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using LOCAL museumS and galleries TO THE TEACHING

Major: Teaching Theory and Method of Teaching History


Hanoi, September 2019

The work was completed at:

Hanoi National University of Education

1. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Thi Coi, Hanoi National University of Education
2. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Manh Huong, Hanoi National University of Education

Reviewer 1: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tran Viet Thu;
Vinh University
Reviewer 2: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tran Duc Minh;
Nam Dinh Teacher Training College.
Reviewer 3: Prof. Dr. Nguyen Ngoc Co
Hanoi National University of Education

The dissertation was defensed in front of the school-level Doctoral Dissertation
Review Board at Hanoi National University of Education

The dissertation is available at:
- National Library, Hanoi
- Library of Hanoi National University of Education

1. The necessity of the research
Education - a potential treasure, can produce the vitality of a nation and plays an
important role in the national policy. In the context of globalization, the development
of the knowledge economy and the industrial revolution 4.0, education needs to
innovate, create and promote social improvement.
In order to meet the aims of teaching history, in addition to the renovation of
programs and textbooks, historical teaching methods must change both in developing
the capacity and qualities of students. One of the approaches to implement teaching
innovation is to use a variety of knowledge sources besides textbooks. Historical
lessons can be improved much more when teachers can use diverse sources of
knowledge effectively and increasingly.
All subjects exploit the teaching tools and facilities to help students to build the
most effective way of awareness. While natural sciences seek to the laboratory as a
place of research, practice; teaching history needs relics, artifacts and documents.

Museum and gallery are useful and practical means for studying history in high
Particularly, some teachers in high schools recognize the importance of using
museum and gallery in teaching history and try to apply those approaches. However,
their attempts gained little result. As a result, how to use museums and galleries in
teaching history effectively in high schools became significant.
Thai Nguyen used to be the capital of the Viet Bac region, considered "the
capital of the resistance" and "the capital of thousands of wind". People in Thai
Nguyen have a long tradition of patriotism and revolution. There are many
museums, galleries in this province such as Museum Culture of Ethnic Groups,
Museum Armed Forces Viet Bac - Military Region I, Thai Nguyen Museum,
Gallery ATK Dinh Hoa - Thai Nguyen, Gallery Factory Iron and Steel. For that
reason, teachers in Thai Nguyen have many advantages in teaching local and
Vietnamese histories in high schools.
For the above reasons, we applied the subject of “Using local museums and
galleries to teach Vietnamese history in high schools in Thai Nguyen province” for
the doctoral dissertation. This thesis thus contributes to the process of renovating and
improving the quality of teaching history in high schools.

2. Object and scope of the research
2.1. The object of the research
The thesis tries to clarify the progress of using local museums and galleries in
teaching Vietnamese history in high schools in Thai Nguyen, in which we pay
attention to highlight the approaches to use museum and gallery in education.
2.2. Scope of the research
- Studying the ways to use local museums and galleries in teaching local and
Vietnamese histories both in classroom and outside activities.
- Investigating the situation of using museums and galleries as a typical method
in high schools in some mountainous and midland provinces of North Vietnam,
especially in Thai Nguyen.
- Applying pedagogical experiments on teaching history of Vietnam from 1930 to
1945 in Grade 12 at the typical schools of Thai Nguyen.
3. Targets and missions of the research
3.1. Targets of the research
Beyond clarifying the importance of museums and galleries in teaching the history
at high schools, the thesis selects and identifies contents of locally typical museums and
galleries. Moreover, the study focuses on proposing forms and measures to improve the
quality of teaching history in high schools in Thai Nguyen.
3.2. Missions of the research
- Studying primary and secondary materials of pedagogy, psychology, historical
education relating to the topic.
- Studying a situation of using museums and galleries in teaching history in high
schools in Thai Nguyen.
- Studying the nationally historical textbook to identify contents of local
museums and galleries which could be exploited in teaching the history in Thai
- Proposing forms of applying Thai Nguyen‟s museums and galleries in teaching
Vietnamese history.
- Proposing methods of applying Thai Nguyen‟s museums and galleries in
teaching Vietnamese history.
- Creating pedagogical experiments to affirm that the measures proposed by the
thesis have a scientific nature and feasibility.

4. Methodological basis and research methods
4.1. Methodological basis
We follow the methodology of Marxism - Leninism, Ho Chi Minh`s thoughts
and the Vietnamese Community’s viewpoints regarding national education and
especially historical education.
4.2. Research methods
- Theoretical research: Applying a comprehensive analysis of materials on
pedagogy, psychology, teaching methods of history, historical documents related to
the subject; Studying historical textbooks, programs in the contents of museums and
galleries to be used in teaching.
- Practical research: Using survey questionnaires, direct interviews, class
observation, evaluated tests, etc. to investigate the situation of exploiting and using
museums and galleries in teaching history in high schools.
- Pedagogical experiment: designing teaching plans to conduct partial and full
experiments to verify the measures proposed by the thesis.
- Methods of using statistical mathematics: Comparing obtained values
between experimental and normal classes to handle the results of pedagogical
experiments. This is the foundation for assessing the effectiveness of the measures
proposed by the thesis.
5. Scientific hypothesis
Applying local museums and galleries contributes to improving teaching quality,
completing historical lessons and courses as teachers could identify clearly and
precisely historical contents need to be trained by museums and galleries.
6. The scientific and practical significance of the thesis
- Scientific significance: This study enriches a theory of teaching history in
terms of using museums and galleries, especially in local history in high schools.
- Practical significance: The identification of the contents of the local museum
and gallery system as well as the proposed forms and measures for teaching
Vietnamese history in Thai Nguyen help to improve teaching quality.

The thesis is a useful reference for teachers in teaching, for students in
researching and studying pedagogy in universities and colleges.
7. Contributions of the thesis
- Re-confirming a significant role of using museums and galleries in
teaching history.
- Drawing a picture of using of museums and galleries in teaching history in
Thai Nguyen.
- Selecting a cultural-heritage system and identifying contents of local museums
and galleries that can be used in teaching Vietnamese history.
- Determining the requirements and proposing forms and methods of using
the museums and galleries to improve teaching quality in history in Thai Nguyen.
8. Thesis’ structure
In addition to the Introduction and the Conclusion, the thesis includes four
Chapter 1: Overview of previous studies relating to the topic
Chapter 2: Theory and Practice of Applying local museums and galleries in
teaching history in high schools.
Chapter 3: Forms and methods of using the local museums and galleries to
teach Vietnamese history in high schools in Thai Nguyen.
Chapter 4: Pedagogical experiments.

In order to have a fundamental picture about this topic, we try to review previous
studies on two themes: firstly, general knowledge of museums and galleries, and
secondly the way of applying museums and galleries in teaching history in high schools.
1.1. Researches on the museum and gallery
Maintaining and developing values of museums are always important contents in
the cultural policy of each government. Due to this interesting issue, scholarships have
completed quite lots of research on museums and exhibitions.
1.1.1. Research by foreign authors
The museum of the dharma at Benoist in Museums and museums has proposed a
way to classify museum artifacts based on 3 civilizations (language, wrestling, and
symbols). The author argues that civilization symbol is developing in modern society
such as electronic computer, computer, cybernetics. Museums need to preserve all the
values of civilizations. However, Benoit mostly focuses on “instinctive collector's
attributes” as a fundamental factor to create museums. This research lacks of factors
relatings to demands of society, education, enjoyment, and entertainment.
Sherry Butcher, Younghans with Historic House Museums: A Practical
Handbook for Their Care, Preservation, and Management (Oxford university press,
1996) analyze the nature of galleries and consider that small museums as collections.
The most important role of museums is to preserve cultural and historical collections.
The authors also emphasize that exhibitions are key factors to help visitors in
understanding history.
M.E Kaulen, I.M Kossova, A.A Sundieva with The Russian museum career,
(Department of Cultural Heritage, 2006) demonstrate the development of Russian
museum-system, a role of museums in studying and activities of exhibitions,
especially in a new perspective. Interestingly, the authors spend a chapter to address
educational activities by using museums in Russia through learning clubs.
Accordingly, schools and museums have a close relationship for general aim of

developing education. This book, therefore, became a useful material for us in
reviewing the role of museums and using museums in education.
For another perspective, Vuong Hoang Quan analyzed ways of preserving
museum artefacts. However, this study only focuses on technical research rather than
deeply illustrating impacts and ways of communication between people and materials
in museums.
Other articles have shown the role and function of museums and galleries on
education. Remarkably, Balakirev with "The role of historical type museums with the
formation of social awareness in modern Russia", (Cultural Heritage Journal, No. 5,
2003) reviews a group of universal museums in Russia, including national historical
museums and local ones in different cities and regions. The article demonstrates that
museums can directly affect society, including public exhibitions and using museums
in education.
Conclusion, the above studies have clarified, identified and analyzed the
concepts, functions, classification, characteristics of museums, galleries as well as the
relationship between education and museums.
1.1.2. Studies in Vietnam
Due to the role of French, the first museums were built in Vietnam in the early
years of the 20th century. For a century, Vietnam has a system of various museums and
galleries over the country. Studies on museums in Vietnam thus was created and
developed with quite a lot of researches and studies.
Phan Khanh with the book “Museums, Monuments, Festivals” analyzed issues of
theory reality about museums, relics, festivals and values of historical teaching for
students. By generalizing history of museums, the author shows that museum belongs
to European cultural institution and it was carried into Vietnam in the 1920s. The
author also highlights that by collecting and exhibiting primary artefacts, museum can
serve for education popularly.
Nguyen Thi Hue with “Textbook of the science of museum” has generalized the
history of museums in the world and Vietnam, clarified the features and functions of
the museum.

Ho Chi Minh with Thai Nguyen - visual events (Museum of Thai Nguyen
Province, 2009) is a collection of images of Ho Chi Minh in Thai Nguyen during the
Vietnam-French war (1946-1954), and other images showing Ho Chi Minh visited
Thai Nguyen in the period of Vietnam-American war (1954-1969).
In summary, studies of museums and galleries in Thai Nguyen and Vietnam
broadly reflect theoretical issues of museums and exhibitions. The above studies have
provided both theoretical issues and, initially identified contents of museums and
galleries in Thai Nguyen which can be exploited in teaching history.
1.2. Researches on using museums and exhibitions in teaching history in
high schools
1.2.1. Research by foreign authors
Alan Reid Gartenhaus with Minds in motion: using museums to expand creative
thinking (Arkansas, 1997) has deeply analyzed the way of using of museums to
develop students‟ thinking and creating a new idea. Those activities are applied in
teaching Art, History and Science, which helping students have a chance to
contact with collections in order to explore the meaning and value of artifacts in
the process of invention.
George E. Hein with Learning in the Museum (Routledge, 1998) argues that
museumshelp to form people‟s identity. By accessing information and objects in
museums, learners can observe, explore the knowledge of history and culture. Hein
also argues that studying with museums is a massive research issue associating with
the philosophy of modern education and it can improve students‟ capacities.
The Educational Role of the Museum (Routledge, 1999) of Eilean HooperGreenhill focuses on soluting the relationship between museums, exhibitions and
visitors. The author studies on a new model of museums, ways to improve the
connection between museums and visitors, and ways of using museums in education.
He argues that museums are informal training centre, where education is developed
popularly and naturally.
The book музей и школа: пособие для учителя - Museums and schools: the
manual for teachers, edited by Cudrina, has mentioned the concept of museums, its

educational function, especially for young people. The author also suggests ways to
build and use universal museums, and kinds of activities teachers can do with
museums. This book is very important for us in creating approaches to use museums
in teaching history.
Alan S. Marcus with the book Teaching History with Museums: Strategies for
K-12 Social Studies (Routledge, 2012) has outlined the practice of using museums
in teaching history in America. Field trips to museums are popular in schools in
America, especially many states require that those trips have to connect with the
history curriculum. The authors also build a theoretical framework to use
museums, providing an overview of how to use museums effectively to improve
content and skills of social research.
1.2.2. Studies in Vietnam
Some studies focus on the issue of using museum and galleries in teaching
history. For example, Nguyen Thi Coi with Historical Museum in teachnig history
in high schools (VNU publishing house, 1998) argues clearly the relationship
bwtween museums, galleries with teaching history in high schools. The author
confirms the role of museums, and introduct fundamental information about some
historical museums and the availability to exploiting those museums in teaching
history. This study therefore become a basic work on both theory and practice of the
role of museums and the capacity of using museums in teaching in high schools.
Nguyen Kim Thanh with Museums, Heritages - Origin in teaching and
learning history in high schools (Education Publishing house, 2014) mentions
supportive relationship between providing knowledge in classrooms and new
teaching methodologies by using museums and galleries. The author also proposes
themes, titles and contents and knowledge requirements in teaching history in
Besides, contents of some other works, projects, articles, thesis help us to
clarify the theory and practice of using museums in teaching Vietnamese history in
high schools broadly and in Thai Nguyen province particularly. The above studies
also supply us some ideas about methodologies to using museums in teaching
history in schools.

1.3. General results of previous research and issues needed to be addressed
1.3.1. Research’s results
By reviewing the previous research on museums, exhibitions and ways of using
those objects in education, especially in teaching history, we have some following
noticeable evaluation:
Firstly, previous works have introduced concepts, functions, and classification
of museums and galleries, which supplying knowledge and awareness of using
museums and galleries in education.
Secondly, those works confirmed the role and meaning of museums of
revolutionary history and galleries in teaching history in high schools.
Tuesday, those works suggest forms and measures to use museums and galleries
in teaching history. Studies of theory and historical methods in particular and
education broadly have shown many forms of teaching.
1.3.2. Issues for the thesis
The thesis can learn some of the significant contents from the previous research
such as:
- Theoretical issues (concepts, functions, classification) of museums, galleries,
the relationship between museums, galleries and teaching history in high schools.
- Confirming the role and meaning of using museums and exhibitions in
teaching history.
- Importantly, previous studies supplied forms, methods of using museums and
Beyond the mentioned research, the thesis tries to address the following issues:
- Clarifying theory and practice of using museums and galleries in teaching
history in the approach of teaching to develop students' abilities and potential.
- Continuing to study and clarify the interaction between museums, exhibitions
and teaching history in high schools.
- Studying the relationship between documents of museums and galleries and
historical program in Vietnam. Accordingly, the thesis identifies a system of
documents, exhibits and pictures of museums and local galleries that can be declared
and used in teaching history in high schools.

- Studying requirements of exploiting and using museums and exhibitions in
teaching history in Thai Nguyen province.
- Proposing forms and measures to use museums and galleries in teaching
history effectively.
- Researching the role of technology and of museums and galleries need the
support of galleries.

2.1. Theoretical Bases
2.1.1. Overview of museums, galleries in history teaching in high school The concept of museums, galleries
Although the concept of museums has changed through different periods, its inset
is unchanged and expressed in the following contents:
Firstly: collecting, preserving artefacts of events, typical phenomena of natural
and social histories.
Secondly: exhibiting and introducing artefacts to serve popular demand of visitors
in understanding history via learning in museums.
In the thesis, we suggest that museum is a cultural institution that works in
collecting, preserving, displaying and disseminating preciously historical artefacts to
serve people‟s demands of studying and entertainment.
The gallery is a place to store and display artefacts that reflect the development of
history, local achievements and traditions, institutions or departments.
Museum and gallery are similar to one kind of cultural preservation. They are
different in scale and level to display. Functions and classification of museums and galleries
Museums and exhibitions were born due to the demands of society and therefore
its function is to serve society. Although there are many different opinions, basically
researchers agree that museums and exhibitions have following functions:
- Scientific research

- Cultural heritage preservation
- Scientific documentation
- propaganda and education
- Information and entertainment
The increase and expansion of museums and galleries require to classify and
arrange those objects clearly. There are many ways to classify museums and galleries
based on different criteria such as type and scope of display contents, management level. Characteristics of museums and exhibitions
In the field of preservation, museums and galleries have much more advantages
for teaching history due to the following characteristics:
- The scientific character of display contents of museums and galleries.
- Museums and galleries display and exhibit documents in a system.
- Their display is visual.
- The attraction of documents, artifacts, art exhibits and instructions.
2.1.2. Opinions of using museums and galleries in teaching history in high
Museums and galleries are used for many different purposes, in which using for
teaching is important and special towards teachers and students. Teaching is a unique
cognitive process with interactions between instructors and learners. Instructors use
directly artifacts to create knowledge for students, organize and guide students to use
museums and galleries effectively. Students use museums, galleries under the
guidance and control of teachers to explore, discover and experience learning
contents in the school program.
Those subjects can be used in museums and galleries to teach history include
documentary information, visual means, space, learning environment and tour guide.
All the above parts contribute to museums and galleries‟ comprehensiveness.
Because each province has different historical periods and character, using museums
and galleries in teaching history needs to be clear and precise in each province.
Using museums and galleries in the teaching history in Vietnam is that teachers
explore materials and arrange students to use those local subjects in learning history.
The above activities can improve the value of local heritage and link historical
knowledge with national history.

2.1.3. Contents from museums and galleries in Thai Nguyen province can be
used in teaching Vietnamese history
There are various kinds of museums and galleries in Thai Nguyen, including
national, regional and provincial objects. The list of museums and galleries in Thai
Nguyen can be exploited and used as follows:
- Museum of Culture of Ethnic Peoples
- Museum of Viet Bac force - military Zone I
- Museum of Thai Nguyen
- Gallery ATK- Dinh Hoa
- Gallery Thai Nguyen steel industry
From the above museums and galleries, we argue that they are suitable for
teaching and learning history in grades of 10, 11, 12.
2.1.4. The role and meaning of using local heritage in high schools. Role
Using museums and galleries in teaching history in high schools plays an
important role, showing in the following contents:
- Museums and galleries are advantageous places to study, a special school for
learning history.
- They present a lively history which becomes a valuable knowledge to organize
learning activities.
- Materials in museums and galleries are attractive and visual and they link the
past and the present.
- Exploiting and using materials in museums and galleries contributes to the
progress of invention in historical methods and improves the quality of teaching history. Meaning
- In term of creating knowledge: Via using museum and galleries, students
learn history intuitively, specifically, visually and then they have vivid and diverse
historical symbols to understand lessons deeply. By viewing documents in museums
and galleries, students can discover the nature of historical events, their concept and
accordingly create their own knowledge from experience.
- In term of skills: Developing skills of observing, imagining, thinking, and
especially practical skills for students. Through directly contacting with material in

museums and galleries, they not only know symbols and imagination of history but
also can analyze, compare to understand deeply the character of history.
- In term of attitude: Using museum and galleries has a great significance in
creating a good attitude, especially ideological and emotional emotion, and educating
traditional history for young generations.
As such using local museums and galleries in teaching history contributes to
establish and improve students' abilities of observing, self-learning, solving problems,
inventing, communicating and cooperating.
2.2 Practical bases
2.2.1 That using museums and galleries in teaching history in some countries
Basing on practical education of some countries such as England, America,
Russia, Japan and Australia, we evaluate that using museums and galleries in
teaching history is important and interested with both teachers and students. They
have many kinds of programs, methods to use museums and galleries as the second
class for students in high schools.
We also have some experience from practical education of the above countries:
- Evaluating precisely the role of museums and using museums in education.
They can be used popularly and regularly.
- All most museums have an educational program to apply their documents and
materials in teaching at different ages. Therefore, exhibitions in museums are creative
and attractive as they can mix art and history.
- Schools and museums always cooperate well, especially the connection between
teachers and instructors in museums to help students have a good experience. Besides,
they have many volunteers to help students in learning in museums.
- Common methods they apply in teaching history in museums are teaching in
project, investigating history, building historical club, using IT in learning.
2.2.2 Practical using museums and galleries in high schools in Thai Nguyen
province and Vietnam broadly
To understand the practice of using museums in teaching history in Vietnam, we
investigate and make a survey which focuses on collecting information about:
- Teachers and students‟ behaviours and their evaluation of history

- Their acknowledgement about museums and galleries and their role and
meaning in teaching and learning history.
- Practical using museums and galleries in different provinces.
As such, in this chapter, we try to address basic issues of theory and practice of
research framework. As the above mention, museums and galleries have a significant
role and meaning in studying history in high schools. By making a survey,
investigating, the thesis thus presents main issues of using museums and galleries
including both positive and negative sides. Since some teachers recognize the role of
museums in learning history, they actively discover and apply those materials and
arrange different activities in museums to help learners. However, there is a limitation
in using museums in learning history and those activities have not yet contributed
largely to the development of education. The main reason for this limitation is
connections between schools and museums, economic issues or distant journey.
3.1. Position, target and principal contents of Vietnamese history in high schools
Determining position, goals and principal contents of Vietnamese history is
important for teachers to choose suitable contents and methods in using local
museums and galleries.
3.2. Conditions and requirements of selecting forms and measures to use
museums and exhibitions in teaching history
3.2.1. Fundamental situation
- In term of using directly at museums and galleries
+ Conditions of geographical distance
+ Economic conditions
+ Comprehensive preparation, cooperation between museums, galleries and
- In term of using indirectly through IT‟s supports:

+ Conditions for using virtual museums and display models
+ Conditions for using three-dimensional interactive artefacts (3d)
+ Conditions for online connection between museums and classrooms.
3.2.2. Foundational requirements
Firstly, forms and measures must meet teaching goals.
Secondly, combining various forms and measures.
Thirdly, using suitably, satisfactorily and effectively.
Fourthly, using flexibly, creatively, cleverly in a combination with other
teaching methods.
Lastly, choosing the form and method to promote students' positive learning.
3.3. Forms of using local museums and galleries
3.3.1. Using in interior lessons Using museums and galleries in interior lessons in classroom
Due to internal and external reasons, sometimes teachers can not apply interior
lessons in museums. Therefore they can apply those activities in classrooms directly
by carrying materials and documents into classrooms. Teachers can use them in an
activity or many activities in the learning process (start-up activities, formatting
knowledge, practice, expansion). Based on the character and suitability of documents
in museums and galleries with the contents of the lesson, teachers can apply the
following steps:
- Step 1: Introducing materials and establishing acknowledgement goals.
- Step 2: Guiding students to observe visual materials or read text documents to
find information and solve learning problems.
- Step 3: Organizing discussions and exchanging results from using the above
- Step 4: Guiding students to evaluate, draw conclusions, finish learning content. Learning history in museums and galleries
In this case, museums and galleries become classroom while their objects are
materials for learning activities to help students to experience the historical
environment. Teachers and learners can use all most objects in museums and

galleries, the guidance of speakers to serve learning progress. This form can be used
as schools are near museums and galleries. With the variety of objectives in museums
and galleries, there are many ways to organize lessons:
1. As the museums have a suitable place, teachers can teach in private rooms of
museums and then instruct students to visit items related to the lesson.
2. Applying lessons at museums‟ exhibitions Establishing studying tours at museums and galleries
This activity is important and meaningful as there is a renovation in current
learning program and curriculum. This activity help students to learn in two ways,
study and practice directly in museums and they have real experience. Teachers can
apply this activity in two steps:
- step 1: Viewing with guided tours.
- step 2: Free visiting.
Finally, learners can discuss issues related to contents of lesson or learning
purpose and complete a small survey or assignment.
Teachers also can apply “project teaching” in using museums and galleries to
prepare for new knowledge.
3.3.2. Using museums and galleries as extracurricular activities Using virtual museums and galleries in classrooms
Via virtual museums and galleries, teachers can organize an extra-curricular lesson in
classrooms or personal tours in computer rooms. To do so, teachers need to define the
purpose and requirement of the tour, plan of activities.
There are a few steps
- Preparing carefully virtual facilities and museums;
- Teachers declare purpose and requirements of learning activities in museums;
- Using visiting tickets to focus on understanding some typical objects of museums;
- Organizing discussions and write an assignment to raise students‟ awareness.
For example, organizing activities to experiment virtual museums of the Viet Bac
armed forces in classrooms in the anniversary of the founding of the Vietnamese people's
army (22 December). Arranging of experimental activities in museums and galleries
Thai Nguyen has many museums and galleries to run activities of historical experience

for students. They include extra-curricular tours of exhibitions and other experimental
activities. For example, organizing activities to experience the theme of "discovering
Vietnamese heritage paths" at the Museum of culture of ethnic peoples. Using documents, pictures to organize historical festivals
With the advantages of many places and monuments related to national history,
teachers and students in high schools in Thai Nguyen province can organize many
extracurricular activities such as “People in Viet Bac and Ho Chi Minh”; “the
anniversary of war invalids and martyrs July 27”; “the anniversary of establishment
of the Vietnam People's Force December 22”; “Uncle Ho with Thai Nguyen; Thai
Nguyen - the capital of thousands of wind”,…
- Using documents, pictures to design historical games.
- Using materials in museum and exhibitions to apply competitions of telling
historical stories.
- Exhibiting documents and materials to create a gala atmosphere.
For instance, teachers and students can apply a historical evening event with the
topic of "follow the heroes". We organized this program at two schools: Viet Bac and
Gang Thep as experiments.
3.4. Measures to use local museums and galleries in teaching Vietnamese
history as internal lessons
3.4.1. Measures used in lessons in classrooms Using museums and galleries to create learning situations to start
cognitive activities
Step 1: Providing information about museums, their documents such as pictures,
maps or powerpoint.
Step 2: Organizing students to identify historical events through photos and
documents. Students read information, observe, identify and answer questions. In
some case, students have little knowledge about the event and they need to continue
to study by reading more.
Step 3: Creating learning situations and raising cognitive exercises.
Via the above activities, students will think, use their own knowledge to answer
learning problems, which forming their studying demands. Students also observe
museums‟ visual materials before answer any questions. Teachers comment and help
students to discuss learning situations and find lesson-targets.

18 Using museums and galleries to create new knowledge
a. Using artifacts to describe and create historical symbols
When using materials from museums and galleries, teachers need to select
important documents, which is closely related to historical lessons to clarify fundamental
knowledge. Based on those documents, teachers can also find more materials from other
sources to create lively and attractive lessons in museums and galleries.
* using museum documents, galleries to describe and create historical symbols.
* using three-dimensional artefacts to describe, create historical symbols.
b. Using museums and galleries to explain, evaluate historical events and issues
Materials in museums and galleries not only are visual means to concretize
historical events, create historical icons but also have important effects to help
students to explain and evaluate historical issues. Teachers will help students to use
museums to evaluate and generalise historical contents.
Students can visit virtual museums in classrooms, observe and learn historical
evidence visually in forms of original materials.
For example, teachers can use virtual museums to explain and exam the role of
Viet Bac when they teach the lesson: The development of the resistance against the
French colonialists (1951 - 1953). Using museums and galleries to reinforce and expand knowledge
We have built a new way of connecting museums, galleries with historical
lessons to bring museums and galleries into classrooms.
Using museums, galleries as a form of online connection in classroom to help
students to expand knowledge in practically. Students can deeply understand and
apply new knowledge about national history to link with related locally historical
events. They can do that with supports of learning cards, teachers‟ and instructors‟
For example, when teaching lesson 22 (history 12), teachers can connect online
with the Museum of Forces in Viet Bac to apply, expand information to learn
knowledge about fights against the American B52 bombing campaign (December
1972) in Thai Nguyen. Guide students to use museums, traditional houses to prepare lessons at home
In the process of ending the lesson, teachers need to ask students to prepare
lessons at home with the use of virtual museums. When using virtual museums,

students need necessary study skills, provided with information technology support
from teachers.
Using the virtual museum to prepare lessons at home includes two tasks:
learning old lessons and preparing new ones. Therefore, at the end of the lesson, the
teacher assigns the task of preparing at home and teachers and at the same time
providing materials to support students to solve tasks.
3.4.2. Measures as learning at museums and galleries Guiding students to observe artifacts in combination with textbook to
determine learning objectives
Step 1: Teachers guide students to go to showroom or exhibition in museums.
Step 2: Students read lesson summaries and questions in the textbook.
Step 3: Students observe and conduct learning tasks under teachers‟ instructions.
Step 4: Discussing typical images, individuals‟ learning objectives and general
studying goals. Using museums and galleries to organize activities of positive awareness
Tracing historical point, restoring events and phenomena
Those activities can apply as conducting in-class lessons at museums and
galleries. Searching historical traces helps students to learn actively, and they can
develop their abilities of identification and recreation of the past. With teachers‟
guidance and organization, based on historical contents in the textbook, students
actively observe and trace in exhibitions.
Investigating and discussing to explain the nature of historical events
Based on historical evidence stored, exhibited at the museum and galleries,
teachers instruct students to evaluate original materials and use knowledge in the
textbook to investigate historical activities.
This is one kind of self-discovering activities to achieve knowledge and then
improve students‟ abilities. Students collect information from museums and galleries,
analyze, exam and make the argument of studying issues. Teachers in Thai Nguyen
can require students to complete some investigating activities such as: „Why Ho Chi
Minh and Vietnamese Community chose Viet Bac as a base of resistance”, “Why the
French were defeated in Viet Bac?”.

20 Guiding students to play as instructors to reinforce and practice
Through the instructor's image and professional activities, teachers can organize
groups of students to take part in role-playing activities. Students can play as
instructors as they receive new knowledge from teachers:
- Step 1: The teacher raise tasks, requirements of playing as instructors for each
group of students.
- Step 2: Instructing to prepare presentations and skills of tour-guide for
- Step 3: Students select artifacts, make and practize presentations.
- Step 4: Students perform the role of tour guides.
- Step 5: Teachers evaluate students‟ results.
For example, teachers can organize students to act as guides in the lesson of “the
1947 autumn and winter campaign”. Guiding students to build virtual museums and galleries at home
Documents about events, typical historical figures in museums and galleries
supply knowledge for students and improve their abilities of experiment and using IT
and self-learning. Teachers can help students to collect historical documents and
construct virtual museums and galleries as the following steps:
- Instructing students to determine purposes and contents of collecting materials.
- Instructing students to analyze materials and choose collected contents.
- Instructing students to use technology to digitize materials.
- Instructing students to exploit collected information.
4.1. Purposes, objects, locations and teachers of experiments.
- Experimental purposes:
To confirm the theory of the thesis and positive effects of using museums and
galleries in teaching history.
To check the possibility and effectiveness of the methods of using museums and
galleries in teaching history in high school (the 12th-grade curriculum) in the
standard program.
To improve and complete awareness about the theory of teaching history.
To have important results for the author to generalize and complete conclusions
about measures to use local museums and galleries.

- Experimental subjects: students of 12th grade in high schools. In each school,
we choose 2 classes, one experiment and one normal level under a few principles to
ensure similarities of students‟ learning conditions, quantity, quality and awareness.
- Experimental areas: we experiment in areas in Thai Nguyen province having a
differential in economy, society, culture and population.
- Experimental teachers: who have experience and good results in teaching and
are interested in the content of the thesis. They also support enthusiastically the
renovation of teaching methods to improve learning effectiveness.
4.2. Contents and methodology of experiments
- Pedagogical content: including two lessons associating with using museums
and galleries.
The first lesson: using museums and galleries in classroom. We conduct lesson
20 (section 2): The end of the national resistance against the French colonialists
(1953 - 1954), class 12th grade.
The second lesson: in museums and galleries. We proceed the lesson 18 (section
3). The early years of the national resistance against the French colonialism (1946 1950), the 12th grade. Place: The Museum of Vietnamese forces in Viet Bac.
- The methodology of experiments :
The process is carried out according to the following steps:
Step 1: we build an experimental plan.
Step 2: Organizing teachers to experiment as the previous plan in two kinds of
level: standard and typical.
Step 3: Summarizing, analyzing data and evaluating the experimental results in
both quantitative and qualitative theories.
4.3. Conduct pedagogical experiments
We conduct experiments of internal-lessons in both classrooms and museums
and galleries. Accordingly, we analyze, compare, and evaluate the effectiveness of
teaching through various activities in both experimental and normal classes.
4.4. Experimental results
4.4.2. Experimental results for curricular lessons
After the experiment, we conduct a 15-minute test to examine how students
gain lesson goals and different levels of achieved knowledge: knowing,

understanding and applying. The levels of grades are below: excellent (9-10 points),
good (7-8 points), average (5-6 points), weak (below 5). Although the experimental
area is different, the test content is the same. Test results are analyzed by statistical
mathematics. Accordingly, we calculate the average of ( x ), the standard deviation
(sd), the test value (t) between experimental and random classes.

Graph of frequency points at the numerical value of lesson 18, 20 (History 12)

- Summarizing teachers and students‟ evaluations
After completing each experimental lesson, we review, evaluate and make an
experience for teachers. We also interview students about experimental lessons. The
result is that there is still difficult for teachers in earlier times to apply the method
of using museums and galleries in teaching history.
Generally, teachers evaluate highly teaching plans and results of experimental
lessons under the effect of educational revolution as those lessons always have a
combination between traditional and modern teaching approach. Those lessons are
flexible to help students to observe, connect with materials and objects in museums
and galleries honestly and lively.
4.4.2. Results of experimenting external activities
Based on learning data of both intelligent and normal classes, we see that the
average mark of the special classes is higher than that of standard classes, in detail
of 0.86 grade. That the value of t > t shows that the difference between average
marks of intelligent and standard classes in meaningful. It also means that students
exploit effectively museums in learning Vietnamese history. As a result, by
planning vitural museums in classrooms, teachers can help students to learn,
discover and experiment with the support of technologies.

1. Thai Nguyen is a province of historical revolutionary traditions with a system
of diverse museums and traditional houses where many valuable documents and rare
objects reflecting the development of the national history are kept. Using the
historical sources of the museum and local traditional houses is a very effective way
to improve the quality of teaching Vietnamese History at high schools.
2. In the context of teaching innovation in the direction of developing the
capacity and qualification of students, using museums and traditional houses'
resources in teaching History at high schools is very necessary. Those materials
museums and traditional are both attractive visual tools and valuable knowledge
sources. Museums, traditional houses in general, and those in Thai Nguyen in
particular have helped to provide documents, and create environment that are suitable
to teaching History at high schools.
3. Documents of museum and traditional houses are diversified in terms of
kinds, quantity, each document has different historical meaning, so it requires
teachers to use them in a purposeful ways, and have detailed plans in teaching history
to achieve the teaching's target. Museums and traditional houses will be used more
effectively with an approach based on the application of modern technology and
organizing experiential teaching and learning activities.
4. Museums and traditional houses can be used effectively in some forms of
basic teaching History when the dispayed concept is suitable with educational content
and ensures necessary conditions. With measures of using museums, traditional
houses with virtual museum models, 3D artifacts interaction, online connection
methods, museums, traditional houses are used frequently and flexibly in both
curricular lessons and extra-curricular activities.
5. On the basis of studying the form of using local museums and traditional
houses, the paper provides teachers with instructions to deploy effective and
appropriate measures in compliance with each school;s teaching conditions. Such
measures to use museums and traditional houses to organize track trace and historical

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