools, including 5
components and 10 criteria, detailing 4 levels corresponding to 10 criteria. This is
the scientific basis for proposing a set of assessment tools about developing GTC
of students including: observation checklist, questionnaire for teachers,
questionnaires for student, competency assessment. These are the foundation for
us to propose three solutions in developing GTC. They are:
Solution 1: Use exercises in the lesson of forming new knowledge to
develop the GTC for students.
Solution 2: Use exercises in training and revision lessons to develop the
GTC for students.
Solution 3: Use the exercises in the evaluating test to develop the GTC for
students. Chemistry exercises develops GTC are divided into three categories:
practical exercise, self-assessment, aiming to develop 5 components of the GTC. This
exercise system has been attended by 17 experts, 446 teachers and 540 students to
evaluate the quality of exercise system. Through their opinions, we have revised
them into exercise systems to improve the content and form.
1.3. We have compiled 8 lesson plans for teaching experimental classes. We
have compiled 2 tests in 45-minutes including: Objectives, matrices, test
questions, answers. We conducted the pedagogical experiment in 6 provinces, 10
schools and 10 teachers in experiments. We conducted the pedagogical
experiments in 10 high schools in Hanoi city, Ho Chi Minh City, Dong Nai, An
Giang, Binh Phuoc and Vinh Phuc to check the correctness of the scientific
hypothesis. There are 10 teachers, 1029 students of experimental classes and
1025 control classes in survey. After marking the 45-minute test, we processed
the data using SPSS software, showing the effect of measures to develop the GTC
for students through the system of chemistry exercises. The results of pedagogical
experiment show that the average score of the experimental classes is higher than
that of the compared class, the difference is significant and the scale of influence
is in the range from average to large. Qualitative and quantitative results show the
feasibility and effectiveness of three solutions to develop GTC. Thereby, the
correctness of the proposed scientific hypothesis were confirmed.
1.4. The research results have demonstrated the correctness and feasibility
of the research project, building and using exercise system to promote the GTC to
contribute to improving the quality of teaching chemistry at the current high
schools. Chemistry exercises which we have built were also taught the
pedagogical experiment by expert method. In order to evaluate the system of


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