Learning Objectives •• Understand Understand how how the the national national culture culture affects affects aa leader’s leader’s attributions attributions •• Understand Understand the the role role ofof women women global global leaders leaders for for multinationals multinationals •• Develop Develop the the ability ability toto diagnose diagnose cultural cultural situations situations and and suggest suggest appropriate appropriate leadership leadership style style toto fitfit the the situation situation
Are Are leaders leaders born born or or made? made? Great-person Great-person theory: theory: idea idea that that leaders leaders are are born born with with unique unique characteristics characteristics that that make make them them quite quite different different from from ordinary ordinary people people •• Contemporary Contemporary views views ofof leadership leadership traits traits do do not not assume assume that that leaders leaders are are born born
Higher Higher intelligence intelligence and and self-confidence self-confidence More More initiative initiative More More assertiveness assertiveness and and persistence persistence Greater Greater desire desire for for responsibility responsibility and and the the opportunity opportunity toto influence influence others others •• AAgreater greater awareness awareness ofof the the needs needs ofof others others
Leader Decision Making Styles •• Autocratic Autocratic leadership: leadership: leaders leaders make make all all major major decisions decisions themselves themselves •• Democratic Democratic leadership: leadership: leader leader includes includes subordinates subordinates inin decision decision making making •• Consultative Consultative or or participative participative leadership: leadership: leader’s leader’s style style falls falls midway midway between between autocratic autocratic and and democratic democratic styles styles
Contingency Theory •• Assumption Assumption that that different different styles styles and and different different leaders leaders are are more more appropriate appropriate for for different different situations situations •• Two Two North NorthAmerican American contingency contingency theories theories ofof leadership leadership •• Fiedler’s Fiedler’s theory theory ofof leadership leadership •• Path-goal Path-goal theory theory
Fiedler’s Theory of Leadership •• Proposed Proposed that that managers managers tend tend toto be be either either tasktask- or or person-centered person-centered leaders leaders •• Three Three successful successful contingencies contingencies ofof the the work work situation situation •• Leader Leader and and subordinates subordinates relationships relationships •• Clearly Clearly defined defined subordinates’ subordinates’tasks tasks •• Power Power ofof the the leader leader
Path-Goal Theory •• Four Four leadership leadership styles styles that that aa manager manager might might choose choose depending depending on on the the situation situation •• Directive Directive •• Supportive Supportive •• Participative Participative •• Achievement-oriented Achievement-oriented
Path-Goal Theory: Key Suggestions •• When When subordinates subordinates have have high high achievement achievement needs— needs— adopt adopt the the achievement-oriented achievement-oriented style style •• Subordinates Subordinates with with high high social social needs—adopt needs—adopt the the supportive supportive leadership leadership style style •• When When job job isis unstructured—adopt unstructured—adopt aa directive directive style style or or an an achievement-oriented achievement-oriented style style
Traits, Behaviors, and Contingencies •• No No consistent consistent leadership leadership trait trait or or behavior behavior that that works works best best •• AAsuccessful successful leader leader must must diagnose diagnose the the situation situation and and pick pick the the behaviors behaviors and/or and/or develop develop the the leadership leadership traits traits that that fits fits best. best.
National Context as a Contingency for Leadership Behaviors •• Successful Successful leadership leadership inin multinational multinational companies companies requires requires that that managers managers adjust adjust their their leadership leadership styles styles toto fitfit different different situations. situations.