Phát triển năng lực tư duy khái quát hóa cho học sinh thông qua bài tập hóa học hữu cơ lớp 11 ở trường THPT tt tiếng anh
1 INTRODUCTION 1. Reasons to select topic Generalized thinking competence (GTC) which is one of the important competences need to develope for every pupils. Although organic chemistry includes the millions of compounds, but only representative compounds are introduced in high school. All most of them will be formed from the equivalent properties of the representative compounds. Therefore, teachers need to base on the organic chemistry exercises to develope GTC for pupils. By this way, the knowledge will be formed fully to response the goal of program in textbook. Chemistry is one of important science subjects to serve for the goal of high school education. In this process, the competence of students have been created and developed to continue learning or participate in production. The chemistry includes both theoretical and experimental science. So, this subject can create the basic to develope GTC. Using chemistry exercises is one of methods to practice and develop thinking for pupils. Exercises have important role in approving the quality of teaching chemistry at high school. However, they aren’t still interested by most teachers. Organic chemistry at high school can help learners to increasing GTC. Although many exercises were chosen, built, and used to this goal, it is not response in develop GTC.
GTC is the specific competence in learning chemistry. It is constructed from the general and body competence which is not investigated fully. With above reasons, we chose the topic: “Developing generalized thinking competence for students through the organic chemistry the 11 th grade in high school” 2. Study objectives Study on the choosing, building, and using organic chemistry exercises to develop GTC for pupils. They will contribute to increase the quality of teaching chemistry at high school. 2. Studied objects and subjects Studied objects: The teaching chemistry at high school. Studied subjects: chemistry exercises, GTC of student in learning and solutions to develop GTC for students in high school by using chemistry exercises. 3. The study scope - Content: Organic chemistry of standard program of Chemistry at class 11 in high school. - Areas: Some high schools which representative for the national regions: Dong Nai, Ho Chi Minh city, Binh Phuoc, Hanoi, An Giang, Vinh Phuc.
2 - Time: from September/2014 to May/2018 4. Scientific hypothesis If selecting and building exercises have high quality, the combination in using these exercises and the active teaching methods reasonably and efficiency can help students in form GTC and contribute to improve the quality of teaching chemistry in high school. 5. Study tasks - Study the overview of theoretical basis related to the topic: Orient to develop the education in the current period, innovation of teaching chemistry methods, chemistry exercises, the general problems about competence and develop the competences for pupils, especially as GTC. - Investigating and assessing the status of teaching chemistry; building and using the chemistry exercises to GTC for pupils at high schools today. - Study chemical program in high school, especially organic chemistry program at high school. - Determine structure, build the competence frame, specifying the expression, criteria for evaluating the GTC of learners in study chemistry. - Propose a lot of ways to develop the GTC for students at high schools through the construction and using the organic biological systems.
- Design a set of assessment tools for students' GTC through the use of chemical exercises. - Conduct pedagogical experiment (TNSP) to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the methods and suggestions of the topic. 7. The study methods Using the combine of the following methods: 7.1. The group of theoretical methods - The analyzing method, synthesizing method, and systematic method about documents. - The modeling method (suggestions). - The hypothesis method. - The historical method. 7.2. The group of practical research methods - The pedagogical observe method: Observe the development of GTC of students when using chemical exercises. - The investigation method of the situation of teaching chemistry: Survey the status of the using chemical exercises to develop GTC for students. - The expert method.
3 - The experimental pedagogical method. 7.3. The mathematic method Using the statistical math, SPSS software to handle the survey results of actual situation and pedagogical experiment (calculate the specific statistical parameters...) 8. The new features of the thesis 8.1. In theory - Contribute to an overview about GTC in teaching and learning the chemistry. - Proposing concepts and structures of the GTC. Propose the solutions to use organic chemical exercises to develop GTC for students. 8.2. In practice - Assessing the status of teaching chemistry, building and using the chemical exercises to develope the GTC for students in some high schools today. - The system of the organic chemistry exercises at 11 th grade to develop the GTC. - A set of assessment tools for students' energy efficiency through the use chemical exercises. 9. The structure of thesis The thesis include the introduction (4 pages), conclusion (3 pages), references (107 documents), appendix (112 pages), and 3 main chapter: Chapter 1 (43 pages), chapter 2 (63 pages), chapter 3 (25 pages). In addition, there are list of summary letter, list of table (24 tables), diagram, figure (11 figures), list of the published report relate to thesis (7 reports). CHAPTER 1. THEORETICAL BASIS AND PRACTICE ON COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT FOR RECOMMENDATION FOR STUDENTS THROUGH CHEMICAL EXERCISE 1.1 The history of research issues in nation and abroad Present the science publishes about developing GTC for students in Vietnam and in the world. Currently, there has not been any publish which mention the development of GTC in teaching chemistry in Vietnam. 1.2. Thinking, chemical thinking, generalization thinking 1.2.1. Overview of thinking 188.8.131.52. Thinking concept Thinking is a psychological process that reflects the intrinsic properties, the internal relative rules of things in objective reality that we haven’t known before.
4 184.108.40.206. The characteristics of thinking The characteristics of thinking include problem properties, the indirectness, abstraction and generalization, the closely relative with language, the closely related to sensory awareness. 220.127.116.11. Manipulations of thinking Analyze, synthesize, compare, abstract, generalize, induce, interpret, analogize, concretize. 18.104.22.168. The stages of a thinking process Identify problems and present the problems, collecting the knowledge, experience, making the associations, selecting associations and form hypotheses, solve problems, test hypotheses. 22.214.171.124. Types of thinking: experience thinking, creative thinking, intellectual thinking, analytical thinking, generalization thinking, synthesis thinking. 126.96.36.199. The role of thinking in teaching 1.2.2. Chemical thinking 188.8.131.52. Chemical thinking concept The concept of chemical thinking is the process of studying the relationship between all the particular structural features of a substance and the modification laws. 184.108.40.206. The manipulation of chemical thinking needs to develop for students in teaching chemistry in high school include analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization, induction, interpretation, analogy. 1.2.3. Generalized thinking 220.127.116.11. The concept of generalization Generalization is an thinking manipulation in which the subject of thinking (human) uses the their mind to unify many different objects into one in according to the same properties. Generalization is an activity which derived from one or more problems to give a judgment, a broader view that includes many other problems systematically, legally. It is the process to finding dialectical relationships between things or phenomena. 18.104.22.168. Two types of generalizations: - Firstly, generalization is aa experience process of individuals acquire the basic concepts. It was done through comparison to separate common and similar relationships of phenomena. - Secondly, the theoretical generalization (or content generalization) to
5 receptive the scientific concepts which is done through analysis to separate the nature properties, the lawful relationships of phenomena, forming conceptualization, is a objective reality in thinking. 22.214.171.124. Three levels of generalization: feeling generalization, concept generalization (scientific generalization), image – concept generalization. 126.96.36.199. Develop generalization competence for students 1.3. Competence and generalized thinking competence 1.3.1. Overview about competence 188.8.131.52. Competence concept: Systematic of the views on competence of authors in Vietnam and abroad. According to OECD, competences is divided into: General competence and professional competence. Each competence is constituted by elements, behavior indicators, quality criterias. 184.108.40.206. The competence of students in high school in Chemistry subject Competences in using chemical language, chemical practice, finds and solves problems through chemistry, the computational competence, and applying chemical knowledge to life, GTC. 220.127.116.11. Assessment of competence: Assessing the competence of students in high school is the process of using assessment tools to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the output products. The teachers, students and related parties can imagine relatively objective and accurate about learners' achievements after the learning process. 1.3.2. Generalized thinking competence 18.104.22.168. The concept of generalized thinking competence: The GTC is the ability to do the intellectual activities successfully in a specific context by the using knowledge, skills and other personal properties such as excitement, beliefs, wills,... By this way, the nature and generalization of research problems are determined. 22.214.171.124. The structure and expression of generalized thinking competence Competence in understand the problems: analyzing and synthesizing problems; evaluate and reflect solutions 1.4. Chemical exercises 1.4.1. The concept of chemical exercises According to Vietnamese Dictionary, exercise is a problem for students to practice what they have learned" 1.4.2. The role of chemical exercises 1.4.3. Competence-oriented exercises
6 1.4.4. Chemistry exercises develop generalization thinking - Have basic knowledge correctly, self-consciously and systematically. - Know the way to consider a chemical problem: from perception (look, read, ...) - Helping students to build their own interpretation process in each exercises - Habits in thinking and acting independently 1.5. The reality of developing GTC for students through the using of 11th grade organic chemistry exercises in some high schools 1.5.1. Purpose of the investigation, Subjects of the investigation, Investigations’ areas 126.96.36.199. Purpose of the investigation: Find out and evaluate the current status of developing GTC for students through the use of organic chemistry exercises at high schools and consider them as a basis for determining the direction and next development tasks of the topic. 188.8.131.52. Subjects of the investigation: The teachers teach chemistry and students in 11th grade. 184.108.40.206. Investigations’ areas: We conducted a survey of the above objects in the areas of some provinces: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Dong Nai, Binh Phuoc, An Giang, and Vinh Phuc. 1.5.2. Methods of investigation Contribute and collect questionnaires, meet and exchange directly, interview teachers, experts, 11th grade students in high schools. 1.5.3. Investigation’s results of teacher There are 446 teachers in the survey. From the survey results, the majority of teachers have noticed the expression of students when developing the GTC. However, there are still many teachers who have not discovered the expressions of students when developing the GTC. There are 87.7% teachers agree to express the students' GTC "From individual events to generalize the common ones". This is an expression that many teachers chose in expression to develope the GTC of students. There are 80% of the teachers agree that "Form the rules of reading names and reading the right names according to different nomenclature for organic compounds" is an clearly visible expression of the students’ GTC and "Self find out the key, the implications of the problem in chemical questions and exercises" which has 47.3% of the teachers agreed; "Knowing demonstration and using the formula in generalization" has 35.2% of teachers. "Self-adjusting the plan when implementing the solution is not successful" with 30.3% of the
7 teachers agree. These are some expressions that few teachers choose the most, which shows that the majority of teachers do not really understand fully and comprehensively about GTC. This leads to the limited in the consequence of teachers using solutions and assessment tools. 1.5.4. Results of student surveys There are 1054 students in survey through organic chemistry. - Students have a good awareness in learning chemistry. They often do the exercises at home which are proposed by teachers, and exercises in reference books and exercises at the internet. - However, students do not have the spirit of learning in groups. This limits the development of students' competence in general and the GTC in particular.
8 CHAPTER 2. DEVELOP GENERALIZED THINKING COMPETENCE FOR THE STUDENTS THROUGH THE 11th GRADE CHEMISTRY EXERCISE IN HIGH SCHOOL 2.1. Analysis the content, structure of organic chemistry program at high school in 11th grade 2.1.1. The goal of the 11 th grade organic chemistry program 2.1.2. Content and structure of the 11 th grade organic chemistry program 2.2. Building the structure of generalized thinking competence of students in studying chemistry in high school 2.2.1. Principles in building GTC’s structure Principle 1. Ensure science Principle 2. Ensuring objectivity Principle 3. Ensure practicality Principle 4. Ensure integrity 2.2.2. The process of building the GTC structure Step 1. Determine the scientific basis of the building GTC process of students Step 2. Determine the components of competence Step 3. Determine the criteria of components of competence Step 4. Propose a detailed description table of the criteria or behavioral indicators Step 6. Complete the competence structure Step 5. Review, get expert advice and test 2.2.3. Structure of general thinking competence of students in teaching chemistry in high school The GTC is the ability to implement a process of thinking, corresponding to each step in that process is a component, as follows: 2.2.4. Criteria in component competence of generalized thinking ability of high school students The parts of The criteria competence 1) The competence to Criteria 1: Determine the content/problem of the determine the awareness generalized purpose. Criteria 2: Determine the task of learning; describe the concept which is finished. 2) The competence to Criteria 3: Chose the objects to form the group for choose, identify the the purpose of generalization. generalized object Criteria 4: Format the objects or name the object in
9 The parts of competence
3) The competence to analysis the significant, properties of object in every group. 4) The competence to classify the significacnt to find the common and nature of group. 5) The competence to present the content which is generalized to concept.
The criteria generalization process. Criteria 5: Determine the position, role of study in generalization process. Criteria 6: Point out the characteristic of every object. Classify them into the parts, the properties, the relations which is oriented. Criteria 7: Set up the relation between above characteristic to form the unified one. Criteria 8: Point out the similar and different signatures of objects. Select the similar signature of them. Criteria 9: Eliminate the signatures which are not nature. Keep the natural signatures. Criteria 10: Choose the words for creating the concept in objects.
2.2.5. Describe the expression of students' GTC in studying Chemistry 2.3. Building a system of exercises to develop GTC for students in teaching Organic Chemistry - Chemistry of 11th grade. 2.3.1. The pedagogical principles (requirements) of teaching chemistry towards the development of generalized thinking competence Principle 1: The teaching content of chemistry lessons is built into the chemistry exercises, situations, events, ..., creating a thinking situation. Principle 2: The designed chemistry exercises are cognitive problems, which correspond to the cognitive levels: Understanding - Applying - High level application. Principle 3: Learning activities of students are active learning activities, promoting self-learning, critical thinking, creative thinking. The learning activities are designed: - Activity in creating lesson situations / starting situations (Experimental activities, connection). - Knowledge-forming activities (discovery activities) - Practice activities. - Knowledge manipulation activities (application activities) - Activity to expand knowledge. Principle 4: Teachers are one guide, organize learning activities for students, there is no the teaching activity in class of teacher.
10 Principle 5: Students need to be evaluated according to the competence, apply the describing criteria table of the GTC to build tools to evaluate the learning results and the competence of students. 2.3.2. The process of developing exercises develops general thinking skills for students Step 1. Determine the purpose of the exercise Step 2. Determine the content of the exercise system Step 3. Determine the type of exercises Step 4. Collect information to prepare the exercise system Step 5. Create the draft document Step 6. Reference and exchange ideas with experts and colleagues Step 7. Experiment, revise and supplement 2.3.3. Select and build the content of exercises to develop GTC for students Principle 1. the chemistry exercises which is selected and built must ensure the teaching objectives, ensuring the standard of knowledge, skills and development orientation for students. Principle 2. the content of the exercises must have a context, ensuring the accuracy, scientific and modernity Principle 3. Exercises must be able to develop the GTC for students Principle 4. the chemistry exercises must be built on the learning content. Principle 5. chemistry exercises must ensure pedagogy Principle 6. the chemistry exercises is systematic and logical. 2.3.4. Systematic of the exercises to develop generalized competences for students in teaching organic chemistry in 11th grade in high school 220.127.116.11. Exercises on the general formulas of peer ranges 18.104.22.168. Exercises on isomers 22.214.171.124. Exercises on the name of organic compounds 126.96.36.199. Exercises on relation of the structure and physical properties such as solubility, boiling point, melting point 188.8.131.52. Exercises on the structure and chemical properties such as saturated hydrocarbons and substituted reactions, unsaturated hydrocarbons and addition reactions, aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic properties 184.108.40.206. Exercises on the derivatives of hydrocarbons 220.127.116.11. Exercises on the chain reaction Example 1. Complete the reaction equations according to the following
11 diagram: A
Example 2. From X is xenlulozo and the inorganic compounds, catalysts to product M as follow diagram Xenlulozo
+ H 2O H+, t0
D4 +NaOH 0 t
+H 2 Ni , t0
With D4 is one of products of adding HCl to C atoms at 1,4 positions of X. D6 is 3-metylbutan-1-ol. Determine the structure formula of X, D 1→ D6, M and finish the reaction equations as above diagram. 18.104.22.168. Exercises on the formulation’s molecular 22.214.171.124. Practical, contextual exercises Question 3. Lycopene (red pigment in ripe tomatoes) C40H56 only contains double bonds and single bonds in the molecule. When 0.1 mol lycopene react with the residual hydrogen (Ni catalyst, to) to form C40H82. On the other way, 0.1 mol lycopene react with m gram brom. Answer How much the reacted hydrogen:
Question 4. Carotene (orange-yellow pigment in carrot) C40H56 contains double bonds and saturated rings in the molecule. Carotene react with the residual brom to form the organic compound of C40H56Br22. On the other way, 0.1 mol carotene can react with x mol H 2 (Ni, to). The value of x is:
Answer The reacted molar of H2 = The reacted molar of Br2
22 .0,1 1,1 2 mol
12 Question 5. In lemon essential oil is C 10H16 limonene. Know that the hydrolysis of the limonene is mentan C10H20. How many are the number of double bonds and number of saturation rings in the limonene molecule? Answer The number of double bond
2.10 2 16 3 2
2.10 2 20 1
2 The number of saturation ring = Question 6. C20H32 cembrene (separated from pine resin), when react with the residual Br 2 to form X compound with C20H32Br8. On the other hand, if 0.1 mol cembrene react with the residual H2 (Ni, to), the molar of reacted H 2 is x mol and obtain organic compound Y. Detemine the molecular formula of Y and the value of x. Answer The molar of Br2 = The molar of H2 = 4 mol => The formula of Y is C20H40 Question 7. Brazil is the largest exporter of coffee in the world. Coffee beans contain significant amounts of caffeine C8H10N4O2. Determine the percent of nitrogen element in caffeine? Answer 14.4 .100% 28,87% %N 12.8 10 14.4 16.2
13 Question 8. The distillation of lemongrass by steam to give geranial. The name of geranial is 3,7-dimethylocta-2,6dienal. The molecule formula of geranial is:
Question 9. Glycerol trinitrate is a very powerful explosive substance which has molecular formula C3H5(ONO2)3, The explosion created the mix of products consisting of CO2, H2O, N2 and O2 according to the following equation:
aC3H5O9N3 � bCO2 dH2O eN2 f O2 in this equation, x = a + b + d + e + f (a, b, c, d, e, f, x are the minimal integer). The value of x is: Answer: x = 34 Question 10. Saccarozo sugar has many practical applications as food, cake, candy, soft drinks, etc. Saccarozo sugar has a molecular weight of 342.0 au. The products of completely burning 34.2 grams of sugar are taken into first bottle containing the residual of P2O5, the second bottle containing Ca(OH)2. The weight of the first bottle increased by 19.8 grams; the second bottle has 120.0 grams of precipitate. Find the molecule formula of saccharose sugar. Answer
14 Question 11. From an essential oil, the organic compound X can be separated. Burning 2.64 grams of X completely, the products are only 7.92 grams of CO 2 and 1.14 grams of H2O. Know that molar weight of X is 132 g / mol. Find the molecule of X. Answer
7,92 0,18mol 44 1,44 nH X 2.nH2O 2. 0,16mol 18 0,32 nO X 0,02mol 16 X :CxHyOz � x: y: z 0,18:0,16:0,02 9:8:1 nC X nCO2
CTPT X : C9H8O n 132 � n 1 Question 12. From jasmine essential oil, people separated the organic compound X. Burn 16.4 grams of X completely to give 44.0 grams of CO2 and 10.8 grams of H2O. Know MA = 164.0 au. Find the molecule of X
44 .12 12 44 gam
10,8 .2 1, 2 mH 18 gam
mO=16,4-12-1,2 =3,2 gam 12 1, 2 3, 2 : : x : y : z = 12 1 16 = 5 : 6 : 1
MA = 164 = n.(12.5 + 6.1 + 16) n=2 A:C10H12O2 126.96.36.199. Exercises related to true or false 188.8.131.52. Exercise system is used to Developing Generalized Thinking Ability for students through exercises in organic chemistry at grade 11 2.4. Some solutions to use chemistry exercises system to develop generalized thinking competence for students
15 2.4.1. Solution 1: Use the exercises in the lesson of forming new knowledge to develop generalized thinking competence for students 184.108.40.206. Characteristics of new knowledge-forming lessons in the basic 11 th grade Organic Chemistry program 220.127.116.11. Solution ’s Content: In one lesson, teachers should prepare a exercise system according to the levels of awareness and thinking of students to design learning activities. 18.104.22.168. Some lesson plans illustrated Below is a lesson plan to teach new knowledge See Appendix 2.5 (lesson plan: Lesson 40. Alcohol) and Appendix 2.6 (lesson plan: Lesson 41. Phenol) 2.4.2. Solution 2: Use exercises in training and revision lessons to develop generalized thinking competence for students 22.214.171.124. Content of the solution 126.96.36.199. Process of using solutions When practicing, you need to follow a certain pedagogical sequence, which is the basis for forming teaching methods. This sequence is determined by the rules of the teaching process. You need to start from memorizing new material: At the beginning of the regular practice lesson, teachers instruct students to recreate and memorize the knowledge they need to grasp. Repetition does not take place in the form of memorizing texts or textbooks so students can answer teachers' questions like a machine. How to promote the positive, thinking of students though it is the knowledge they have learned, how do students learn how to learn for themselves through the reenactment of knowledge? This depends greatly on the teacher's way of teaching, can be organized in many different forms of teaching, but at the core teachers must guide students to recreate that knowledge based on close relationships. , logic, generalization and by reasoning. This way of reproducing is effective for students, fostering their way of learning: learning is not about rice, rote learning but reasoning; learn on new understands developing thinking, thereby improving ability to solve problems; not only that, knowledge is also long-term and sustainable. 188.8.131.52. Some lesson plans illustrated Here is an illustrative example using exercise to practice to review and reinforce knowledge for students. See Appendix 2.1; Appendix 2.2; Appendix 2.3; Appendix 2.4; Appendix 2.7; Appendix 2.8.
16 2.4.3. Solution 3: Use the exercises in the assessment test to develop generalized thinking competences for students 184.108.40.206. Content of the solution 220.127.116.11. Process of using solution Teachers can use tests to assess students' knowledge and skills in such aspects as durability, depth, flexibility, quality of different aspects of knowledge and skills, practice chemistry. Through the test results, the teacher shows students the shortcomings and gaps in knowledge and has additional plans in the teaching process. 18.104.22.168. For example 2.5. Develop a set of tools to evaluate students' generalized thinking competence by using the chemical exercises 2.5.1. Evaluate through competence assessment test 2.5.2. Assessing students' abilities through evaluation forms and checklists STUDY FOR ASSESSMENT OF GTC FOR STUDENTS Table . Assessing the GTC assessment through 10 criteria (for students) The evaluated criteria Criteria 1: Determine the content/problem of awareness Criteria 2: Determine the task of learning; describe the concept which is finished. Criteria 3: Chose the objects to form the group for the purpose of generalization. Criteria 4: Format the objects or name the object in generalization process. Criteria 5: Determine the position, role of study in generalization process. Criteria 6: Point out the characteristic of every object. Classify them into the parts, the properties, the relations which is oriented. Criteria 7: Set up the relation between above characteristic to form the unified one. Criteria 8: Point out the similar and different signatures of objects. Select the similar signature of them.
Assess by lessons 1 2 3 4 …
Assess the compenent of competence
17 Criteria 9: Eliminate the signatures which are not nature. Keep the natural signatures. Criteria 10: Choose the words for creating the concept in objects. The general assessment about GTC 2.5.3. Design the students’ questionnaire about the level of develop GTC by chemistry exercises The level of assessment No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
The criteria of GTC
Criteria 1: Determine the content/problem of awareness Criteria 2: Determine the task of learning; describe the concept which is finished. Criteria 3: Chose the objects to form the group for the purpose of generalization. Criteria 4: Format the objects or name the object in generalization process. Criteria 5: Determine the position, role of study in generalization process. Criteria 6: Point out the characteristic of every object. Classify them into the parts, the properties, the relations which is oriented. Criteria 7: Set up the relation between above characteristic to form the unified one. Criteria 8: Point out the similar and different signatures of objects. Select the similar signature of them. Criteria 9: Eliminate the signatures which are not nature. Keep the natural signatures. Criteria 10: Choose the words for creating the concept in objects.
CHAPTER 3. THE PEDAGOGICAL EXPERIMENT 3.1. Purpose of pedagogical experiment - Verify the correctness of the scientific hypothesis which set out in the thesis.
18 - Evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of proposed solutions and the set of assessment tools to develop the GTC for students on the basis of analyzing the results of pedagogical experiment by a scientific and objective way. - Evaluate exercises which constructed and selected. 3.2. Tasks of the pedagogical experimental 3.3. Experimental content 3.4. The pedagogical experiment’s method 3.4.1. The pedagogical experiment’s plan 22.214.171.124. Choose the pedagogical teaching lesson 126.96.36.199. Select an object and an experimental locality 188.8.131.52. Choose an experimental method 184.108.40.206. Choose an experimental teacher able Province / cities, schools, experimental classes, compared class and teachers participate in pedagogical experiment Class Numbe numeric controlr of High schools Experimental al order experime studen -Province teachers nt ts Bắc Thăng Long -Hà 1 EX 1 43 Nội Hà Lâm Phương Bắc Thăng Long -Hà 2 CO 1 46 Nội 3 EX 2 42 Xuân Hòa –Vĩnh Phúc Lê Thanh Mai 4 CO 2 45 Xuân Hòa –Vĩnh Phúc 5 EX 3 44 Thành Lộc – HCM city Vũ Ngọc Hải 6 CO 3 45 Thành Lộc –HCM city 7 EX 4 43 Tịnh Biên –An Giang Phan Văn Trực 8 CO 4 44 Tịnh Biên –An Giang 9 EX 5 42 Vĩnh Xương –An Giang Nguyễn Tài Lộc 10 CO 5 42 Vĩnh Xương –An Giang 11 EX 6 46 Long Phước –Đồng Nai Đào Duy Quang 12 CO 6 44 Long Phước –Đồng Nai 13 EX 7 43 Long Thành –Đồng Nai Phạm Thị 14 CO 7 44 Long Thành –Đồng Nai Thanh Hương 15 EX 8 43 Nhơn Trạch –Đồng Nai Nhơn Trạch –Đồng Nai Phan Kim Oanh CO 8 43 16 Phước Bình –Bình EX 9 46 17 Phước Phan Đình Viên Phước Bình -Bình CO 9 45 18 Phước EX 10 45 Phước Long -Bình Nguyễn Thị Thu 19
Phước Phước Phước
3.4.2. The pedagogical experiment’s organization 220.127.116.11. Conversation with a pedagogical teacher 18.104.22.168. Do the pedagogical experiment Test 1: After teaching the 11th grade "Practice No. 5" lesson 59 "according to the program’s distribution, we conduct 45-minute test. Test 2: After completing the 11th grade "Practice No. 6" lesson, section 67, we conduct a 45-minute test. a. Exploration experiment (2015-2016 course) b. Experiment in round 1 (2016-2017 course) c. Experimentin round 2 (2017-2018 course) 3.5. Experimental results 3.5.1. The results in evaluating the generalized thinking competence of students 22.214.171.124. Results through the test a. Experimental results of exploration round 120
30 Ex 25 Co 20
Figure 3.1. The cumulative curve of the exploration test
fairly moderate badly
Figure 3.2. The graph of classify the students in the exploration test
Table 3.1. Describe and compare the exploration test of experimental class and compared class Analysis the data
Describe the data
Compared class 6.27 6.46
Experimental class 7.15 7.17
Compare the data
Average Standard deviation
The affect level ES
b. The experiment results in round 1 120
Ex 20 Co 15
fairly moderately badly
Figure 3.3. The cumulative curve of the round 1
Figure 3.4. The graph of classify the students in round 1 Table 3.2. Describe and compare the results of the round 1 test of the experimental class and compared class Analysis the data
Describe the data Compare the data
Quantity Mode Median Average Standard deviation pindependent value The affect level ES
c. The experiment results in round 2
The The compared experimental class class 7,02 7,74 6,95 7,78 6,913 7,802 0,168 0,127 2,46E-10 5,292
25 Ex Co 20
Fairly moderately badly
Figure 3.5. The cumulative curve of the Figure 3.6. The graph of classify the round 2 students in round 2 Table 3.3. Describe and compare the results of the round 2 test of the experimental class and compared class Analysis the data
Describe the data Compare the data
Quantity Mode Median Average Standard deviation p independent value The affect level ES
The The compared experimental class class 6,39 7,85 6,78 7,92 6,747 7,939 0,177 0,09 3,71E-11 6,73
Based on the results of pedagogical experiments and through the processing of pedagogical experiments’ data, we find that the quality of learning of the students in the experimental classes is higher than that in the compared classes. This is shown as follow: The percentage of students is weak, average, good and very good The percentage of students who achieved good and very good grades in the experimental classes was higher than the percentage of students who achieved good and very good grades in the compared class; In contrast, the percentage of students who achieved weaknesses and averages in the experimental classes was lower than the percentage of students with weak and average scores in the compared class. Thus, the experimental plan has effectively developed the GTC of students, contributing to reducing the rate of weak and average students and increasing the rate of good and good students. Graph showing cumulative test lines
22 The graph of cumulative lines of the experiment class is always on the right and below the cumulative lines of the compared class. This shows that the learning quality of the experimental classes is better than that of the compared classes. Value of specific parameters - The average score of the students of the experimental classes is higher than that of the students in the compared class, which proves that after a certain period of time, the experimental students have better learning results than the compared class. - Standard deviation in the experimental class is smaller than that in the compared class, showing that the data of the experimental class is less dispersed than the compared class. From the obtained above results, we conclude confidently that in the experimental classes through the exercise system which we have built can develop the GTC for students. 126.96.36.199. Evaluation on the results through observation checklist and questionnaires 188.8.131.52. Comment on the results of students' generalized thinking competence a. Qualitative evaluation Comments: In professional discussions, we had meetings with teachers to teach experiment, as well as students of some experiments. Through experimental teachers, they have a same comment on the experimental students with the better GTC (understand the requirements of the lesson in faster, solving exercises in faster, more concise, presenting scientific solutions, more logic) than students in compared classes. This helps us to give conclusions: We have developed good GTC for students through the system of organic chemistry in 11 th grade. b. Quantitative evaluation Comment: Based on these tables (Table 3.4; Table 3.5; Table 3.6; Table 3.7; Table 3.8; Table 3.9; Table 3.10; Table 3.11; Table 3.12) and Figures (Figure 3.1; Figure 3.2, Figure 3.3, Figure 3.4, Figure 3.5, Figure 3.6) show that the results of the experimental classes are always higher than the results of the compared classes. This proves that we have well developed the GTC for students through the system of organic chemistry exercises in 11th grade. In order to evaluate the system of exercises that we have built, we have sent reference cards to experts who have many years of experience. There are 446
23 teachers in my investigation.
24 Table 3.4. The ideas of experts and the teachers about the develop GTC exercises system for students No The survey content
The answer Very Good good 205 171 45,96 (38,7%) % 205 158 45,96 35,43% % 215 149 48,21 33,41% %
The knowledge is exactly, science, available for student
The exercises’ system is plenty which support for students in selfstudy.
Obey the knowledge/skills
The content of the exercise system is available with the teaching purpose to develop the competence for student.
Developed the GTC for students
The material for design the test of GTC of students
179 40,13 % 140 31,39 % 223 50,00 %
Average Bad 55 12,33%
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1. General conclusions After the long time to research the topic "Developing generalized thinking competence for students through the organic chemistry the 11 th grade in high school", we have completed all tasks. We have some conclusions as follows: 1.1. On the basis of an overview of theoretical and practical issues about chemistry exercises, thinking, Generalized Thinking, chemical thinking, competence, GTC of high school students of grade 11th, we have some problems: The developing GTC for grade 11 students in high schools is necessary, in accordance with the innovation requirements of basic and comprehensive education as in Resolution 29 has identified. Through reality survey, the majority of teachers are not fully and accurately aware of the development of GTC for students. Therefore, the use of these
25 competence assessment tools has little biased and very limited. In addition, the developing of GTC of students in 11th grade in high school are not same and limited. 1.2. From the research results of theoretical and practical basis, we propose the concept and structure of GTC for students at high schools, including 5 components and 10 criteria, detailing 4 levels corresponding to 10 criteria. This is the scientific basis for proposing a set of assessment tools about developing GTC of students including: observation checklist, questionnaire for teachers, questionnaires for student, competency assessment. These are the foundation for us to propose three solutions in developing GTC. They are: Solution 1: Use exercises in the lesson of forming new knowledge to develop the GTC for students. Solution 2: Use exercises in training and revision lessons to develop the GTC for students. Solution 3: Use the exercises in the evaluating test to develop the GTC for students. Chemistry exercises develops GTC are divided into three categories: practical exercise, self-assessment, aiming to develop 5 components of the GTC. This exercise system has been attended by 17 experts, 446 teachers and 540 students to evaluate the quality of exercise system. Through their opinions, we have revised them into exercise systems to improve the content and form. 1.3. We have compiled 8 lesson plans for teaching experimental classes. We have compiled 2 tests in 45-minutes including: Objectives, matrices, test questions, answers. We conducted the pedagogical experiment in 6 provinces, 10 schools and 10 teachers in experiments. We conducted the pedagogical experiments in 10 high schools in Hanoi city, Ho Chi Minh City, Dong Nai, An Giang, Binh Phuoc and Vinh Phuc to check the correctness of the scientific hypothesis. There are 10 teachers, 1029 students of experimental classes and 1025 control classes in survey. After marking the 45-minute test, we processed the data using SPSS software, showing the effect of measures to develop the GTC for students through the system of chemistry exercises. The results of pedagogical experiment show that the average score of the experimental classes is higher than that of the compared class, the difference is significant and the scale of influence is in the range from average to large. Qualitative and quantitative results show the feasibility and effectiveness of three solutions to develop GTC. Thereby, the correctness of the proposed scientific hypothesis were confirmed. 1.4. The research results have demonstrated the correctness and feasibility of the research project, building and using exercise system to promote the GTC to contribute to improving the quality of teaching chemistry at the current high schools. Chemistry exercises which we have built were also taught the pedagogical experiment by expert method. In order to evaluate the system of